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A History of Theatre in Spain

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 (ISBN-13: 9781139368001)

A History of Theatre in Spain
Cambridge University Press
9780521117692 - A History of Theatre in Spain - Edited by Maria M. Delgado and David T. Gies
Index

Index

A tu prójimo como a ti (Thy Neighbour as Thyself, Calderón) 137

Abarca y Bolea, Pedro Pablo 106

Abati, Joaquín 285, 295, 297

Abril, Manuel 272

Abuín González, Anxo xiii, 12, 391

Achard, Marcel 296

acrobats or volatines 130

acting companies

in Golden Age 104–105

in eighteenth century 125–126, 169–170

in nineteenth century 224–225

in fin-de-siècle Spain 269, 279

in early twentieth century 183, 184, 285–286, 305–307

composition of works for specific actors and companies 47–49

directors as leaders of 445–448

hierarchy of acting positions in 105, 224

ópera flamenca 377

Spanish American theatre tours 330–334

teatros de cámara (chamber theatres) 357, 368, 422, 439

Teatro Español Universitario (student theatre groups) 186, 306, 358, 368, 439

TI (teatro independiente or independent theatre movement) 188, 190, 368–369, 370, 421, 444

actors and acting.

child performers in nineteenth century 227

conduct, nineteenth-century efforts to regulate 212

dynasties 184, 293

income and payment of 104, 225

Italian influx, protests at 120

medieval period, no specific profession during 82

rehearsals 170, 431

social status of 106–108, 118–119, 225

Spanish American theatre tours 330–334

theatre buildings and spaces affecting 115, 173

as theatre managers in nineteenth century 213

training of actors.

See actors and acting, training and style of (1801–2010); training of actors

See under specific actors by name

actors and acting, in Golden Age

autos sacramentales (allegorical religious plays) 67–68

composition of works for specific troupes and actors 47–49

moral censure, social role of actors despite 106–108

palace plays, nobility and royalty acting in 72, 73, 83, 95, 102

professional status, recognition of 108–109.

See also actors and acting, professionalisation of (1565–1833)

women as actors in 48, 59

actors and acting, professionalisation of (1565–1833) 8, 103–119

acting companies, organisation of 104–105

Cofradía de Nuestra Señora de la Novena, membership in 105

court circle as nucleus for 82

hierarchy of acting positions 105, 224

moral censure, social role of actors despite 106–108

neoclassical aesthetics of Enlightenment and 116–117, 170, 173

payment arrangements 104

recognition of professional status from sixteenth century 108–109

rehearsal times, in eighteenth century 170

social acknowledgement and acceptance during nineteenth century 118–119

technique and art, seventeenth- and eighteenth-century recognition of 109–118

theatrical spaces influencing acting style 115

actors and acting, training and style of (1801–2010) 14, 173–192

circumstances leading to greater emphasis on 173–174

continuity and innovation in early twentieth century 183, 297

development of curriculum and treatises on 174–176

under Franco regime 186–187

institutionalisation of training process 118–119

international influence in democratic era 188–192

modernism and avant-garde in fin-de-siècle Spain 270–271, 276

national theatre, early twentieth-century plans for 307

non-textual modes of performance and interpretation 188, 191

realism, move to 178–182

Romantic school 176–178, 181

Spanish Civil War and 185–186

Stanislavski, influence of 186, 188, 189, 191

teatro independiente (TI, or independent theatre movement) 188, 190

Acuña, Rosario de 233

Adonis y Venus (Lope de Vega) 92

aesthetics of Spanish theatre (1750–1808) 9, 157–172

acting style, efforts at reforming 116–117, 170, 173

aims of 157–159

censorship and 166, 170

comedias heroicas (heroic plays) 164–166

comédies larmoyantes (tearful plays) 159

costs and finances affecting 164, 169, 171

critiques and efforts to reform popular theatre 134–137

dichotomy between popular theatre and, nuancing of 148–156

first neoclassical tragedies 159

Junta de Dirección y Reforma (Management and Reform Board) 170–172

nobility, provision of appropriate models for 160–163

reception of plays written according to 166–169

verisimilitude 158

War of Independence and 171

working class, desire to remove from theatres 162–164, 171

zarzuela, condemnation of 196

African influence on Spanish American theatre 326

Agrelo, Xosé 422

Aguglia, Mimí 302, 303, 432

Aguirre, Esperanza 399

Alapont, Pasqual 412

Alarma, Salvador 271, 277, 304

Alas, Leopoldo (Clarín) 181, 279

Albéniz, Isaac 194

Alberola, Carles 412

Albert of Austria, Archduke 88

Alberti, Leon Battista 75

Alberti, Rafael 271, 299, 310, 314, 316, 335, 342, 379, 395, 417

Albertí, Xavier 191, 209

Alfaro, Carles 412, 447

Alfiere 162

Alfonso XII (king of Spain) 282

Alfonso XIII (king of Spain) 282

Algarra, Maria Lluïsa 336

Alier, Roger 199, 426

Almodóvar, Pedro 13, 208, 389, 467

Alonso, Eduardo 422, 423, 424

Alonso, Francisco 207, 295, 296, 297

Alonso, José Luis 396, 440–441

Alonso de Santos, José Luis 396

alternative or non-commercial theatre

in early twentieth century 298–308

in fin-de-siècle Spain 266–267

salas alternativas (alternative venues) in democratic era 401

TI (teatro independiente or independent theatre movement) 188, 190, 368–369, 370, 421, 444

Álvarez, Valentín Andrés 300

Álvarez Caballero, Ángel 376

Álvarez de Cienfuegos, Nicasio 162

Álvarez de Isasaga, Ochoa 30

Álvarez Pousa, Luis 423

Álvarez Quintero, Serafín and Joaquín 194, 271, 295, 342, 359, 364

Álvarez Tubau, María 181

Alzaga, Toribio 413

Amadís (1508) 85, 88

Amador, Raimundo 386

Amargo, Rafael 387

Amat, Frederic 448

Amaya, Carmen 329, 372, 382

Americas, Spanish theatre in.

See Spanish American theatre

Amestoy, Ignacio 417

Amigo, Vicente 386

Amo, Álvaro del 398

Anarchist theatre in Barcelona 266, 267

Andalusia

in democratic era 417–420

flamenco, Andalusian/Gypsy histories of 374–377

under Franco 418

Anderson, Andrew A. xiii, 10, 282

Anderson, Benedict 1

Andioc, René xiii, 9, 141, 143, 145, 157

Andrachuck, Gregory 70

Ángeles, Victoria de los 208

Angry Young Men 365

Anna of Austria 86, 88

Añorbe y Corregel, Tomás de 144

anti-Semitism in autos sacramentales 70

Antoine, André 431, 432

Antonio (flamenco singer) 382

Antúnez Roca, Marcel·lí 191, 452

Aragonés, Juan Emilio 361

Aranda, Count of 106, 116, 125, 150, 155, 159, 173

Arce, Juan de 20, 26

Arco, Miguel del 452, 463

Arderíus, Francisco 202, 217

Ares, Marisa 398

El Argel fingido (The False Algiers, Lope de Vega) 89

Argenta, Ataúlfo 208

‘La Argentina’ (Antonia Mercé) 278, 331

‘La Argentinita’ (Encarnación López Julvez) 331, 386

Arias, Alfredo 411

Arias de Peñafiel, Damián 110

Arias Salgado, Gabriel 356

Ariosto, Ludovico 38, 40, 71

Aristotle and Aristotelian catharsis 39, 78, 110, 135, 158

Arjona, Joaquín 180, 213

Las armas de la hermosura (Beauty's Weapons, Calderón) 76

Armiñán, Jaime de 357

Armona, José Antonio de 106, 141

Arniches, Carlos 194, 285, 295, 297, 359

Arola y Sala, Francisco 277

Arrabal, Fernando 399

Arregui, Enrique 241, 242

Arrieta, Emilio 198, 200, 202

art nouveau.

See modernism and avant-garde in fin-de-siècle Spain

Artaud, Antonin 187, 188, 370, 416, 431, 445

El arte del teatro (The Art of the Theatre, Riccoboni, 1783) 119

Arte nuevo de hacer comedias en este tiempo (New Art of Writing Plays in this Time, Lope de Vega, 1609) 39, 41, 42, 46, 110, 115, 134

Arte y Estado (Art and the State, Giménez Caballero, 1935) 319

Artigas, Josefina 183

Aruej, Luis 242

El asalto de Mastrique (The Assault on Maastricht, Lope de Vega) 63

Asenjo Barbieri, Francisco 198, 199, 200, 202

El asombro de Francia, Marta la Romarantina (The Wonder of France, Martha the Romarantina, Cañizares, 1716) 132, 133, 139

Ataúlfo (Montiano, 1753) 159

Athalie (Racine, 1691) 143

Atxaga, Bernardo 414, 416

Aub, Max 310, 335, 336, 342, 399

audience

in eighteenth-century theatres 157

Espert, Nuria, on 459, 462

in Golden Age theatres 49, 53, 60

Mayorga, Juan, on 481

nineteenth-century efforts to regulate conduct of 212

Auto de la Pasión (Passion Play, Alonso del Campo, 1486–99) 22

El auto de los Reyes Magos (The Play of the Three Kings, 12th c.) 7, 18, 21–22, 35

autos sacramentales

in Golden Age 55–56, 67–71, 79

in eighteenth century 126, 127, 137

banning of 137

modern interest in reviving 299

in Spanish American theatrical tradition 328

in Spanish Civil War 312, 315, 319

avant-garde.

See modernism and avant-garde in fin-de-siècle Spain

Ayala, Miguel de 137

Azevedo, Ángela de 52

Aznar, José María 12

Azor, Ileana 328

Azorín (José Martínez Ruiz) 299, 300

Baccio del Bianco, Luigi 98, 427

Baeza, Ricardo 296, 302, 432

baile (dance) 54

Baixas, Joan 445

Bances Candamo, Francisco Antonio de 41, 53, 89, 101, 131

Banderas, Antonio 17

Baras, Sara 13, 17, 387, 389

Barba, Eugenio 188, 191, 419

El barberillo de Lavapiés (The Little Barber of Lavapiés, Luis Mariano de Larra, 1874) 200, 209

Barberini, Francesco 91

Barbero, Edmundo 336

Bárcena, Catalina 183, 303, 336

Bárcena, Dorotea 423

Bardem, Juan Antonio 381

Barea, Ramón 416

Baroja, Pío 207

Baroja, Ricardo 305

La Barraca 11, 186, 283, 306, 334, 337, 433

Barradas, Rafael 271, 277

Barrón, Isabel 303

Bartolozzi, Salvador 304, 305, 336

Basili, Basilio 199

Basque Country, in democratic era 413–417

Bastús, Vicente Joaquín 175

Beaumarchais, Pierre-Augustín Caron de 151–152

Beccaria, Cesare 160

Belástegui, Maribel 415

Belbel, Sergi 405, 407, 426, 449

Belén, Ana 386

La Bella Otero 329

Bellido, José María 370

Benabent, Carlos 386

Benavent, Toni 412

Benavente, Jacinto 271, 279, 284, 292, 295, 303, 331, 348, 359, 430

Benet i Jornet, Josep Maria 395, 449, 468

Benson, George 386

Benués, Fernando 415

Bergamín, José 310, 335

Berganza, Teresa 208

Bergman, Ingmar 470

Bernabé, Juan 418

Bernat, Roger 449, 451, 452

Bieito, Calixto 17, 209, 407, 426, 444, 446, 450, 452

Las bizarrías de Belisa (Belisa's Bravery, Lope de Vega, 1941) 436

Blanchard, Juan 428

Blanco Amor, Eduardo 424

Blanco Gil, José M. 423

Blas Vega, José 375

Boadella, Albert 188, 244, 392, 444, 469

Bocángel y Unzueta, Gabriel 102

Boccherini, Luigi 196

Bódalo, José 186

Bodas de sangre (Blood Wedding, Lorca, 1932–3) 296, 362

Bodas de sangre (Blood Wedding, Saura, 1981) 13, 372

bofetones (folding stage doors) 142

Bofill, Ricardo 405–407

Bohorquez, Manuel 376

Boix, Ignacio 240

Bolaño, Roberto 452

Boldún, Elisa 181

Bonnín, Hermann 188, 405

Borau, José Luis 381

Borràs, Enric (Enrique Borrás) 16, 183, 185, 270–271, 273, 276, 296, 330, 441

Borrás, Tomás 345, 347

Borrega Gutiérrez, Esther 102

Bottarga, Stefanello 89

Botto, Juan Diego 191

Bourbon dynasty, effects of accession of 120–121

El Brasil restituido (Brazil Restored, Lope de Vega, 1625) 64

Bratton, Jacky 14, 15

Bread and Puppet 188

Brecht, Bertolt 11, 188, 369, 371, 441, 446, 451

Bretón, Tomás 194, 203, 207

Bretón de los Herreros, Manuel 250, 428

La Briseida (Cruz, 1768) 197

Broggi, Oriol 446

Brook, Peter 188, 442, 450, 454, 468, 469

Broschi, Carlo (Farinelli) 106, 121, 153

Brossa, Joan 360

brotherhoods or cofradías, commercial theatres as source of income for charitable institutions of 57–61, 103

Brown, G. G. 3

Bruerton, Courtney 63

Buchs, José 207

Buero Vallejo, Antonio 353–355, 364, 371, 399

Buffery, Helena xiii, 14, 260, 323, 406

bufos 202, 217

buildings.

