Cambridge Catalogue  
  • Help
Home > Catalogue > Argumentation Schemes
Argumentation Schemes

Details

  • 37 b/w illus. 21 tables
  • Page extent: 0 pages

Adobe eBook Reader

 (ISBN-13: 9781316040607)

Argumentation Schemes
Cambridge University Press
9780521897907 - Argumentation Schemes - By Douglas Walton, Chris Reed and Fabrizio Macagno
Table of Contents

Contents

Acknowledgments
xi
Introduction
1
1       Basic Tools in the State of the Art
7
1       Introducing Argumentation Schemes
8
2       Argument from Position to Know and Expert Opinion
13
3       Critical Questions
15
4       Enthymemes, Schemes, and Critical Questions
18
5       Argument Diagramming Tools
21
6       Introducing Araucaria
24
7       Problems to be Solved
30
8       How Are Schemes Binding?
34
9       Directions for AI
38
10      Where We Go from Here
40
2       Schemes for Argument from Analogy, Classification, and Precedent
43
1       The Case of the Drug-Sniffing Dog
45
2       Argument from Analogy as Treated in Logic Textbooks
48
3       Is Argument from Analogy Deductive or Inductive?
53
4       The Schemes for Argument from Analogy
55
5       Argument from Analogy as a Defeasible Form of Argument
60
6       Arguments from Classification
66
7       Arguments Based on Rules and Classifications
70
8       Argument from Precedent and Practical Argument from Analogy
72
9       The Case of the Drug-Sniffing Dog Again
75
10      Conclusions
80
3       Knowledge-Related, Practical, and Other Schemes
87
1       Arguments from Knowledge
87
2       Practical Reasoning
94
3       Lack-of-Knowledge Arguments
98
4       Arguments from Consequences
100
5       Fear and Danger Appeals
102
6       Arguments from Alternatives and Opposites
106
7       Pleas for Help and Excuses
108
8       Composition and Division Arguments
112
9       Slippery Slope Arguments
114
10      Attacking Verbal Classification and Slippery Slope Arguments
117
4       Arguments from Generally Accepted Opinions, Commitment, and Character
121
1       Arguments from Popular Opinion
122
2       Variants of the Basic Form
124
3       Argument from Commitment
132
4       Arguments from Inconsistency
136
5       Ethotic Arguments
140
6       Circumstantial Ad Hominem
147
7       Argument from Bias
154
8       Ad Hominem Strategies to Rebut a Personal Attack
160
5       Causal Argumentation Schemes
163
1       The Problem of Causation
164
2       Argument from Cause to Effect
168
3       Argument from Effect to Cause
169
4       Argument from Correlation to Cause
173
5       Cases in Point
175
6       Causal Argumentation at Stages of an Investigation
178
7       Causal Assertions as Defeasible
181
8       Toward a System of Analysis and Classification
184
9       Dialectical and Bayesian Models of Causal Argumentation
186
6       Schemes and Enthymemes
189
1       Introduction
190
2       Preliminary Discussion of the Problem
191
3       A Deductive Case
194
4       Limitations of Deductive Analysis
196
5       Use of Argumentation Schemes in Analysis
199
6       Use of Schemes in Analyzing Weak Arguments
202
7       Limitations of Schemes
206
8       Discussion of Cases
210
9       The Attribution Problem
213
10      The Dialectical Component of the Enthymeme Machine
216
7       Attack, Rebuttal, and Refutation
220
1       Attacking, Questioning, Rebutting, and Refuting
221
2       Older Theories of Refutation
230
3       Newer Theories of Refutation
238
4       Argumentation Schemes and Critical Questions
243
6       Different Kinds of Opposition
251
8       A Case Study of Combined Rebuttals
263
9       The Problem of Argument from Opposites
267
10      Problems about Critical Questions and Refutations
271
8       The History of Schemes
275
1       Aristotle on the Topics
276
2       Cicero
282
3       Boethius
284
4       From Abelard to the Thirteenth Century
289
5       Fourteenth-Century Logic
294
