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China's Security State

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China's Security State
Cambridge University Press
9781107023239 - China's Security State - Philosophy, Evolution, and Politics - By Xuezhi Guo
Frontmatter/Prelims

China's Security State: Philosophy, Evolution, and Politics

China's Security State describes the creation, evolution, and development of Chinese security and intelligence agencies as well as their role in influencing Chinese Communist Party politics throughout the party's history. Xuezhi Guo investigates patterns of leadership politics from the vantage point of security and intelligence organization and operation by providing new evidence and offering alternative interpretations of major events throughout Chinese Communist Party history. This analysis promotes a better understanding of the CCP's mechanisms for control over both party members and the general population. This study specifies some of the broader implications for theory and research that can help clarify the nature of Chinese politics and potential future developments in the country's security and intelligence services.

Xuezhi Guo is Professor of Political Science and East Asian Studies at Guilford College.


China's Security State

Philosophy, Evolution, and Politics

Xuezhi Guo

Guilford College, Greensboro, North Carolina


Cambride University Press
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Cambridge University Press
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www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107023239
© Xuezhi Guo 2012

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2012

Printed in the United States of America

A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library.

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication data

Guo, Xuezhi, 1956–
China's security state : philosophy, evolution, and politics / Xuezhi Guo.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-107-02323-9 (hardback)
1. National security – China – History. 2. Intelligence service – China – History. 3. Police – China – History. 4. Zhongguo gong chan dang – History. I. Title.
JQ1509.5.I6G86 2012
355ʹ.033051–dc23 2012002710

ISBN 978-1-107-02323-9 Hardback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party Internet Web sites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.


To my father


Contents

Acknowledgments
xi
Abbreviations
xiii
Introduction
1
Evolution and Features
5
Mechanisms of the CCP Security and Intelligence Apparatuses
11
Security and Intelligence Apparatuses and CCP Elite Politics
14
Methodology and Organization of the Study
20
1.      Historical Evolution of Public Security Organizations
25
Committee for Eliminating Counterrevolutionaries
27
State Political Security Bureau
34
Department of Eliminating Traitors, Spies, and Trotskyites
46
Bureau of Public Security
55
The CCP Police Forces in the 1940s Civil War
60
2.      From the Social Affairs Department to Ministry of Public Security
64
Legacy of the Social Affairs Department
66
Ministry of Public Security and the CCP's Elite Politics
71
Ministry of Public Security in the Cultural Revolution
77
Ministry of Public Security in the Reform Era
89
The Judicial System in Transition
99
3.      Leading Central Security Agency: Central Guard Bureau
106
Features, Operations, and Mechanism
108
Politics of the MPS Ninth Bureau
113
Central Guard Bureau under Dual Leadership
121
The Central Security Services and the Role of Wang Dongxing
124
The Central Guard Bureau in the Post-Mao Era
133
4.      Elite Security Force: Central Guard Regiment
138
From Central Guard Brigade to Central Guard Regiment
140
Development toward Professionalism in the Early 1950s
147
The Reorganization of the Central Guard Regiment
152
Development toward a Personal Security Force in the Early 1960s
158
Reorganizing the Security Apparatus on the Eve of the Cultural Revolution
163
Leadership Security and Politics in the Zhongnanhai
170
Elite Security Apparatus under Post-Mao Leadership
175
5.      Armed Police and Their Historical Role in CCP Politics
185
Chinese People's Public Security Forces, 1949–1950
188
People's Liberation Army Public Security Forces, 1950–1955
190
The PLA Public Security Army, 1955–1957
197
The PLA Public Security Force, 1957–1958
199
From People's Armed Police to People's Public Security Forces, 1958–1966
204
Merger with the People's Liberation Army, 1966–1982
207
6.      People's Armed Police in the Reform Era
221
Toward Transition: From Mao Zedong to Deng Xiaoping
223
Emergence of the People's Armed Police
227
Features and Functions of the PAP
229
Dilemma of Dual Leadership
235
The PAP and Local Politics
240
The Role of the PAP in Maintaining Social Stability
243
The PAP and Post-Deng Leadership Politics
250
7.      Garrison Commands
256
Historic Evolution of Garrison Commands
258
Garrison Commands in the Reform Era
263
Institutional Guarantee of Civilian Control over the Military
270
Rise of Garrison Commands in the New Millennium
272
Beijing Garrison Command in the Early 1960s
278
Beijing Garrison Command in the Cultural Revolution
281
Beijing Garrison Command in the Post-Mao Era
292
8.      CCP Intelligence Agencies and Services in the Revolutionary Era
300
Establishment of the Special Services Division
302
Intelligence Cell of the Special Services Division
308
Political Security Department and State Political Security Bureau
311
CCP Intelligence under Two Politburos
318
CCP Intelligence under the Social Affairs Department
329
CCP Intelligence and Espionage Services in the Civil War
339
9.      The Intelligence Apparatus and Services under the People's Republic of China
342
Establishment of the Central Investigation Department
343
Dismissals of Pan Hannian and Yang Fan
345
Central Investigation Department in Elite Politics
353
Ministry of State Security
363
Intelligence Organizations of the People's Liberation Army
368
10.     The PLA, Security Services, and Elite Politics
374
The Security Department under the PLA General Political Department
378
Guard Bureau of the CMC General Office
379
Leadership Security in the Capital City
385
Beijing Military Region and Security in the Capital
392
The 38th Army Corps under Mao
401
The 38th Army Corps or Group Army in the Reform Era
409
The PLA in the Era of Reform and Beyond: Professionalism versus Politicization
412
Conclusion
418
Toward Professionalism and Institutionalization
419
Security and Intelligence Organizations under Personalistic Politics
423
Security and Intelligence Services in the PLA
426
Dual Leadership, Civilian Rule, and Security Apparatuses
434
Legacy, Development, and Reform in the Post-Mao Era
437
Interpretation of Perspectives and Patterns
441
Bibliography
447
Index
471




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