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The Cambridge History of Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century (1790–1870)

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The Cambridge History of Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century (1790–1870)
Cambridge University Press
9780521772730 - The Cambridge History of Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century (1790–1870) - Edited by Allen W. Wood and Songsuk Susan Hahn
Index

Index

Abel, J. F. 246

Abernathy, John 210

Absolute 33–5, 189

and Fichte 35

and Hegel 35, 73, 301

and Schelling 35, 178–9

See under judgment, absolute, Paradox, Absolute

See also knowledge, absolute, spirit, Absolute

absolutism, enlightened 605

abstraction, logical (Venn) 108–9

acoustics 241

act (Tathandlung, Fichte) 70

action, good (Kant) 388

act/object (Lotze) 113

Adam, Juliette 13

Adams, John Couch 222

Adamson, Robert 96, 118

adaptation 211

Addison, Joseph 323

Addresses to the German Nation (Fichte) 715–18

Adorno, Theodor 493

advantage, theory of competitive (Ricardo) 685–8

Aesthetics (Hegel) 264

See also aesthetics, and Hegel.

aesthetics/art 8–9, 323–82

and absolute knowing (Hegel) 366

and Alison 338–44

and Coleridge 360–1

construction and content of (Schelling) 359

and Emerson 361–2

and Hegel 363–70

and Heydenreich 338–44

and historicism 820

and Kant 326–38

and Mill 376–82

as “organon” of philosophy (Schelling) 355–6

and Ruskin 376–82

and Schelling 352–63

and Schiller 344–52

and Schopenhauer 370–5

Aeterni Patris (Pope Leo XIII) 570–1

affect 760, 765–9

affinity, chemical (Moleschott) 190

Agassiz, Louis 218

agency 7

autonomous (Kant) 390

agnosticism

and Hamilton 581

and Huxley 536

and Mansel 581

Aids to Reflection (Coleridge) 574–5

algebra 134, 147–55

arithmetical and symbolic (Peacock) 107

as generalized arithmetic 147–8

of inequalities (Cauchy) 158

symbolic

and De Morgan 152–4

and Gregory 107–8

and Peacock 151

See also mathematics

alienation

and Marx 457, 460

and Schiller 348–9

and Smith 681

Alison, Archibald 324, 338–44, 765

Allgemaine Literatur Zeitung 52

allgemeinen Zusammenhange (“general nexus,” Humboldt) 803

allgemeinen Zusammenhanges (“general connectiveness,” Ranke) 806

altruism (Comte) 443

“American Scholar, The” (Emerson) 568

analysis 134

“arithematized,” 155–63

Analysis of the Influence of Natural Religion on the Temporal Happiness of Mankind (Bentham) 528

Analyst, The (Berkeley) 157

“Analytic of the Beautiful” (Kant) 329–31, 338

Anarchial Fallacies (Bentham) 633

anarchy

and Godwin 617–18

and Proudhon 783

Anatomie générale (Bichat) 208

anatomy, comparative 204, 207

Anaximander 879

“ancients,” the

and Nietzsche 897

and Schleiermacher 878–80

animals 185, 214, 219, 227, 243, 245, 311, 419, 444n11, 471–2, 515, 538, 589, 702, 833, 858, 900–1

and Darwin 219

devoid of feeling or sentience 243

devoid of rationality 419, 435, 589, 900–1

and Nietzsche 89n67

See also biology, sciences, natural

Annales de philosophie chrétienne 572, 591

Another Philosophy of History for the Education of Mankind (Herder) 823–4

“Answer to the Question: What Is Enlightenment?” (Kant) 51

Antaeus: A Correspondence about Speculative Philosophy in Its Conflict with Science and Language (Gruppe) 277, 893