6       Topics in the Renaissance and the Port Royal Logic
296
7       Modern Theories of Schemes
300
8       Conclusions
304
9       A User's Compendium of Schemes
308
1       Argument from Position to Know
309
2       Argument from Expert Opinion
310
3       Argument from Witness Testimony
310
4       Argument from Popular Opinion (and Subtypes)
311
5       Argument from Popular Practice
314
6       Argument from Example
314
7       Argument from Analogy
315
8       Practical Reasoning from Analogy
316
9       Argument from Composition
316
10      Argument from Division
317
11      Argument from Oppositions
317
12      Rhetorical Argument from Oppositions
318
13      Argument from Alternatives
318
14      Argument from Verbal Classification
319
15      Argument from Definition to Verbal Classification
319
16      Argument from Vagueness of a Verbal Classification
320
17      Argument from Arbitrariness of a Verbal Classification
320
18      Argument from Interaction of Act and Person
321
19      Argument from Values
321
20      Argument from Sacrifice
322
21      Argument from the Group and Its Members
322
22      Practical Reasoning
323
23      Two-Person Practical Reasoning
325
24      Argument from Waste
326
25      Argument from Sunk Costs
326
26      Argument from Ignorance
327
27      Epistemic Argument from Ignorance
328
28      Argument from Cause to Effect
328
29      Argument from Correlation to Cause
328
30      Argument from Sign
329
31      Abductive Argumentation Scheme
329
32      Argument from Evidence to a Hypothesis
331
33      Argument from Consequences
332
34      Pragmatic Argument from Alternatives
333
35      Argument from Threat
333
36      Argument from Fear Appeal
333
37      Argument from Danger Appeal
334
38      Argument from Need for Help
334
39      Argument from Distress
334
40      Argument from Commitment
335
41      Ethotic Argument
336
42      Generic Ad Hominem
336
43      Pragmatic Inconsistency
336
44      Argument from Inconsistent Commitment
337
45      Circumstantial Ad Hominem
337
46      Argument from Bias
338
47      Bias Ad Hominem
338
48      Argument from Gradualism
339
49      Slippery Slope Argument
339
50      Precedent Slippery Slope Argument
340
51      Sorites Slippery Slope Argument
340
52      Verbal Slippery Slope Argument
341
53      Full Slippery Slope Argument
341
54      Argument for Constitutive-Rule Claims
342
55      Argument from Rules
343
56      Argument for an Exceptional Case
344
57      Argument from Precedent
344
58      Argument from Plea for Excuse
345
59      Argument from Perception
345
60      Argument from Memory
346
10      Refining the Classification of Schemes
347
1       A Proposed General System for Classification of Schemes
348
2       Classification of Ad Hominem Schemes
351
3       Classifying the Subtypes of Ad Hominem Arguments
357
4       Complications
360
5       Conclusions
362
11      Formalizing Schemes
364
1       The Defeasible Modus Ponens Form of Schemes
364
2       Schemes in AML
367
3       Elements of a Formalization of Schemes
369
4       Formalization of Schemes in the Carneades System
371
5       Formally Modeling the Critical Questions
373
6       The Argument Interchange Format
375
7       The Research Project for Developing a Formal System
378
8       Schemes in Dialogue
382
9       Summary of the Dialectical System ASD
388
10      A Worked Example of a Dialogue in ASD
389
11      Conclusions
392
12      Schemes in Computer Systems
393
1       Schemes in Araucaria
393
2       Schemes in ArguMed
397
3       Schemes in Compendium
400
4       Schemes in Rationale
400
5       Schemes in Natural Language Argumentation
405
6       Schemes in Interagent Communication
408
7       Schemes in Automated Reasoning
411
8       Schemes in Computational Applications
412
9       Conclusions
414
Bibliography
417
Index
431



© Cambridge University Press
printer iconPrinter friendly version AddThis