See theatre buildings and spaces

bullfights 222, 351

bululú 337, 338

Buñuel, Luís 300, 336, 381

Burgh, James 428

Burgos, Emilio 353, 436, 437

Burgos Lecea, Francisco 305

El burlador de Sevilla (The Trickster of Seville, Tirso de Molina, 1618) 43, 132

Burmann, Sigfrido 271, 277, 304, 305, 433, 436, 437, 439

Busato, Giorgio 304

Bustos Táuler, Álvaro 33

Cabal, Fermín 396

Caballé, Montserrat 208

Caballero, Ernesto 398

Caballero, José 362, 436, 439

El caballero del Sol (The Knight of the Sun, Vélez de Guevara, 1617) 73, 94

Cabanillas, Pío 394

Cabrera, Bernardo de 66

Cachipuchi (Romualdo Tirado) 331

Cadalso, José 162

Cadaval, Quico 424

Café dels Quatre Gats, Barcelona 267

Cahner, Max 405

Calabria, Ferdinand of Aragon, Duke of 81

Calatrava, Santiago 413

Calderón de la Barca, Pedro 50–54.

autos sacramentales by 55, 67–71, 79

co-writing by 51

in eighteenth-century theatre

effect on performance and playwriting 8

neoclassical aesthetics and critiques 134

popularity of 131, 137

season opening with work of 127

experimental approach of 51

house arrest and censorship of 66

Lope de Vega and 50

Mayorga, Juan, on 478

mixture of comic and tragic elements in work of 52

modern interest in 306, 346, 434, 450

palace plays and courtly spectacles 75, 87, 95, 96, 97–101

parodic treatment by 52

Pasqual, Lluís, on 466

political and social critique by 78

Spanish American theatre, influence on 329

stage directions and staging suggestions 427

traditional academic focus on 3

zarzuela and operatic works 53, 76, 97–101, 195

See under specific works

Calleja, Rafael 297

Calonge, Eusebio 420

Calvo, Carmen 400

Calvo, José Ramón 180

Calvo, Rafael 180–182

Calvo, Ricardo 330, 453

Calvo Revilla, Rafael 119

Calvo-Sotelo, Joaquín 361

Camacho, Vicente 144

Camarón de la Isla 382, 384, 386

Campbell, Jodi 64, 76

Campo, Alonso del 22

Campúa, José L. 292, 295

Canales, Antonio 13, 387

Cañizares, José de 127, 132, 133, 139, 155, 161

Cánovas, Antonio 204

cantigas or songbooks, medieval 30

Caprara, Joaquín 175

Caracol, Manolo 377, 382

Caralt, Ramon 439

Caramuel, Juan 110

Carballeira, Paula 424

Carbonell, Carmen 441

Carceleras (Díez Peydró, 1922/1932) 207

Cardeña, Chema 412

Carlson, Marvin 259

Carmen (Baras, 2008) 389

Carmen (Mérimée) 383

Carmen (Saura, 1983) 389

Carner, Sebastián 431

La Carnicería Teatro 192

Carnival plays (comedias de Carnaval) 52, 127, 128

Caro Baroja, Julio 144

Carreño-Rodríguez, Antonio 64

Carreras, Juan José 155

Carrión, María M. 88

Cartas de España (Letters from Spain, Jardine, 1788) 147

Cartas sobre el gesto, la pantomima y la acción teatral (Letters on Gestures, Pantomime, and Theatrical Action, Engel, 1789–90) 119

La casa de Bernarda Alba (The House of Bernarda Alba, Lorca, 1935–6) 301, 333, 338, 362, 388, 478

Casares, Toni 452

Casas, Álvaro de las 424

Casas, Ramón 267

Cascales, Francisco 135

Casona, Alejandro 185, 297, 300, 307, 335, 342, 345, 362, 440

Castelao, Alfonso 360

El castigo sin venganza (Punishment without Revenge, Lope de Vega, 1631) 46, 52, 65

Castile, equation of Spain with 1

Castro, Eva 7

Castro, Guillén de 50, 436

Catalonia

actors leaving Catalonia for Madrid 270–271

actors working in Catalan 190

Assemblea d'Actors i Directors 402

Assemblea de Treballadors de l'Espectacle 403

Catalan language as main identity marker for 401

in democratic era 401–408

under Franco 353, 360

French influence in 280

modernism and avant-garde in Barcelona 264–274

as musical centre 272

national theatre in 404–408

nationalist movement in 264

non-textual theatre of 188, 191

presentation of plays in Catalan 267, 273, 403

Renaixença (cultural renaissance) 264, 265, 360

revival of Catalan 264, 353

suppression of Catalan 2, 16, 183

Teatre Lliure 264–274, 403, 445

zarzuela in Catalan 204

Cátedra, Pedro 32

Catholic Church.

See Roman Catholicism

cazuela (women's gallery) 125, 157, 168, 213, 226, 229, 252, 254

Cela, Camilo José 417

La Celestina (Rojas, 1499) 5, 23, 40, 337

Celos aun del aire matan (Even Jealousy of the Air Kills, Calderón, late 1660 or 1661) 100, 101

La cena del rey Baltasar (Belshazzar's Feast, Calderón, 1634) 346, 434

Cendán, Blanca 423

censorship

medieval origins of 47

in Golden Age 61, 66

in eighteenth century 122, 166, 170

in nineteenth century 231, 247–249

in early twentieth century (1900–36) 290

under Franco (1939–75) 343–345, 354–356, 357, 367, 380

end of (1977) 391

copyright and 247–249

Espert, Nuria, on 458

flamenco and 380

Centro de Documentación Teatral (CDT, or National Centre for Theatre Research and Documentation) 396

Centro Dramático Nacional (CDN, or National Dramatic Centre) 392, 393–401, 442

Centro Nacional de Nuevas Tendencias Escénicas (CNNTE, or National Centre for New Tendencies in the Performing Arts) 398, 479

Cepillo, Miguel 181

El cerco de Santa Fe (The Santa Fe Siege, Lope de Vega, 1598) 63

Cerdà, Ildefons 265

Ceremonial de Palencia (Arce, 1550) 20, 26

Ceriol, Furio 82

Cervantes, Miguel de 36, 38, 40, 42, 54, 56, 86, 112, 135, 316, 427, 466, 478

chamber theatres (teatros de cámara) 357, 368, 422, 439

Chao, Ernesto 423

Chapí, Ruperto 194, 203, 207

charitable institutions, commercial theatres as source of income for 57–61, 103, 122, 123, 169

Charles I (king of Spain) 80, 81, 84–86, 102

Charles II (king of Spain) 41, 53, 67, 68, 75, 76, 78, 102

Charles III (king of Spain) 12, 149, 162, 374

Charles V (king of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor) 63, 87

Château Margaux (Fernández Caballero, 1887) 209

Chaussée, Nivelle de la 156

Checa Beltrán, José 159

Chicote, Enrique 285

child performers in nineteenth century 227

Chinita 137

El Chocolate 382

Chomón, Segundo de 207

Chueca, Federico 5, 193, 203, 204, 209

Cigala, Diego el 386, 388

Cigarral, Lucas del 137

Cigarrales de Toledo (Country Houses of Toledo, Tirso de Molina, 1624) 50

cinema.

See film and film industry in Spain

Cisneros, Alonso 87

civic festivities and processions

in eighteenth century 130

in Golden Age 84–89

Civil War.

See under Spanish Civil War

Cladera Rotger, Sebastià 348

classical theatre.

See Golden Age

Claudel, Paul 336, 356

Clavijo y Fajardo, José 136, 137, 139, 150, 153, 159, 169

cloak-and-sword plays (comedias de capa y espada) 48, 51, 76

co-writing of plays in Golden Age 51

Coello, Antonio 131

Cofradía de Nuestra Señora de la Novena, actor membership in 105

cofradías (religious brotherhoods), commercial theatres as source of income for charitable institutions of 57–61, 103

Collado, Fernando 316

Collado, Manuel 296, 303

colonisation of Spanish America 326–329

comedia or comedia nueva in Golden Age

Calderón and Tirso de Molina and development of 50–54.

See also Calderón de la Barca, Pedro; Tirso de Molina

Lope de Vega and emergence of 36–49.

See also Lope de Vega

Els Comediants 188, 426, 445

comedias amatorias (amatory plays) 146

comedias de bandoleros (plays about bandits) 144

comedias de capa y espada (cloak-and-sword plays) 48, 51, 76

comedias de Carnaval (Carnival plays) 52, 127, 128

comedias de figurón (a genre similar to the commedia dell'arte, with a caricatured protagonist) 118, 127, 132

comedias heroicas (heroic plays) 164–166

comedias de magia (magical comedies) 127, 128, 132, 133, 137–141, 144, 231

comedias palatinas.

See palace plays

comedias de santos (plays about saints) 137, 144

comédies larmoyantes (tearful plays) 159

Comella, Luciano Francisco 146, 164, 166, 167, 168

commedia dell'arte 37, 89, 132, 191, 292, 446

commercial theatre

Golden Age development of 57–66, 103

in eighteenth century 106, 121–124

as industry in nineteenth century 9, 211–212, 219, 220–222

modernism and avant-garde in fin-de-siècle Spain 265, 274

in early twentieth century 274, 294–298

Compañía de los Bufos Madrileños 202

Compañía Nacional de Teatro Clásico (CNTC) 397, 442

Concurso de Cante Jondo 378–379

Conde Lucanor (Calderón) 76

El condenado por desconfiado (Damned for Despair, Tirso de Molina, c. 1625) 43

Conejero, Miguel Ángel 412

conquest of Spanish America 326–329

Constitution of 1978 1

La contienda de García de Paredes y el Capitán Juan de Urbina (The Contest between García de Paredes and Captain Juan Urbina, Lope de Vega, 1600) 63

copyright 244–246

censorship and 247–249

closing and fixing of texts 245–246

control of playwright over performance of work in nineteenth century 232

director, emergence of 428

editores as textual mediators 249–251

Golden Age, dramatists' sale of plays to autores in 60

industry, nineteenth-century theatre as 222, 244–245

in modern era 260–263

Romanticism and 245

royal orders and legislation establishing 244

sociedades dramáticas (dramatic societies) affected by 257

of theatrical performances 260–263

zarzuela 206

Coral, Matilde 387

Corbacho (Martínez de Toledo, 1438) 23

Corneille, Pierre 134

Cornet, Josep 244, 252

corrales 37, 38, 40, 41, 49, 53, 79, 101, 103, 198, 252

La corte del faraón (The Pharaoh's Court, Lleó, 1910) 206, 209

Cortés, Joaquín 13, 17, 387

El cortesano (The Courtier, Milán, 1561) 81, 86

Cortezo, Víctor María 437, 439

Cortezón, Daniel 424

Cortiella, Felip 266

costs and financing

actors, income and payment of 104, 225

in early twentieth century 284, 290, 294

editores, sale of plays to 249

eighteenth-century theatre in Spain 122–124

neoclassical aesthetics of Spanish theatre, 1750–1808, and 164, 169, 171

nineteenth-century theatre in Spain 214, 215, 229–231

of palace plays 75–76, 122

in Spanish Civil War 317

of zarzuela 195, 196, 197, 198, 202, 206

costumbrismo (literature or theatre of manners) 155, 156, 274

costume designers 277, 304

Cotarelo y Mori, Emilio 148, 243

Council of Trent 27

Couto, Emiliano 422

Covert-Spring, Andrew de 247

Crapotta, James 64

Croisset, Francis de 296

Cruickshank, Don W. 100

Cruz, Penélope 191

Cruz, Ramón de la 3, 133, 144, 147, 148, 154, 197–198, 199, 208

Cruz, Sor Juana Inés de la 328, 329, 337

La Cuadra de Sevilla 383–384, 418, 445

La Cubana 188, 446

Cubedo, Joan Vicent 410

Cubedo, Manel 386

Cubillo de Aragón, Álvaro 144

Cué Romano, Ramón 348

Las cuentas del Gran Capitán (The Chronicle of the Great Captain, Lope de Vega, 1715) 161