anthropology 246

and Hegel 299

and Kant 708–9

philosophical 707–9

pragmatic (Kant) 100, 297–9, 328–9, 707–8, 760, 830

antimoralism 491–517

and content critique 493

and formal/structural critique 493

and Hegel 497–9

and Kant 492

and Marx 503–6

and Nietzsche 278, 423–9, 491, 507–15, 894–6, 895–7

and Sade 491–4

scope limitation of 492

and Stirner 497–503

“Antinomy of Pure Reason” (Kant) 353

Apologia pro Vita Sua (Newman) 529

Apology (Plato) 896

Appeal to the Slavs (Bakunin) 784

appearances, and Kant 25, 27, 31, 39, 99, 172, 368, 441

See also noumena

Aquinas, Thomas 901

Arcades Project, The (Benjamin) 766, 770, 788

Arendt, Hannah 649

aretê (“virtue”) 272n12

Aristotle 223, 874–5, 884–5, 891, 894–5

Aristotle’s Criticism of Presocratic Philosophy (Cherniss) 875

arithmetic.

and empiricism 144

and logic

and Boole 126–7

and De Morgan 95, 105–7, 121–4, 126, 152–3, 169–70

and Euler 126

and Frege 109, 120–1, 125–7, 133, 141–2, 155, 284n32

and Hamilton 126

and Jevons 127

and Lotze 109–13, 118, 127, 487

and Mansel 126

and Schleiermacher 126

and Venn 127

See also mathematics

Arnauld, Antoine 114–15

Arouet, François Marie.

See Voltaire

asceticism, and Nietzsche 515–19

associationism, analytical 242

atheism, and Marx 457

Atheismusstreit 552–3

Athenaeum Fragments (Schlegel) 270

Athenäum 2

Attempt at a Critique of All Revelation (Fichte) 552

Aufklärung 588, 604–8, 638

Augustine, Saint 591

autonomy

and Fichte 399–405

and Hegel 409–17

and Kant 392–9, 430, 714

moral (Kant) 547

and morality 387–431

and Nietzsche 423–30

and Schiller 405–9

and Schopenhauer 418–21

and Stirner 501

Baader, Franz, von 185, 225

Bacon, Francis 310–11, 891, 893–4

Baden-Powell, Robert 535

Baer, Karl Ernst von 208, 211, 213–14

Bain, Alexander 242, 258–9

Bakunin, Michael 13, 57, 783–6, 797

and Proudhon 783

Bartels, Johann Christian Martin 138–9

Barth, Karl 581

Batteaux, Charles 380

Baumgarten, Alexander 323, 326, 328, 332–3

Baumgarten, Sigmund 98, 820

Baur, Ferdinand Christian 536, 585–6

and Strauss 585

Bautain, Louis 572, 590–1

Bazard, Saint-Amand 772

Beattie, James 20, 296–7

beauty

adherent and artistic (Kant) 331

and Alison 340–3

and Batteaux 380

and Baumgarten 345

and Burke 327, 345

and Coleridge 360

and Emerson 362–3

and Herder 336–8

and Hume 328

and Hutcheson 327

and Kant 323–39, 331, 343–6, 351, 354, 359, 362–3, 369, 381

and Mendelssohn 345

and Moritz 339

and Schelling 363

and Schiller 345–52

and Schopenhauer 371–4

“tensing and melting” (Schiller) 350–1

“Beauty of the Human Countenance and Form” (Alison) 342

Beauvoir, Simone de 46, 493

Becoming (Heraclitus) 867

Begriffsschrift (Frege) 120, 125, 288

Behler, E. 295–6

Being (Eleatics) 867, 894

Beiser, Frederick C. 12

belief

and Jacobi 589

and Locke 594–6

and Newman 594–6

Belief and Knowledge (Hegel) 35

Bell, Charles 207

Beltrami, Eugenio 139

Beneke, Friedrich Eduard 3, 8, 111, 252

benevolence.

and Kant 744n75

and Sidgwick 745n85

See also “living for others,”