Cuña, Ánxeles 423, 424

Cunill Cabanellas, Antonio 334

Cunillé, Lluïsa 209, 400, 405

Cunqueiro, Álvaro 360, 422

Custodio, Álvaro 337

Cypess, Sandra 323

Cytrynowksi, Carlos 442

Dagenais, John 21

Dalí, Salvador 272, 379, 435

Daulte, Javier 340, 449

Daumas, Adrián 450

Dauster, Frank 323

De Archittetura (Serlio, 1545) 86

Decroux, Étienne 190

Deleito y Piñuela, José 181

Delgado, Manuel 237, 239, 250

Delgado, Maria M. xiv, 1, 14, 324, 381, 398, 426

El delincuente honrado (The Honest Criminal, Jovellanos, 1773) 3, 156, 159

Della pintura (Alberti, 1436) 75

democratic era (1975–2010), Spanish theatre in 12, 391–425.

actors, acting styles, and actor training 188–192

Andalusia 417–420

Basque Country 413–417

Catalonia 401–408

CDT (Centro de Documentación Teatral) 396

censorship, end of 391

directors 445–452

European Union, Spain's entry into 392

Galicia 421–425

INAEM (Instituto Nacional de las Artes Escénicas y de la Música) 396–400

Madrid 393–401

private and public funding, mix of 399–401

salas alternativas (alternative venues) 401

Spanish American theatre 339–340

theatre spaces and buildings in Madrid 400–401

transition period 393–395

Valencia 408–413

zarzuela 208

See also national theatre

‘Demófilo’ (Antonio Machado y Álvarez) 373, 374

Desengaño al teatro español (Censure of the Spanish Theatre, Moratín, 1762) 135

design.

See under scenery and staging technology

El diablo mudo (The Mute Devil, Calderón) 137

Diálogo de las comedias (Dialogue of the Plays, anon., c. 1620) 112

Diálogo del Viejo, el Amor y la Hermosura (Dialogue of the Old Man, Love and Beauty) 34

Diamante, Juan Bautista 101

Díaz de Artigas, Josefina 296, 303

Díaz de Mendoza, Fernando 182, 183, 276, 285, 330, 430, 432

Díaz González, Santos 118

Díaz Zamora, Antonio 386, 410, 411

Dicenta, Joaquín 269, 430

Dicenta, Manuel 184

Diderot, Denis 117, 118, 179, 428

Dieste, Rafael 307, 314, 335

Dietz, Donald 70

Díez, Matilde 177

Díez Borque, José María 16, 64

Díez González, Santos 156, 165, 166, 170, 427

Díez-Peydró, Vicent 204, 207

directors (1823–2010) 14, 426–452

emergence of role of (1823–1936) 183, 223, 276, 302–303, 427–434

in early Franco era (1936–60) 434–441

in later Franco era (1960–75) 441–445

in democratic era (1975–2010) 445–452

acting companies, as leaders of 445–448

actor-manager tradition of 223, 429

copyright and 428

global exchange on festival circuit 450

interdisciplinary approach 448–450

stage directions, introduction of 429

text-centred approach to theatre and 427

training of 468–469

See under specific directors by name

Divinas palabras (Divine Words, Valle-Inclán, 1919) 301, 362, 400, 433, 435, 440, 443

El divino Narciso (The Divine Narcissus, Cruz, 1690) 328

divorce, Spanish drama dealing with 291

Dixon, Victor 45

D'Ocon, María Fernanda 186

D'Odorico, Andrea 443

Doménech, Ricardo 357

Doménech Rico, Fernando xiv, 120, 137

Domingo, Plácido 208

Domínguez, Adriano 350

Domínguez, Cristina 423

Don Álvaro o la fuerza del sino (Don Álvaro or the Force of Destiny, Rivas, 1835) 3, 233

Don Gil de las calzas verdes (Don Gil of the Green Breeches, Tirso de Molina, 1615) 51

Don Juan character, international influence of 5

Don Juan Tenorio (Zorrilla, 1844) 3, 233, 249, 354, 403, 435

Don Quixote (Cervantes, 1605 and 1615) 40, 56, 86, 478

Doña Rosita la soltera (Doña Rosita the Spinster, Lorca) 332, 456

Donato, Magda 305, 336

Donovan, Richard B. 20

Dougherty, Dru xiv, 10, 282

Un drama nuevo (A New Drama, Tamayo y Baus, 1867) 3, 233

Dronke, Peter 22

Ducazcal, Felipe 204

el duende 375

Duendes son alcahuetes y el espíritu Foleto (Goblins Are Procurers and the Spirit Foleto, Zamora, 1709) 132, 133

Dumas, Alexandre 247

Duperron de Castera, Louis-Adrien 135

Duquende (Juan Rafael Cortés Santiago) 388

Durón, Sebastián 196

Duvignaud, Jean 107, 158

early twentieth-century Spanish theatre (1900–36) 10–12, 282–309

acting companies and theatre groups 285–286, 305–307

alternative or non-commercial theatre 298–308

censorship 290

classical revivals 298, 306

commercial mainstream theatre 294–298

costs and financing 284, 290, 294

costume design 304

daily experience of working theatre 283–286

film industry and 294

in Galicia 421

international influences 286, 298, 299, 304

music and musical theatre 297

National Theatre, plans for 307

performance schedule 284

press and theatre critics 293

scenery and staging technology 289, 304

social institution, theatre as 290–294

theatre spaces and buildings 286–290

theatrical season 283–284

Echegaray, José 3, 259, 273, 330, 430

Echegaray, Miguel 209

economics of Spanish theatre.

See costs and financing

editores

copyright and textual mediation by 249–251

decline of 242–243

director, emergence of 429

rise of 237–239

Edwards, Gwynne 377, 380

Égloga sobre el molino de Vascalón (Eclogue on the Vascalón Mill, Francisco de Madrid) 34

eighteenth-century Spain, theatre in 8, 120–133

acting companies 125–126, 169–170

autos sacramentales 126, 127, 137

comedias de magia, popularity of 127, 128, 132, 133, 137–141, 144

commercial theatre, organisation and administration of 106, 121–124

finances and ticket prices 122–124

genres of comedia in 132

Italian influence 120–121, 126–127

Lope de Vega

critique of 134–135, 158

performance and playwriting, effect on 8

opera, introduction of 121

paratheatrical spectacles 129–130

popular theatre in 8, 134–156.

See also popular theatre in Spain (1737–98)

repertoire of plays in 130–132

scenery and staging technology 122, 126–127, 140, 142–143

Spanish American theatre 329–330

theatre buildings and spaces 124–125, 254

theatrical season 127–128

traditional approach to 3

War of Spanish Succession (1702) and accession of Bourbon dynasty, effects of 120–121, 123

Eisenstein, Elizabeth 246

Elias, Lluis 353

elite aesthetics.

See under aesthetics of Spanish theatre, 1750–1808

Engel, Johan Jakob 119, 428

Enlightenment aesthetics.

See under aesthetics of Spanish theatre (1750–1808)

Ensayo sobre el origen y naturaleza de las pasiones del gesto y de la acción teatral (Essay on the Origin and Nature of the Passions of Gesture and Theatrical Action, Zeglirscosac, 1800) 175

Ensayo sobre la mejora de nuestro teatro (Essay on the Improvement of Our Theatre, Plano, 1798) 156

Entre bobos anda el juego (The Game Is Played Between Fools, Rojas Zorrilla, c. 1638) 131, 137

entremés (interlude) 54, 84, 147, 151

Escalante, Eduard 410, 411

Escamilla, Manuela de 101

Escobar, Luis 346, 362, 434, 437, 438

Escuadra hacia la muerte (Condemned Squad, Sastre, 1953) 355–356, 358

Escudero, Tirso de 273

Escuela de Interpretación de Cristina Rota 191

Eslava, Hilarión 198

Esmeralda, Merche 384, 387

España Musical (Musical Spain) 198

Los españoles en Flandes (Spaniards in Flanders, Lope de Vega) 63

esperpento (grotesque tragi-comedy) 279, 301, 447, 449

Espert, Nuria/Núria xiv, 15, 17, 187, 188, 270, 395–396, 438, 439, 441, 443, 444, 448, 453–465, 469, 471, 481

on acting style 460, 465

on Alonso, José Luis 441

at CDN 395

changes in theatrical culture noted by 459

on classical theatre 456

as director 448, 460

on exporting theatre abroad 456

on Franco regime and censorship 458

on future of theatre 461–462

García, Víctor, and 443

influence of 187

influences on 453–455

on international influences 462–463

on Lorca 456

Luca de Tena and 438

national theatre 460–461

on preparation for role 463–465

Rape of Lucrece, future performance of 462–463

on theatre buildings and spaces 458, 459

training and career of 186, 270, 444, 457, 458

on training of actors 456–457

Espina, Antonio 293

Espinosa, Agustín 300

Espinosa, Alberto 448

Espinosa, Cardinal 58

Espriu, Salvador 360, 398

Estala, Pedro 159

Esteve, Graset 191

Esteve, Pablo 197

La Estrella de Sevilla (The Star of Seville, attrib. Lope de Vega, n.d.) 158

Estruch, José 334, 337

Estudio 68 369

European Union, Spain's entry into 392

Expressionism 300

Fàbregas, Xavier 266, 405

Fábula de Perseo (Perseus' Tale, Lope de Vega) 92

Facio, Ángel 260, 445

Faetón (Calderón) 76

Falangists 318–322, 341

See also Franco, theatre under; Spanish Civil War

Falcón, César 306

Falla, Manuel de 194, 306, 374, 378–379

Fando, Urbano 204

La farándula (The Travelling Players, 1936) 207

Farnés, Josefa María 233

Farinelli (Carlo Broschi) 106, 121, 153

El Farruco 382

Fascism 318–322, 341

See also Franco, theatre under; Spanish Civil War

Feijoo, Luis Iglesias 144, 161

Feldman, Sharon G. xiv, 12, 391

Ferdinand and Isabella 1, 30, 35, 45, 63, 80, 83, 84, 374

Ferdinand of Antequera 24

Ferdinand VI (king of Spain) 121, 137, 153

Ferdinand VII (king of Spain) 176, 198, 213, 252

Fernán-Gómez, Fernando 186, 187

Fernández, Amalio 304

Fernández, Antonio Pablo 144

Fernández, Eduard 190

Fernández, Esperanza 387

Fernández, Lucas 27

Fernández, María del Rosario (‘La Tirana’) 117

Fernández Caballero, Manuel 207, 209

Fernández de Sevilla, Luis 349

Fernández del Villar, José 290

Fernández Montesinos, Ángel 439

Fernández Shaw, Carlos 203

Fernández Shaw, Guillermo 297

Fernández Vallejo, Felipe 22

Ferrer, Emili 351

Ferrer, Francisco 140

Ferrer Valls, Teresa 72, 81, 85, 86, 87

La fiera, el rayo y la piedra (The Beast, the Lightning and the Statue, Calderón) 97, 99

Fieras afemina Amor (Love Tames Savage Beasts, Calderón) 75, 102

Figueroa, Roque de 96, 427

film and film industry in Spain

actors and acting style 186

decline of theatre and 274, 294

under Franco 351

theatres converted into cinemas 275

zarzuela 207

fin-de-siècle Spain.

See modernism and avant-garde in fin-de-siècle Spain

financial arrangements.

See costs and financing

Fiscowich, Florencio 241, 242, 250

flamenco 13, 372–390

censorship 380

Concurso de Cante Jondo 378–379

cross-fertilisation with other performance cultures 386–389

el duende 375

under Franco 376, 378, 380–384

Gypsy/Andalusian histories of 374–377

male performers 387

migration and survival of traditions of 384–385

national and international importance of 372

ópera flamenca 377

political stance under Franco 382–384

popularity, purity, and authenticity issues 379

study and classification of 373

women and 386

La flor de mi secreto (The Flower of My Secret, Almodóvar, 1995) 13

Flores, Lola 382

Flotats, Josep Maria 15, 190, 405–407, 448

folletos (leaflets) 233–234

Font, Joan 445

Fontana, Giulio Cesare 72, 95, 427

Fontanals, Francesc 351

Fontanals, Manuel 271, 277, 304, 433

Fortunas de Andrómeda y Perseo (The Fortunes of Andromeda and Perseus, Calderón, 1653) 97

Foxá, Agustín de 348

Fraga, Manuel 367

France

acting style and actor training in 174, 176

democratic transition, as model for 393

early twentieth-century influence of 183, 280, 298

French Revolution 163, 218, 391

as model for nineteenth-century Spanish theatre 218–220

neoclassical aesthetics in 134, 160

teatro independiente (TI, or independent theatre movement) and 188

zarzuela influenced by opéra-comique and operettas 199, 202, 206

Francis I (king of France) 63

Francisco de Madrid 34

Franco, Francisco 1, 11, 319, 392

Franco, theatre under 11, 341–371

1939–49 343–353

1949–59 353–362

1960–75 362–371

actors, acting style, and actor training 186–187

Andalusian political theatre of protest 418

censorship 343–345, 354–356, 357, 367, 380

competing media 351

directors

1936–60 434–441

1960–75 441–445

Escuadra hacia la muerte 355–356, 358

Espert, Nuria, on 458

flamenco 376, 378, 380–384

in Galicia 421

Historia de una escalera 11, 353–354, 359, 362, 366, 437

international influences and 345, 356, 362, 365, 369

national theatre, concept of 312, 342, 436

Nuevo teatro (New theatre) 369–370

Pasqual, Lluís, on 469

plays and playwrights 347–351, 358–360, 364–368

press and theatre criticism 345–347, 356

realism 365–367, 370

reviews, popularity of 351

scenery and staging technology 362

Second World War, end of 351

Spanish American theatre, exiles to 334–338

structural/organisational problems 368

teatros de cámara and university theatre groups 357, 439

theatre spaces and buildings 357

theatrical ideology of 345–347, 361–362

touring theatre 357

zarzuela films 208

Franqueza, Ramón 268

French Revolution 163, 218, 391

Fuente, Francisco and Juan de la 88

Fuenteovejuna/Fuente Ovejuna (Lope de Vega, 1614) 43, 306, 367, 456, 478

La Fura dels Baus 188, 191, 426, 447, 454, 468

Gades, Antonio 384, 387

Gala, Antonio 367, 399

Galceran, Jordi 408, 449

Galdós, Benito Pérez

See Pérez Galdós, Benito

galerías dramáticas (drama collections) 233, 239–242

Galicia, history of theatre in 421–425

Gallén, Enric 405

Galván, Israel 387

Gálvez de Cabrera, María Rosa 9, 233

Gámez, Celia 296

Gámez, María 293

García, Roberto 412

García, Rodrigo 17, 192, 340, 400, 401, 449–450, 452

García, Víctor 339, 435, 443, 454–455, 475

García Álvarez, Enrique 295

García Balmaseda, Joaquina 233

García Berlanga, Luis 380, 411

García-Bermejo, Miguel 19

García Chicón, Agustín 375

García Gutiérrez, Antonio 177, 233

García de la Huerta, Vicente 166

García Larrondo, Juan 418

García Lorca, Federico 11.

actors and acting 185, 186

alternative or non-commercial theatre 298, 299, 300, 301, 303, 306

Andalusia as theme in work of 417

assassination during Spanish Civil War 310, 342, 380

commercial theatre 291, 295, 296, 299

democratic era, stagings in 398

as director 433

directorial stagings of 433, 443, 454–455, 475

Espert, Nuria, on 456

flamenco and 374, 375, 378–379, 388

Franco regime and 345, 362

Mayorga, Juan, on 478

modernism and avant-garde 271, 279

Pasqual, Lluís, on 466, 468

Spanish American theatre and 331, 332–334, 338

zarzuela and 194

See under specific works

García Luna, José 178, 213, 225

García Pacheco, Fabián 197

García de Prado, Antonio 75

García Quintana, Roberto 418

Garrick, David 118

Garrido, Eva (‘La Yerbabuena’) 387

Garrido, José Manuel 396

Garrido, Miguel 137

Gas, Mario 400, 415, 426, 441, 448, 463

Gaspar, Enrique 178, 429

Gaviria, Manuel 216

Gaztambide, Joaquín 198, 199

Gelabert, Cesc 405

Generation of 1898 1

género chico (one-act zarzuela) 202–207, 259

género ínfimo (minute genre) 206

George, David xv, 10, 264, 431

Germana de Foix 81

Gibaja, Petronila 125

Gies, David T. xv, 1

Gil, Bernardo 213

Gil Albors, Juan Alfonso 412

Gillet, Joseph E. 22

Giménez Arnau, José Antonio 362

Giménez Caballero, Ernesto 319

Giner, Salvador 204

The Glass Menagerie (Tennessee Williams), Xirgu in 272, 333, 335

La gloria de Niquea (Niquea's Glory, Villamediana, 1622) 72, 86, 95

Godoy, Manuel de 197

Golden Age 8, 36–56

actors in.

See under actors and acting, in Golden Age

audience, constitution of 49, 53, 60

autos sacramentales 55–56, 67–71, 79

baile 54

co-writing of plays in 51

comedia or comedia nueva

Calderón and Tirso de Molina and development of 50–54.

See also Calderón de la Barca, Pedro; Tirso de Molina

Lope de Vega and emergence of 36–49.

See also Vega Carpio, Lope Félix de

commercial theatre, development of 57–66, 103

corral stage 37, 38, 40, 41, 49, 53, 79, 101, 103

entremés 54, 84

Espert, Nuria, on classical theatre of 456

Italian commedia dell'arte, influence of 37

Jesuit school drama 38

loas 54, 97

máscaras or masques 87, 89, 94

minor theatrical forms in 54–56

modern interest in theatre of 298, 306, 434

mojiganga 54

organisation and administration of theatre during 103–104

overlapping types of performance practices 79

parodic treatment 52

society, critical engagement with 46–47, 52, 64–66

Spanish American theatre in conquest and colonisation process 326–329

three acts, division of plays into 41, 51

traditional academic focus on 2

tragic and comic elements, mixture of 42–43, 52

verse forms used in 45–46, 53, 115

See also palace plays

Goldenberg, Ariel 340

Goldoni, Carlo 154

Gómez, José Luis 15, 189, 190, 191, 395, 401, 443

Gómez, Mar 415

Gómez Arcos, Agustín 399

Gómez de Avellaneda, Gertrudis 330

Gómez Manrique, Diego 7, 21, 32, 35, 83

Gómez Moreno, Ángel xv, 7, 14, 15, 18

Gómez de la Serna, Ramón 295, 300, 433

Góngora, Carlos 419

Góngora, Luis de 40, 53

González, Agustín 186

González, Bebo 386

González, Rafael 412

González del Castillo, Emilio 296

González del Castillo, Juan Ignacio 147

González Martínez, Nicolás 155

González Ruiz, Nicolás 347

González Subías, José Luis xv, 9, 13, 14, 177, 211, 255, 427

González Vergel, Alberto 440

Gorostiza, Manuel Eduardo de 330

government-funded theatre.

See national theatre

Gràcia, Joan 446

El gran teatro del mundo (The Great Theatre of the World, Calderón) 306

La Gran Vía (Chueca and Valverde, 1886) 5, 193, 204, 209

Grande, Félix 376, 379

Grasso, Giovanni 269

Grau, Jacinto 298, 300, 303, 305, 335

Greer, Margaret R. xv, 8, 77, 79

Grifell, Fernando 340

Grimaldi, Juan de 4, 9, 176, 213, 244, 428

Grotowski, Jerzy 188, 189, 416, 419, 443, 469

Gual, Adrià 5, 10

as director 183, 431–433

modernism and avant-garde 267, 268–269, 271, 272, 273, 280

Spanish American theatre and 332

Guede, Manuel 423–424

Guerra, Manuel de 78

Guerrero, Jacinto 207, 208, 297, 351

Guerrero, Manuel 146

Guerrero, María 5, 181, 182, 184, 276, 285, 299, 308, 330, 332, 430

Guerrero, Rosalía 137

Guerrero Carrasco, Tomasa (‘La Macanita’) 387

Guillén, Fernando 186

Guilmain, Ofelia 336

Guimerà, Àngel 273, 296, 449

Gullón, Alonso 241, 250

Guridi, Jesús 207

Gutiérrez Caba siblings (Emilio, Irene and Julia) 184, 186

Guzmán, Antonio 213

Guzmán el Bueno (Guzman the Good, Moratín, 1777) 144, 162

Gypsy/Andalusian histories of flamenco 374–377

Habermas, Jürgen 80

Habichuela, Juan 382

Hado y divisa de Leonido y Marfisa (Fate and Emblem of Leonido and Marfisa, Calderón, 1680) 76, 102

Hauptmann, Gerhart 266, 268, 269, 279, 432

Los hechos de Garcilaso de la Vega y moro Tarfe (The Deeds of Garcilaso de la Vega and the Moor, Tarfe, Lope de Vega, c. 1579–1583) 40, 63

Heliche, Gaspar de Haro, Marquis of 100

Hera, Alberto de la 395

Heras, Guillermo 398

Herder, Johan 376

Hernández, Emilio 418

Hernández, Miguel 299, 382

Hernando, Rafael 199

Heron of Alexandria 96

Hidalgo, Dionisio 234

Hidalgo, Eduardo 241

Hidalgo, Juan 95, 99–101, 195

Higueras, Modesto 439

Hill, John 428

Historia de una escalera (Story of a Stairway, Buero Vallejo, 1949) 11, 353–354, 359, 362, 366, 437

historiographical considerations 14, 18–22

Homar, Lluís 190, 455

Horace 39, 134

Hormesinda (Moratín, 1770) 148, 162

El hospital de los locos (The Madhouse, Valdivielso) 312, 315, 321, 434

hospitals, commercial theatres as source of income for 57–61, 103, 122, 123, 169

L'hostal de la Glòria (Gloria's Guesthouse, Sagarra, 1931) 274

Hoyo, Arturo del 354

Hoyos, Cristina 384, 387

Hoz y Mota, Juan de la 131

Huerta, Javier 16

Hurtado de Mendoza, Antonio 94, 95

Ibáñez, Paco 382

Ibsen, Henrik 266, 269, 279, 345, 410

Ideas generales sobre el arte del teatro (General Ideas on the Art of Theatre, Romea, 1858) 175, 179

Iglesia, Francisco María de la 421

Iglesias Feijoo, Luis 144, 161

Iglésies, Ignasi 267, 273

Imagined Communities (Anderson) 1

industry

early twentieth-century theatre as 274

nineteenth-century theatre as 9, 211–212, 219, 220–222, 244–245, 254

Infante, Blas 375, 379

Iniesta, Ricardo 419

Instituciones poéticas (Poetic Institutions, Díez González) 156

Institut del Teatre Barcelona 186, 188, 190, 457

Institutio Oratoria (Quintilian) 114

Instituto Nacional de las Artes Escénicas y de la Música (INAEM, or National Institute for the Performing Arts and Music) 396–400

Insua, Miquel 424

intellectual property.

See copyright

Los intereses creados (The Bonds of Interest, Benavente, 1907) 279, 292

Inzenga, José 200

Iphigénie (Racine, 1769) 160

Iriarte, Tomás de 148, 151, 167, 196, 198

Isabella II (queen of Spain) 253, 254, 258

Isabella of Bourbon (queen of Spain) 62, 63

Isabella of Castile.