Benjamin, Walter 766, 770

Benner, Erica 13

Bennett, Jonathan 901

Bentham, Jeremy 8–9, 12, 434, 436, 451, 615–16

and James Mill 617

Bergson, Henri 228, 231

Berkeley, George 155–7, 244, 248

Berlin, Isaiah 840

Berlin, University of 52–9, 796, 798–9, 809–10

and Fichte 53

and Hegel 53

and Schelling 56–7

See also philosophy, and universities

Berlinisches Monatsschrift 610

Bernal, Martin 876–7

Bernard, Claude 201, 207, 209

Beyond Good and Evil (Nietzsche) 278, 894–6

Bhagavad-Gita 875–6

“Bibliolatry” (Paley and Lessing) 574

Bichat, Xavier 204, 206–9

Biedermann, Emanuel 585

and Hegel 586

and Strauss 585

Biographia Literaria (Coleridge) 360–1, 558, 566, 618

Biographical History of Philosophy from Its Origins in Greece Down to the Present Day (Lewes) 891

biologia (Hanov) 243

biology 6, 170, 201–13, 217, 220, 225, 243–4, 294–5, 530–1, 670, 856

See also life

“biopower” (Foucault) 769

Birth of Tragedy, The (Nietzsche) 46, 279, 875

Black Athena (Bernal) 876–7

Blair, Hugh 823

Blanqui, Louis-Auguste 786–9

and Nietzsche 788

Blondel, Maurice 591

Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich 3, 206, 211

Bodin, J. 797

Bodmer, J. J. 327

Boeckh, August 270, 801, 803–4, 881

and Droysen 305

and Schleiermacher 321

Boerne, Ludwig 851

Böhme, Jakob 11

Bois-Reymond, Emil du 7

Boltzmann, Ludwig 6, 221

Bolvai, János 4, 136, 138–9

Bolzano, Bernard 4–5, 134, 156, 158–61

Bonald, Louis Gabriel Ambroise 4, 11, 572–3, 854

Bonnet, Charles 247–8

Bonnetty, Augustin 572

Boole, George 4, 107–9

Bopp, Franz 277, 295

Bosanquet, Bernard 621, 639

Bounds of Sense, The (Strawson) 32

bourgeoisie 779, 861–3

See also capitalism, class, labor, production, proletariat

Bradley, Francis Herbert 9, 195, 461

Brahmanism 538

Brandes, Georg 604

Brandis, C. A. 872, 880–1, 886

Brandom, Robert 39–40

Brandt, Reinhard 828

Breitinger, J. J. 327

Brentano, Franz 260

Broad, C. D. 195

Brouwer, Luitzen Egbertus Jan 133

Brown, John 6

Brown, Thomas 242, 258–9

Brücke, Ernst 254

Brucker, Johann Jacob 866, 868

Brudney, Daniel 13

Bruno (Schelling) 565

Büchner, Ludwig 6, 188–9, 851

Buddhism 538–9

and Nietzsche 541

Theravada 521

Buffon, Georges-Louis Leclerc, comte de 204, 215, 827, 830

Burckhardt, Jacob 534

Burdach, Karl Friedrich 204

Burke, Edmund 4, 11–12, 332, 620, 763

Cabanis, Jean Louis 5–6, 8, 226, 245

calcalus 155–8

ratiocinator (Leibniz) 125

Calinich, Ernst 295–6

Calvinism 570

cameralism 50

Camper, Peter 207

Camus, Albert 46

Candide (Voltaire) 787

canon, and Kant 110n108

Cantor, Georg 156

Capital (Marx) 504, 663, 690

capitalism 761, 867

and Hegel 761

and Marx 682, 688, 690–4, 780–1

See also class, labor, production, proletariat

Cardozo, Benjamin 642

Carlsbad decrees 523–4

Carlyle, Thomas 11, 13, 637

Carnot, Sari 223, 854

Carpenter, William 259

Cassirer, Ernst 8, 14, 798, 804

Cattaneo, Carlo 14

Cauchy, Augustin-Louis 5, 155–9

causality 25, 211

and Jacobi 81–3

and Kant 547n10

and Mill 313

cell theory 208–9

change.