See Ferdinand and Isabella

Isabella Farnese (queen of Spain) 120, 121

Isabella of Valois (queen of Spain) 87

Islam

autos sacramentales, seldom addressing 70

flamenco and 382

Jews and Gypsies, cohabitation with 374–375

Italy

commedia dell'arte 37, 89, 132, 191, 292, 446

eighteenth-century Spanish theatre, influence on 120–121, 126–127

novellas 40

perspectivism 73–75, 86

scenery and staging technology of palace plays introduced from 72–75, 96–97, 126–127

Spanish America, immigration to 329

zanni 130

zarzuela influenced by Italian opera 195, 197, 199

Iturri, Luis María 416

Jardiel Poncela, Enrique 294, 350, 359, 441

Jardine, Alexander 147

Jarry, Alfred 370

Jeanne d'Arc au bûcher (Joan of Arc at the Stake, Claudel) 336, 356

Jerónima de Burgos 92, 93

Jessner, Leopold 437

Jesuit school drama 38, 79

Jews

autos sacramentales, anti-Semitism of 70

Gypsies and Muslims, cohabitation with 374–375

Jiménez, Joaquín 297

Els Joglars 188, 190, 244, 392, 395, 444

Joham, Franz 351

Johns, Adrian 246

Jornet, Alejandro 412

José de Jesús María 106

Jovellanos, Gaspar Melchor de 3, 117, 149, 151, 156, 159–163, 164, 171, 196, 248, 252

Juan de la Cueva 38

Juan del Encina 18, 27–28, 33, 81, 82, 102

Juan José (Dicenta, 1907) 269

Junta de Dirección y Reforma (Management and Reform Board) 170–172

Junyent, José María 345, 351, 356

Kantor, Tadeusz 191, 420, 447

Kaps, Artur 351

Kemp, Will 43

Knebel, Mary Osipvna 189

Kott, Jan 442

Kotzebue, August von 167

Kraus, Alfredo 208

Kruger, Loren 391

Ladrón de Guevara, María Fernanda 184

Ladvenant y Quirante, María 117, 153

Lago, Xulio 422, 423

Lalama, Vicente de 240–241

Lama, Xabier 424

Lamadrid, Bárbara 177, 217

Lamadrid, Teodora 177

Lamas, Rafael xvi, 12, 13, 193

Landart, Daniel 414

Langle, Marquis of 152

Lanz, Hermenegildo 306

Larra, Luis Mariano de 201

Larra, Mariano José de 174, 201, 238, 428

Larrañaga, Amparo 175

Larrañaga, Carlos 175

Larzabal, Pierre 414

Laserna, Blas de 197

Latin America.

See Spanish American theatre

Latorre, Carlos 175, 177, 213, 225, 428

‘Lauaxeta’ (Esteban Urkiaga) 414

El laurel de Apolo (Apolo's Laurel, Calderón and Hidalgo, 1658) 99, 195

Lauren, Ellen 424

Lavelli, Jorge 339, 441, 449

Layton, William 189, 442

Lázaro Carreter, Fernando 7, 18, 19

le Brun, Charles 428

Leal, Juli 386

Leal, Milagros 184

Lecat, Guy 401

Lecoq, Jacques 189, 443, 444, 445

Lejárraga, María de la O 184, 335

Lemos, Count of 94

León, María Teresa 314, 315, 316, 335, 434

Lerma, Francisco Gómez de Sandóval, Duke of 65, 72, 81, 88, 91–94

Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim 117

Liberal Triennium (1820–3) 254

Libro de Buen Amor (Book of Good Love, Ruiz, c. 1330) 34

Liddell, Angélica 192, 449, 452

Lima, Andrés 452

Linares, Carmen 386

linguistic difference in Spain 2, 16, 360

Basque Country 413–417

Catalan.

See Catalonia

Galicia and Galician 421–425

Valencian-language theatre 409, 412, 413

Lista, Alberto 168

Literary History of Spain (Brown) 3

Los literatos en Cuaresma (Writers in Lent, Iriarte, 1773) 148

Literes, Antonio de 196

the Living Theatre 188, 369, 416

Lizaran, Anna 190, 455

Llaguno y Amírola, Eugenio de 143

Llanes, Manuel 418

Lleó, Vicente 206, 209

Llibertat! (Freedom!, Rusiñol, 1901) 269, 273

Llopis, Carlos 349

Lluch, Felipe 346, 436

loas (spoken introductions) 54

Lole y Manuel 382

London, John xvi, 11, 277, 341

Lope de Vega.

See Vega Carpio, Lope Félix de

López, Carol 448

López de Ayala, Adelardo 178

López de Ayala, Ignacio 144, 162, 164

López de Hoyos, Juan 88

López de Vega, Antonio 135

López Funes, Enrique 118, 178, 180

López Heredia, Irene 296, 302, 303, 330, 331, 432

López Julvez, Encarnación (‘La Argentinita’) 331, 386

López Morales, Humberto 28

López Mozo, Jerónimo 370

López Pinciano, Alonso 113

López Rubio, José 359

López Silva, José 203

Lorca, Federico García.

See García Lorca, Federico

Lotti, Cosme or Cosimo 4, 73, 96–97, 427

Louis XIII (king of France) 63, 92

Lourenzo, Manuel 422

Lozano, Teresa 386

Luca de Tena, Cayetano 436–438, 458

Lucas de Iranzo, Miguel 33

Luces de bohemia (Bohemian Lights, Valle-Inclán, 1920) 279, 301, 398, 416, 446

Lucía, Paco de 372, 382, 384, 386, 389

Luis I (king of Spain) 155

Luján, Juan José 202

Luna, Pablo 207, 208, 297

Luna, Rita 117

Luzán, Ignacio de 134–135, 150, 153, 156, 158

‘La Macanita’ (Tomasa Guerrero Carrasco) 387

Machado, Antonio and Manuel 296, 300

Machado y Álvarez, Antonio (‘Demófilo’) 373, 374

Magán, Agustín 422

magical comedies (comedias de magia) 127, 128, 132, 133, 137–141, 144, 231

El mágico de Salerno, Pedro Vayalarde (The Magician from Salerno, Pedro Vayalarde, Salvo y Vela, 1715) 128, 133, 144, 147

Máiquez, Isidoro 14, 118, 119, 173–174, 177, 180, 213

Máiquez, José 140

Mairena, Antonio 373, 374, 377, 382

Malonda, Antonio 417

Malraux, André 394

Manolo (Cruz, 1769) 3, 198

Manrique, Julio 448

máquina real 129–130

Marat-Sade, Marsillach's 1968 staging of 187, 363, 367, 442, 459

Maravall, José Antonio 64

Marchena, Pepe 377

Margallo, Juan 445

Margaret of Austria 88

María (queen of Portugal, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella) 30

María of Austria 85, 88

María Luisa of Orleans 102

María Luisa of Savoy (queen of Spain) 120

Marinhas del Valle, Jenaro 422

Mario, Emilio 180, 183, 276, 429–430

Mariscal, Ana 293

Marqueríe, Alfredo 347, 349, 351, 356

Marqueríe, Carlos 191

Marquina, Eduardo 291, 296, 297, 319, 347, 359

Marsillach, Adolfo 186, 187, 363, 367, 395, 397, 407, 441, 459

Marsillach, Luis 351

Marta la Romarantina plays 132, 133, 139, 140

Martin I the Humane of Aragon 24, 84

Martín, Mayte 387, 388

Martín-Fernández de la Torre, Néstor 304

Martínez de la Rosa, Francisco 177

Martínez de Toledo, Alfonso 23

Martínez Romarate, Rafael 305, 434, 440

Martínez Sierra, Gregorio 5, 10, 184, 272, 277, 285, 302, 305, 433, 434

Martínez Valls, Rafael 204, 208

Martins, José 424

Maruján, Juan Pedro 153

Maruxa (Vives, 1923) 207

máscaras or masques 87, 89, 94

Masip, Paulino 335

Mata, José 181

Matilla, Luis 395

Maya, Belén 387, 388

Mayendía, Consuelo 293

El mayor encanto, amor (Love is the Best Enchanter, Calderón) 96

Mayorga, Juan xvi, 15, 398, 400, 478–485

changes in theatrical culture noted by 481

on exporting theatre abroad 478

on future of theatre in Spain 484

influences on 478, 484

on international influences and exchanges 484

in Madrid theatre 398, 401

on national theatre 482

on theatre buildings and spaces 480, 481–482

training and career 479–480, 481

on training of playwrights 479–480

on writing style and methodology 482, 484–485

Mazarin, Cardinal 100

McCarthy, Jim xvi, 11, 14, 310

McGaha, Michael 92

McKendrick, Melveena 64

medieval Spain, theatre in 6–8, 18–35

acting, no specific profession of 82

Alonso del Campo, works of 22–23

El auto de los Reyes Magos (The Play of the Three Kings, 12th c.) 7, 18, 21–22, 35

cantigas or songbooks 30

civic and religious performances outside Toledo 24–30

complaints regarding 26, 30

expense records, performance-related 19–20, 25, 27, 28, 30, 31

Gómez Manrique, works of 7, 21, 32, 35, 83

historical belief in paucity overturned 18–22

ideological purposes of 35

Juan del Encina, works of 18, 27–28, 33, 81, 82, 102

momos or mummers' plays 30–32, 83, 87

Order of St Clare plays 32, 35

palace plays 82–84

publishing tradition, lack of 18

Toledo, liturgical theatre of 22–23

El mejor alcalde el rey (The Best Mayor, the King, Lope de Vega, c. 1620) 259

Meléndez Valdés, Juan 153, 161

Meller, Raquel 329

Membrives, Lola 286, 297, 303, 331

Memoria para el arreglo de la policía de los espectáculos y diversiones públicas, y sobre su origen en España (Report on the Regulation of Spectacles and Public Entertainments and on their Origin in Spain, Jovellanos, 1790) 149, 156, 248–249

Menéndez Pidal, Ramón 19

Menéndez y Pelayo, Marcelino 168

Menese, José 374, 382

Mercé, Antonia (‘La Argentina’) 278, 331

Merlo family of actors (Ismael, Luis and María Luisa) 184

Mesa, Enrique de 293

Mestres, Apel·les 272

Metamorphoses (Ovid) 72

Metastasio (Pietro Trapassi) 121, 132, 153–155

Method Acting 186, 189

Mignoni, Fernando 277, 304

Mihura, Miguel 294, 350, 358–359

Milá y Fontanals, Manuel 20

Milán, Jordi 447.

See also La Cubana

Milán, Luis 81, 86

Millá, Luis 431

Millán, Rafael 204

Millán, Santi 190

Miñano, Andrés 167

Miquis, Alejandro 305, 432

Mir, Paco 446

Mira, Toni 415

Mira de Amescua, Antonio 50, 67, 94

Miró, Joan 272, 445

Miró, Pau 400, 405

Misantropía y arrepentimiento (Misanthropy and Remorse, Kotzebue, 1800) 167

mise-en-scène.

See under directors

Misiones Pedagógicas 11, 283, 307, 337

missionary theatre in Spanish America 327

modernism and avant-garde in fin-de-siècle Spain 10, 264–281

acting companies, foreign 269, 279

actors and acting 270–271, 276

alternative or non-commercial theatre 266–267

Barcelona 264–274

commercial theatre 265, 274

concepts of modernism, modernisme and modernismo 265

costume designers 277

demographics, economic growth, and theatre development 264

director, concept of 183, 276

international influence 268, 278, 279, 280

Madrid 274–280

music and music theatre 272

novels and 279

plays and playwrights 273–274, 278–280

press and theatre criticism, role of 269–270, 279

scenery and staging technology 270, 276

theatre spaces and buildings 274–276

mojiganga 54

Moles, José María 250

Molière 134

Molina, Antonio 377

Molina, Ricardo 373, 374

Molina, Sara 191, 420

Molins, Manuel 410, 412

Momerie (Moner) 34

momos or mummers' plays 30–32, 83, 87

Momplet, Antonio 207

Monanni, Bernardo 96

Moner, Francesc 34

Monleón, José 260–263, 336, 339, 357, 360, 365

Monné de Baroja, Carmen 305

Montanyès, Josep 404

Montero, Mateo 94

Montiano y Luyando, Agustín de 150, 159

Montoya, María Tereza 331

Moral, Ignacio del 398

Morales, José Ricardo 334, 337

Morales, Juan de 48

Moratín, Leandro Fernández de 3, 118, 144, 149, 151, 163, 165, 167, 169, 170, 171, 196, 198, 345, 427

Moratín, Nicolás Fernández de 135, 139, 146, 148, 150, 156, 162, 167

Moreno, Amando 410

Moreno Galván, Francisco 374, 382

Moreno Torroba, Federico 207

Morente, Estrella 387

Morera, Enric 204

Moreto y Cabaña, Agustín 50, 51, 131

Morley, S. Griswold 63

movies.

See film and film industry in Spain

Moynet, M. J. 218

Mujika, Josu 415

mundinovo 130

Muñiz, Carlos 367

Muñiz y Mas, Adelaida 233

Muñoz, Gori 336

Muñoz, María 452

Muñoz Morillejo, Joaquín 143

Muñoz Román, José 296, 351

Muñoz Seca, Pedro 291, 292, 295, 297, 342, 344

La muralla (The Wall, Calvo-Sotelo, 1954) 361

Muriel y López, Luis 304

Murió hace quince años (He Died Fifteen Years Ago, Giménez Arnau, 1953) 362

music and musical theatre.

Catalonia as musical centre 272

in early twentieth-century Spain 297

modernism and avant-garde in fin-de-siècle Spain 272

See also flamenco, operatic works, zarzuela

Mussot, Luis 321

Nanclares, Antonio de 66

Narros, Marquis of 153

Narros, Miguel 189, 442

Nasarre, Blas Antonio de 135

Naselli, Alberto (Ganassa) 38, 89

national theatre 391–393

in Andalusia 418–419

in Basque Country 414–416

in Catalonia 404–408

CDN (Centro Dramático Nacional) in Madrid 392, 393–401, 442

CNNTE (Centro Nacional de Nuevas Tendencias Escénicas) 398, 479

CNTC (Compañía Nacional de Teatro Clásico) 187, 397, 417, 448

decentralisation of 392, 397

early twentieth-century impetus for 307

Espert, Nuria, on 460–461

under Franco 312, 342, 436

in Galicia 423–425

Mayorga, Juan, on 482

origins of concept of 391

Pasqual, Lluís, on 473

Real Decreto of 1849 and 258

in Valencia 409–413

Nationalists.

See under Spanish Civil War

Naufragios de AÁlvar Núñez (Shipwrecks of Álvar Núñez, Sanchis Sinisterra, 1991) 324, 326

Navarro de Espinosa, Juan 66

Nebra, José de 196

necrological panegyrics 149

neoclassical aesthetics.

See under aesthetics of Spanish theatre (1750–1808)

Neumeister, Sebastian 76

Neville, Edgar 294, 359

Niccodemi, Dario 298

Nieto, Jusepe 75

Nietzsche, Friedrich 5, 193, 205

Nieva, Francisco 363, 399, 400, 448

La Niña de los Peines 377, 386

nineteenth-century Spain, theatre in 9, 211–243

acceptance of plays for performance 231

censorship 231, 247–249

composition and content of theatrical event 227–228, 259

control of playwright over performance of work 232

copyright issues 244–246.

See also copyright

costs and financing 214, 215, 229–231

directors in 14

See also directors (1823–2010)

as industry 9, 211–212, 219, 220–222, 244–245, 254

length of runs 231

mid-century growth and developments 218–223

physical theatre spaces.

See under theatre buildings and spaces

private theatres, introduction of 216–217, 252

Real Decreto of 1849 217, 220, 248, 258

regulatory efforts 212, 217

scenery and staging technology 226

scheduling of performances 228

sociedades dramáticas (dramatic societies) 214, 219, 257

Spanish American theatre 329–330

theatrical season 223

ticket prices 229–231

traditional approach to 3

Nipho, Francisco Mariano 116, 153

Nodar Manso, Francisco 34

non-commercial theatre.

See alternative or non-commercial theatre

Norén, Lars 400

noucentisme 265, 274, 277

Novelli, Ermete 269

Nuevo Flamenco (New Flamenco) 386

El Nuevo Mundo descubierto por Cristóbal Colón (The New World discovered by Christopher Columbus, Lope de Vega, 1600) 327

Nuevo teatro (New theatre) 369–370

Numancia (Cervantes) 316

Numancia destruida (Numancia Destroyed, López de Ayala, 1778) 162, 164

Núñez de Guzmán, Nicolás Gaspar, Prince of Astillano 75

Obregón, Antonio de 306

Ochoa, Eugenio de 220–221

Offenbach, Jacques 202

Olavide, Pablo de 116, 151, 159, 171, 174

Oliva, César 6, 394, 418

Olivares, Count-Duke of 47, 82, 95, 96

Ollé, Àlex 447

Ollé, Joan 445

Olmo, Lauro 364, 366

Olona, Luis de 199

Onetti, Antonio 398, 418

Ontañón, Santiago 304, 316, 334, 336

ópera flamenca 377

operatic works

of Calderón de la Barca 53, 76, 97–101, 195

Golden Age palace presentations of 96

Italian influence in eighteenth century and 121

zarzuela influenced by 195, 197, 199, 206

Order of St Clare plays 32, 35

Orduña, Juan de 208

origins of theatre in Spain 6

Orozco, Juana de 125

Orozco, Lourdes xvii, 13, 372

Ortega, Ginesa 387, 388

Ortuño Millán, Francisco 418

Orwell, George 341

Osorio, Fernando 180

Otero Pedrayo, Ramón 422

Oudrid, Cristóbal 199, 200

Ovid 53, 72, 100

‘Paco de la Zaranda’ (Francisco Sánchez) 420

Padilla, José 207

Padrissa, Carles 447

Pagés, María 387

Los pájaros ciegos (The Blind Birds, Ruiz Iriarte) 344

palace plays 8, 79–102

actors, nobility and royalty as 72, 73, 83, 95, 102

ceremonies and festivities 84–89

as comedia genre 49

costs and financing of 75–76, 122

courtly spectacles and dances 89, 97–99

increasing importance in latter part of Golden Age 53

máscaras or masques 87, 89, 94

in medieval Spain 82–84

noble as well as royal protagonists of 81

overlapping with other performance practices 79

paratheatrical spectacles 80–82

perspectivism, use of 73–75, 86

political import of 71–77

scenery and staging technology 72–75, 92, 95, 96–97, 98

theatrical performances 82–84, 90–95

zarzuela 99–102

Palacios Fernández, Emilio 132

Pallina, Verónica 340

Paradas, Enrique 297

Le Paradoxe sur le comédien (The Paradox of Acting, Diderot) 179, 428

paratheatrical spectacles

in Basque Country 413

in eighteenth-century Spain 129–130

in fin-de-siècle Barcelona 267

as palace performances 80–82

Paravicino, Hortensio 66

Pardo y Aliaga, Felipe 330

París, Luis 307

Parra, Marco Antonio de la 479

particular performances 90–95

Pascual, Sabina 125

Paso, Alfonso 359, 364

Paso Cano, Antonio 295

Pasqual, Lluís xvii, 15, 190, 209, 388, 397–398, 403, 404, 405, 418, 441, 444, 445–446, 452, 455, 463, 466–477

Alonso, José Luis, and 441

on artistic direction 476–477

in Catalan theatre 190, 403, 404, 405, 445

at CDN 397, 446

on collaboration 476

on directing style 471–473

Espert, Nuria, on 463

on exporting theatre abroad 467–468

on Franco regime 469

on future of theatre in Spain 473

in Galician theatre 418

influences on 466–467

on international influence and exchange 474

on national theatre 473

on stage design 474–476

on theatre buildings and spaces 469–470, 471

training and career of 469, 470–471

on training of directors 468–469

zarzuela and 209

Paterson, Alan 69

Pavlovsky, Ángel 340

Pavón, Tina 386

Paz, Octavio 328

Pedraza Jiménez, Felipe 93

Pedro de Urdemalas (Cervantes, c. 1615) 112

Pedrolo, Manuel de 360

Pedroso, Manuel 303

Pelayo (Jovellanos, 1773) 162, 164

Pelayo (Quintana, 1805) 162

Pellicer, José de 66

Pemán, José María 347, 357, 440

Penagos, Rafael de 304

Penella, Manuel 207

Penón, Juan Antonio 123

El Pensador (The Thinker) 136

Pepi, Luci, Bom y otras chicas del montón (Pepi, Luci, Bom and Other Girls on the Heap, Almodóvar, 1980) 208

Pera, Joan 186

Pérez, Cosme 110

Pérez Barradas, Rafael 304, 433

Pérez de Ayala, Ramón 293

Pérez de la Fuente, Juan Carlos 399

Pérez de la Ossa, Huberto 434, 436

Pérez de Montalbán, Juan 51, 67

Pérez Fernández, Pedro 295, 297

Pérez Galdós, Benito 3, 259, 271, 279, 430

Pérez Puig, Gustavo 439

Pérez Sierra, Rafael 395

Pérez y González, Felipe 193

Peribáñez y el comendador de Ocaña (Lope de Vega, 1610) 43

Pericot, Iago 443, 444

Perojo, Benito 207

El perro del hortelano (The Dog in the Manger, Lope de Vega, 1613) 43, 158

perspective scenery 73–75, 86, 126

Philip II (king of Spain) 1, 12, 62, 63, 71, 80, 81, 84, 87, 102

Philip III (king of Spain) 47, 62, 63, 65, 81, 88, 89–91, 102

Philip IV (king of Spain) 46, 52, 53, 61, 64, 67, 68, 72, 74, 78, 81, 90, 95, 96, 101, 102, 195

Philip V (king of Spain) 120, 121, 126, 253

physical theatre spaces.

See theatre buildings and spaces

Picasso, Pablo 267, 272, 277, 471

Pierre, Francis 184

Pimenta, Helena 417, 424, 446, 450

Pinedo, Baltasar 94

Pino, Rosario 276

Pinto, Pepe 377

Pipirijaina (periodical) 188, 398

Plá, Josefina 327

Plana, Ignacio or Ignasi 138

Planchon, Roger 439

Planella, Pere 403, 415, 445

Plano, Juan Francisco 156

Plany a la mort d'Enric Ribera (Lament for the Death of Enric Ribera, Sirera, 1972/1977) 409

Plaza, José Carlos 189, 442

Plensa, Jaume 447

Poética (Poetics, Luzán, 1737) 134–135, 158

Poetics (Aristotle) 159

political ideology and theatre during Spanish Civil War 318–322

political stance of flamenco artists under Franco 382–384

political theatre of protest in Andalusia under Franco 418

politics, imperialism, and seventeenth-century theatre 8, 57–78

autos sacramentales 67–71

censorship 61, 66

commercial theatre, development of 57–66

government regulation of theatres 61

Lope de Vega, works of 62–66

palace plays 71–77

propaganda 78

in autos sacramentales 70–71

commercial theatre not used for 62–64

in palace plays 76

society, comedia nueva's critical engagement with 46–47, 52, 64–66

Polls, Esteve 444, 457

polymetry 45–46

Pons, Carles 412

Pons, Ventura 444

Ponzo, Giuseppe 196

popular theatre in Spain (1737–98) 8, 134–156

autos sacramentales 137

characteristics of popular taste 141–148

comedias amatorias (amatory plays) 146

comedias de magia (magical comedies) 137–141, 144

comedias de santos (plays about saints) 137, 144

costumbrismo (literature or theatre of manners) 155, 156

dichotomy between neoclassical aestheticism and, nuancing of 148–156

entremés 147, 151

necrological panegyrics 149

neoclassical critique of and efforts to reform 134–137

sainetes 141, 147, 151, 155

sainets 266

scenery and staging technology 140, 142–143

tonadillas 141

zarzuela 155, 193–210

Portaceli, Carme 446, 455

Postlewait, Thomas 6

Pou, Josep Maria/José María 16, 186, 190, 448

Poveda, Miguel 388

Pozzo, Cassiano del 91

Prada, José María 186

Prada, Loreto 285

Prado, Sebastián de 67

El premio de la hermosura (Beauty's Reward, Lope de Vega, 1611) 72, 86, 92

pricing and costs.

See costs and financing

Prieto, Andrés 118

Prieto, Antonio 175

Prieto, Miguel 336

Primer Acto (periodical) 11, 188, 339, 356, 398, 440

Primo de Rivera, José Antonio 267, 282, 291, 341, 421

El príncipe constante (The Constant Prince, Calderón de la Barca, 1629) 66

private theatres

introduction of 216–217, 252

during Spanish Civil War 310–314

Profeti, María Grazia 83

Protestantism, autos sacramentales attacking 70

public theatre.

See national theatre

El público (The Public/The Audience, Lorca) xii, 300, 301, 303, 398, 446, 475

publishing.

of alternative dramas in early twentieth century 298, 300

of Galician texts 422

medieval plays, lack of publishing tradition for 18

nineteenth-century stage and 9, 232–243

bufos 217

folletos 233–234

galerías dramáticas (drama collections) 233, 239–242

printing and production houses 234–237

stage directions, introduction of 429

text-centred approach to theatre and 251

of zarzuela 206, 216

See also copyright, editores

Puceiro, Eduardo 423

Puertocarrero 34

Puig i Cadafalch, Josep 272

Puigserver, Fabià 15, 189, 398, 403, 404, 443, 444, 445, 446, 448, 454–455, 469, 475

puppet theatre 129–130, 267, 299, 305, 307, 419

La púrpura de la rosa (The Purple Colour of the Rose, Calderón) 76, 100

Quadrado, José María 20, 31

Queizán, Maximino 422

Quejío (Lament, La Cuadra de Sevilla, 1972) 383–384, 445

Quevedo, Francisco de 47, 54, 94

Quiñones de Benavente, Luis 54

Quintana, Manuel José 161

Quintilian 114

Quinto, José María de 356, 365

Rabaglio, Virgilio 125

Racine, Jean 132, 134, 143, 160, 162

Rambal, Enrique 183, 289, 439

Ramírez, Bernarda 67

Ramírez de Arellano, Leyva 131

Ramis, Pep 452

Rape of Lucrece (Shakespeare), Espert's performance of 462–463

Raquel (García de la Huerta, 1771) 166

Real Conservatorio de Música y Declamación (Royal Conservatoire of Music and Acting) 14, 118, 174, 183, 186, 226, 307, 428

Real Decreto Orgánico de los Teatros del Reino (The Royal Organic Decree on the Theatres of the Kingdom) of 1849 217, 220, 248, 258

realism 365–367, 370

Recuerda, José Martín 366

rehearsals 170, 431, 437

Reixach, Domènec 405, 407

Relación de las comedias que se hizieron el año 1474, a la Reina Isabel, y a la Princesa doña Juana (Report on the Comedies performed in 1474, for Queen Isabella and Princess Juana) 84

religious plays.

See autos sacramentales

Renaixença (Catalan cultural renaissance) 264, 265, 360

Representación del nacimiento de Nuestro Señor (Representation of the Birth of Our Lord, Gómez Manrique, c. 1458) 21, 32

Representación sobre el poder del Amor (Play on the Power of Love, Juan del Encina, c. 1497) 27–28, 82

Republicans.

See under Spanish Civil War

RESAD (La Real Escuela Superior de Arte Dramático) 186, 188, 190, 334, 457, 479

El retablo de Eldorado (The Tableau of Eldorado, Sanchis Sinisterra, 1996) 324, 326, 329

La revoltosa (The Troublemaker, Chapí, 1898 [filmed 1924 and 1969]) 203, 207, 208

Revolution of 1868 202, 258

Rexurdimento 421

Rey, Florián 207, 208

Rey de Artieda, Andrés 38

Reyes, Alfonso 328

Reynaud, Louis Azema 116

Riaza, Berta 186

Riaza, Luis 395

Ricardo Darlington (Covert-Spring, 1836) 247

Riccoboni, François 119

Rico, Francisco 34

Ridruejo, Dionisio 315, 319, 321

Rigola, Àlex 404, 426, 451, 452

Río Barredo, María José del 88

Ríos, Nicolás de los 91

Ríos Ruiz, Manuel 375, 376

Ripoll Fernández de Urueña y Ponce de León, Domingo María 139

Riquelme, Antonio 202

Riquelme, María 110

Rivas, Duque de 3

Rivas, Francisco de las 200

Rivas Cherif, Cipriano de 5, 10

in early twentieth-century theatre 302, 305, 306, 308

exile and work in Spanish American theatre 331–332, 334–338, 434

Gual's influence on 432

modernism and avant-garde 271, 272, 274

Xirgu and 185

Rivas Palá, María 23

Rivelles, Amparo 184

Rivelles, Rafael 184

Roa Bastos, Augusto 327

Rodero, José María 186, 187

Rodrigo, Antonina 332

Rodrigo, Joaquín 357

Rodríguez, Alonso and Damián 88

Rodríguez, Concepción 177, 428

Rodríguez, Matilde 183

Rodríguez de Arellano, Vicente 167

Rodríguez de Campomanes, Pedro 151

Rodríguez Cuadros, Evangelina xvii, 8, 103, 174

Rodríguez de Hita, Antonio 197

Rodríguez Méndez, José María 365, 395, 431

Rodríguez Rubí, Tomás 220

Rogel, José 202

Rojas, Agustín de 104

Rojas, Fernando de 5, 23, 40

Rojas Zorrilla, Francisco de 50, 51, 131, 137

Rolland, Romain 317

Roman Catholicism

censorship and.

See censorship

Council of Trent 27

Franco and.

See Franco, theatre under

Jesuit school drama 38, 79

religious plays.

See autos sacramentales

Roman empire, theatre in Spain under 6

romanceros nuevos 40

Romanos, Mesonero 226

Romanticism 9, 176–178, 181, 245, 391

Romea, Julián 175, 176, 177, 178–180, 181, 213, 224, 226, 428

Romea y Parra, Julián 119

Romero, Federico 297

Romeu, Pere 267

Ros, Samuel 348

Roy Hart school 191

Rozas, Juan Manuel 66

Ruano de la Haza, José María xvii, 8, 15, 46, 57, 142

Rubin, Miri 69

Rubio, Pepe 183

Rubio Jiménez, Jesús xvii, 10, 264, 431

Rueda, Lope de 36, 37, 87, 109, 427

Ruesga, Juan 418

El rufián dichoso (The Blessed Ruffian, Cervantes) 42

Ruibal, Euloxio R. 422

Ruibal, José 370

Ruiz, José Martínez (Azorín) 299, 300

Ruiz de Alarcón, Juan 327, 337

Ruiz de Alarcón, Pedro 47, 50

Ruiz Iriarte, Víctor 344, 359

Ruiz Soler, Antonio 329

Rusiñol, Santiago 267, 269, 273, 280, 296, 407

El rústico del cielo (The Peasant from Heaven, Lope de Vega) 89

Saavedra, Ángel de 177

Sabicas (Agustín Castellón Campos) 372, 382

Sachetti, Giovanni Battista 124

Saco, Eduardo 231

El sacrificio de Ifigenia (The Sacrifice of Iphigenia, Racine, 1721) 132

Sadowski, Andrzej 443

Sáez de Melgar, Faustina 233

Sagarra, Josep Maria de 268, 274, 345, 353, 360

sainetes 141, 147, 151, 155, 198, 228, 283

sainets 266

saints' lives, plays about (comedias de santos) 137, 144

Sala Valldaura, Josep Maria xviii, 8, 13, 133, 134, 158

Salamanca, Marquis of 216

Salas, Francisco 198, 200, 217

salas alternativas (alternative venues) 401

Salazar, Adolfo 307

Salazar y Torres, Antonio de 101

Salinas, María de 68

Salom, Jaime 364

Salvador Miguel, Nicasio 33

Salvat, Ricard 336, 339, 360, 395, 443

Salvo y Vela, Juan 128, 133, 144, 147

Sampietro, Mercedes 186

Sánchez, Francisco ‘Paco de la Zaranda,’ 420

Sánchez Herrero, José 26, 29

Sánchez Mejías, Ignacio 300

Sanchis Sinisterra, José 324, 326, 329, 339, 452, 468, 479

Sanguino, Paco 412

Sans, Carles 446

Santa Juana, Segunda Parte (Saint Joan, Part Two, Tirso de Molina) 91

Santos, Carles 412, 449

Sanzol, Alfredo 448

saraos or soirées 89

Sardà, Rosa Maria 190

Sartre, Jean-Paul 355

Sastre, Alfonso 355–356, 359, 365, 367, 415

Saura, Carlos 13, 372, 381, 389

scenery and staging technology

of Golden Age palace plays and courtly spectacles 72–75, 92, 95, 96–97, 98

in eighteenth century 122, 126–127, 140, 142–143

in nineteenth century 226

in fin-de-siècle Spain 270, 276

in early twentieth century 289, 304

in Spanish Civil War 315

under Franco 362

Pasqual, Lluís, on 474–476

perspectivism 73–75, 86, 126

Schroeder, Juan German 444

Scotti, Marquis 121

Second Republic (1931–6) 207, 282, 306

Second World War 351

Segovia, Andrés 378–379

Segovia, Rosita 387

Segura, Manuel Ascensio 330

La selva sin amor (The Forest Without Love, Lope de Vega, 1627) 73, 96

sentimental comedies of eighteenth century 167

Serlio, Sebastiano 86

Serrano, José 207, 208

Sert, Josep Maria 277

set design.

See scenery and staging technology

seventeenth-century Spain, theatre in.

See Golden Age

Shergold, Norman D. 6, 84, 86, 87

El sí de las niñas (The Maids' Consent, Moratín, 1806) 3, 8, 168

Sibylline hymn, medieval dramatisations of 20, 26

Singerman, Berta and Pauline 337

Sirera, Josep Lluís xviii, 14, 173, 409

Sirera, Rodolf 369, 398, 409–413

sixteenth-century Spain, theatre in.

See Golden Age

Sociedad Artística 200

Sociedad de Autores Dramáticos (Society of Dramatic Authors) 221

Sociedad de Autores Españoles (Society of Spanish Authors) 242

Sociedad General de Autores y Editores (General Association of Authors and Editors, or SGAE) 206, 250

sociedades dramáticas (dramatic societies) 214, 219, 257

Solana Madariaga, Javier 396

Soldevila, Carles 268

Soldevila, Carlota 403

Soler Marí, Joaquín 184

Solís, Antonio de 101

Sopeña Monsalve, Andrés 416

Soriano Fuertes, Mariano 199

Sorozábal, Pablo 207

Sota, Manu 414

South America.

See Spanish American theatre

Soutullo, Reveriano 207

Soviet productions during Spanish Civil War 316

Spain, theatre in.

See theatre in Spain

Spanish American theatre 14, 323–340

African influence on 326

in conquest and colonisation process 326–329

in democratic era 339–340

in eighteenth and nineteenth centuries 329–330

Franco era exiles and 334–338

Guerrero, María 182, 330, 332

identity and confusion, focus on 324–326

missionary theatre 327

tours by Spanish actors and acting companies 330–334

treated in context of peninsular Spain 5

Xirgu, Margarita xi, 185, 270–271, 272, 330, 332–334, 335, 336, 342, 453

zarzuela 329, 331

Spanish Civil War (1936–9) 11, 310–322

actors and acting 185–186

autos sacramentales, interest in 312, 315, 319

costs and financing 317

political ideology and theatre during 318–322

repertoire during 314–318

scenery and staging technology in 315

Soviet productions 316

Spanish American theatre tours before and after 330–334

theatre buildings and spaces 310–314

Spregelburd, Rafael 340

staging.

See scenery and staging technology

Stanislavski, Konstantin 186, 188, 189, 191, 431

state-funded theatre.

See national theatre

Stein, Louise 94, 95, 96, 99, 100, 101

Stern, Charlotte 7, 35, 79, 83

Stone, Rob 378, 382, 385

Strasberg, Lee 189, 443, 474

Strehler, Giorgio 476

Strømgren, Jo 400

student theatre groups (Teatros Español Universitarios or TEUs) 186, 306, 358, 368, 439

Suárez, Gabriel 146

Surrealism 300, 370

Surtz, Ronald 32

Surwillo, Lisa xviii, 9, 177, 232, 243, 244

symbolism and symbolist drama 269, 273, 277, 280, 299, 300, 301, 354, 432, 437

Szwarcer, Ricardo 340

Talma, François-Joseph 118

Tamayo, José 440, 454

Tamayo, Ramón 395

Tamayo, Victorino 180

Tamayo y Baús, Manuel 3, 178, 180, 233

Tàpias, J. C. 360

Tárrega, Francisco 38

Távora, Salvador 383, 418, 445

Taxes, Francisco 424

Teatre Íntim 267, 271, 432

Teatre Lliure 264–274, 403, 445

Teatro (periodical) 11, 356

teatro de escaparate (show theatre) 442

Teatro de la Abadía 189, 443

Teatro de las Misiones Pedagógicas 11, 283, 307, 337

teatro de urgencia (theatre of urgency) 317–318, 320–321

Teatro Estudio de Madrid (TEM) 189, 442

teatro independiente (independent theatre movement or TI) 188, 190, 368–370, 421, 444

teatros de cámara (chamber theatres) 357, 368, 422, 439

Teatro Español Universitario (TEU) 186, 306, 358, 368, 439

Teixidor, Jordi 369

Téllez, Gabriel.

See Tirso de Molina

TEM (Teatro Estudio de Madrid) 189, 442

Teoría del arte dramático (Theory of Dramatic Art, Prieto, 1835) 175

tertulia (social gathering) 125, 159, 229

text-centred approach to theatre 2–4, 251, 427

Thacker, Jonathan xviii, 8, 36

theatre buildings and spaces 252–260

in eighteenth century 124–125, 254

in nineteenth century 9, 10, 255

changes to physical set-up 212, 218, 226–227, 252, 254

gas lighting, introduction of 216, 218

management of 213, 223

private ownership 216–217, 252

proliferation of 203, 214, 218–220, 254, 258

urban landscape, shaping of 259

in early twentieth century (1900–36) 286–290

modernism and avant-garde in fin-de-siècle Spain 274–276

in Spanish Civil War (1936–9) 310–314

under Franco (1939–75) 357

in democratic era (1975–2010) 252, 400–401

actors and acting affected by 115, 173

cazuela 125, 157, 168, 213, 226, 229, 252, 254

cinemas, conversion into 275

corrales x, 3, 10, 37, 38, 40, 41, 43, 44–45, 49, 53, 79, 84, 93, 97, 101, 103, 105, 110, 198, 252, 253, 254, 255, 327

electricity, introduction of 275, 289

Espert, Nuria, on 458, 459

Mayorga, Juan, on 480, 481–482

Pasqual, Lluís, on 469–470, 471

zarzuela 198–205

theatre in Spain 1–17

in sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

See Golden Age

in eighteenth century.

See eighteenth-century Spain, theatre in

in nineteenth century.

See nineteenth-century Spain, theatre in

in twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

See twentieth- and twenty-first-century Spain, theatre in

actors and acting.

See under entries at actors and acting

definition of Spain for purposes of 1–2

directors 14, 426.

See under directors

flamenco 13, 372–390.

See also flamenco

historiographical considerations 14, 18–22

holistic approach to 4, 12

international influence of 5, 17

Latin America and 14, 323–340.

See also Spanish American theatre

origins of 6

scenery and staging technology.

See scenery and staging technology

text-centred approach to 2–4, 251, 427

zarzuela 12, 193–210.

See also zarzuela

Theatre of the Absurd 360

Theatre of Cruelty 445

Theatre of the Oppressed 322

theatrical season

in eighteenth century 127–128

in nineteenth century 223

in early twentieth century 283–284

Theatro de los theatros (Bances Candamo, end of 17th c.) 53

ticket prices.

See costs and financing

tío Espejo (Uncle Mirror) 136, 137

Tirado, Arturo 331

Tirado, Romualdo (Cachipuchi) 331

Tirso de Molina 50–54.

autos sacramentales by 67

international influence of Don Juan character 5

Lope de Vega and 50

modern interest in 306

moralising nature of stage works 47, 52, 78

palace plays 91

traditional academic focus on 3

tragic and comic elements, mixture of 43

See under specific works

Todo lo vence el amor o La pata de cabra (Love Conquers All or The Goat's Hoof, 1829) 176, 428

Tomatito 386

tonadillas (short musical pieces) 141, 198, 228

Tono 350

Torradismo 349

Torrado, Adolfo 349

Torre, Claudio de la 300, 439

Torrente Ballester, Gonzalo 319, 320, 321, 342

Torres Monreal, Francisco 6

Torres Naharro, Bartolomé 82, 108–109

Torroja Méndez, Carmen 23

tournament-based performances 84–89

training of actors.

Escuela de Interpretación de Cristina Rota 191

Espert, Nuria, on 456–457

experience as training of early performers 126

Institut del Teatre Barcelona 186, 188, 190, 457

Real Conservatorio de Música y Declamación 14, 118, 174, 183, 186, 226, 307, 428

RESAD (La Real Escuela Superior de Arte Dramático) 186, 188, 190, 334, 457

See also actors and acting, training and style of (1801–2010)

training of directors 468–469

training of playwrights 479–480

Tratado de declamación o arte dramático (Treatise on Acting or Dramatic Art, Bastús, 1833) 175

Trent, Council of 27

Tres sombreros de copa (Three Top Hats, Mihura, 1932) 358

El Tricicle 188, 446

Trigueros, Cándido María 153, 165, 168

Trufaldines 120–121, 124, 126, 133

El trufaldino español y espiritada fingida (The Spanish Trufaldine and the Spirited Faker, Cañizares, 1714) 127, 132

tutilimundi 130

twentieth- and twenty-first-century Spain, theatre in 10–12

directors in 14.

See also directors (1823–2010)

before Franco (1900–36) 10, 282–309.

See also early twentieth-century Spanish theatre (1900–36)

Ucelay, Pura Maórtua de 305

Ugarte, Eduardo 306

Uña, Susana 417

Unamuno, Miguel de 296, 298, 301, 342

university theatre companies (Teatro Español Universitario or TEU) 186, 306, 357, 368, 439

Urkiaga, Esteban (‘Lauaxeta’) 414

Usandizaga, José María 207

Usigli, Rodolfo 338

Utrera, Fernanda and Bernarda de 386

Vaca, Jusepa 48

Valdehorras, Camilo 422

Valderrama, Pilar de 305

Valdés, María Jesús 186, 441

Valdivielso, José de 312, 434

Valencia, in democratic era 408–413

Valencia, Tórtola 278, 329

Valero, José 178, 213

El valiente Céspedes (Courageous Céspedes, Lope de Vega, 1612–15) 63

Valladares de Sotomayor, Antonio 167

Valle-Inclán, Ramón María del 11

in alternative theatre of early twentieth century 299, 300, 303, 305

in commercial theatre of early twentieth century 291, 294, 295, 296

democratic era stagings of 398, 400, 411, 416

directorial stagings of 432, 433, 435, 440, 446

under Franco 342

Mayorga, Juan, on 478

modernism and avant-garde 271, 279, 280

Pasqual, Lluís, on 466

radical dramaturgy of 433

Spanish American theatre and 332

Valledor, Jacinto 197

Vallés, Ana 424

Vallés, José 202

Vallmitjana, Juli 267

Valverde, Joaquín 5, 193, 203

Varey, John E. 129

Vargas, Luis de 294, 297

Vasco, Eduardo 397, 450

Vega, Garcilaso de la 45

Vega, Ricardo de la 203

Vega, Ventura de la 178, 214, 428

Vega Carpio, Lope Félix de (Lope de Vega) 36–49.

on actors and acting 107, 110, 111

audience, constitution of 49

autos sacramentales and 67, 70

corral stage 37, 38, 40, 41, 49, 53

dramatic legacy, concern for 52

eighteenth century

critique of Lope de Vega in 134–135, 158

performance and playwriting, effect on 8

emergence of comedia or comedia nueva and 37, 39

experience of contemporary theatre influencing 36–39

literary sources, use of 39–40

Mayorga, Juan, on 478

modern interest in 299, 306, 319, 436

non-dramatic writings of 39

palace plays 72, 73, 86, 89, 91, 92, 95, 96

Pasqual, Lluís, on 466

political content and import of works of 62–66, 78

polymetry 45–46

on scenery and staging technology 92, 96

society, critical engagement with 46–47

Spanish America and 328

specific acting troupes and actors, works composed for 47–49

spectacle, criticism of 53

three acts, division into 41

traditional academic focus on 3

tragic and comic elements, mixture of 42–43

See under specific works

Vela, Eusebio 329

Vela, Joaquín 292, 295

Velázquez, Fausto 418

Velázquez, Jerónimo 87

Vélez de Guevara, Juan 50, 67, 101

Vélez de Guevara, Luis 48, 50, 51, 66, 73, 94, 306

El vellocino de oro (The Golden Fleece, Lope de Vega, 1622) 73, 95

Els vells (The Old Folk, Iglésies, 1904) 273

Vendrell, Santiago 360

Vera, Gerardo 400, 448

Vera Tassis y Villarroel, Juan 71

La verbena de la Paloma (The Fiesta of the Paloma, Bretón, 1894 [filmed 1921, 1935]) 203, 207, 209

verisimilitude, as eighteenth-century aesthetic 158

Veronese, Daniel 340

verse forms used in Golden Age 45–46, 53, 115

Vert, Joan 207

El viaje entretenido (Entertaining Voyage, Rojas, 1604) 104

Vicente, Gil 40, 82

Vico, Antonio 119, 180–182, 184, 185, 330, 441

La vida es sueño (Life is a Dream, Calderón de la Barca, 1635) 52, 450, 478

Vidal, Albert 191

Vidaurre, Antonio 153

El viejo y la niña (o el casamiento desigual) (The Old Man and the Girl, or the Unequal Marriage, Moratín, 1790) 167, 168, 170

Vilalta, Maruxa 336

Vilar, Jean 442

Vilaró i Guillemí, Ramon 270

Vilches, Ernest 296, 330, 336

Villalaín, Damián 423

Villamediana, Don Juan de Tassis y Peralta, Count of 72, 86, 88

Villar Ponte, Ramón and Antón 421

Villegas, Amparo 336, 337

Villegas, Esteban Manuel de 135

Villegas, Juan 325, 328

Virginia (Montiano, 1750) 159

Virués, Cristóbal de 38, 41

Vitaliani, Italia 269

Vives, Amadeo 204, 207, 208, 297

volatines or acrobats 130

Voltaire 166

von Schack, Friedrich 20

War of Independence 171

War of Spanish Succession (1702), effects of 120–121, 123

Wassbaugh, William 378, 382

Weiss, Julian 34

Wilder, Billy 468

women and Spanish theatre

in Golden Age 48, 52, 59

in eighteenth century 9, 125, 151

in nineteenth century 10, 182, 213, 233

in early twentieth century 291, 303

flamenco 386

in modern Galicia 424

World War II 351

Worthen, W. B. 4

Wright, Elizabeth 89

Xirgu, Margarita 11, 184–185

commercial and alternative theatre in Spain 294, 296, 303

directors, work with 432

Espert, Nuria, on 453

modernism and avant-garde 270–271, 272, 276

in Spanish America 271, 330, 332–334, 335, 342

Spanish Civil War and 187

‘La Yerbabuena’ (Eva Garrido) 387

Yerma (Lorca, 1934) 298, 332, 362, 368, 433, 443, 454–455, 475

Yorick (periodical) 188

Yxart, Josep 269, 279

Zacconi, Ermete 269

Zamora, Antonio de 101, 132, 133

Zamora, José 304

Zamora Vicente, Alonso 279

zanni 130

La zapatera prodigiosa (The Shoemaker's Prodigious Wife, Lorca, 1923–30) 299

La Zaranda 447

Zárate, Fernando de 131, 144

Zarzoso, Paco 412

zarzuela 12, 193–210

bufos 202

of Calderón de la Barca and Hidalgo 195

in Catalan 204

costs and financing of 195, 196, 197, 198, 202, 206

defined 193

erotic versions of 206

filmed versions 207

French opéra-comique and operettas, influence of 199, 202, 206

género chico 202–207

género ínfimo 206

as Golden Age palace plays 99–102

historical path of 195

Italian opera, influence of 195, 199

nineteenth-century efflorescence of 198–205

origins and etymology 99, 195

popular success versus cultural prejudice against 194–195, 196–198

as popular theatre in eighteenth-century Spain 155

regional versions of 203

social significance of 194, 196

Spanish American theatre and 329, 331

Teatro de la Zarzuela 200–201, 208, 216, 275

in twentieth century 206, 307

Zatlin, Phyllis 337

Zavala y Zamora, Gaspar 146, 165, 166, 167

Zeglirscosac, Fermín Eduardo 175, 427

Zeno, Apostolo 153

Zorrilla, José 3, 177, 233, 238, 249, 354, 403

Zuckerman-Ingberg, Alix 64

Zuloaga, Ignacio 379

Zurro, Alfonso 418




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