progressive 13

social 13, 760–9

See also progress

Channing, William Ellery 11

character, and Mill 313–15

characteristics

and Schlegel 882–3

“universal” (Leibniz) 124–5

Characteristics (Earl of Shaftesbury) 323

Characteristics of the Present Age (Fichte) 442

characterization, and Kant 298

Chasseboeuf, Constantin François de 8

Chateaubriand, François-René, vicomte de 572

Cherniss, Harold 875

Chernyshevsky, Nikolai 784

Chladenius, J. M. 808, 811

chlôros 271n11

Chomsky, Noam 900

“Christian Comprehensiveness” (Bushnell) 576

Christian Faith, The (Schleiermacher) 561

Christianity 521–2, 553

and Baur 585

and Biedermann 585

and Chateaubriand 577

“common,” 541–2

and Drey 578–80

and Eichhorn 578

and George Eliot 541–2

ideological function of (Marx) 898, 900n52

as Jewish religion personified 525–6

and Kant 551–2

and Kierkegaard 84–6

and liberalism 529–31

and Mill 10

and Newman 578

and Nietzsche 510

and Schleiermacher 553–5

and Schopenhauer 537–9

secular alternatives to 851

and social stability 469

and Strauss 532–3, 541–2, 578

as symbolic Absolute Truth (Hegel) 522

task of philosopher of 469–70

and transcendental philosophy 567

and Wette 578

See also monotheism, religion

Civilization and Its Discontents (Freud) 513

class

and economics 680

and Marx 779–82

Clifford, William Kingdon 535

Closed Commercial State (Fichte) 716

Cobban, Alfred 612

Coffa, J. Alberto 139

cognitio historica 830

cognition

metaphysical 1

and Schelling 354

Cohen, H. 252

coherence, and history (Humboldt) 802–3

Colebrook, George 875

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor 325, 434, 523, 573–5, 620–1

and Alison 360

and Bentham 591

and Burke 619

and Fichte 566

and Hartley 619

and Hutcheson 360

and Jacobi 566

and Kant 566

and Paine 619

and Plotinus 566

and Schelling 359–60, 566

and Schleiermacher 558

and Wordsworth 566

Collingwood, C. 803

communism 500–1

and Marx 507

Communist Manifesto, The (Marx) 506–7, 779, 786, 860

communitarianism 500

community 12–13, 443–51

and Hegel 302

and Marx 302–3

See also nationalism, society

compassion

as enlightened egoism (Schopenhauer) 422

and Janaway 423n145

and morality (Schopenhauer) 418–23

and Schopenhauer 423n145

complexification (Lamarck) 217

Comte, Auguste 3, 6, 10, 12, 14, 201, 208–9, 311–12, 434, 474–5, 853–6, 890

and Destutt de Tracy 669

and Durkheim 670

and Hegel 670

and Mill 739n46

and Montesquieu 670

and Rousseau 670

and Saint-Simon 854–5

concept 263

boundaries of 289

and Frege 113, 117, 119

and Hegel 38n58, 41n64, 76n41, 118

and Herbart 113

and intuition 42–3

and Kant 38, 117, 333

and Lotze 118

purposive (Fichte) 400

and Sigwart 119

transcendental (Kant) 43

and Trendelenburg 118

conceptualism, and Mill 113n134

Concluding Unscientific Postscript (Kierkegaard) 583, 585

Condillac, Ètienne Bonnot de 8, 245, 249, 571, 890

Condorcet, Jean Antoine de 14, 762, 765, 818–19, 854, 890

conduct, moral.

See ethics

Conduct of Life, The (Emerson) 361–2

Confessions (Bakunin) 783, 784

Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit (Coleridge) 575

“Conflict of the Faculties, The” (Kant) 47, 760

conscience

formal and truthful (Hegel) 486

as infallible

and Fichte 481

and Kant 483

and Lotze 487–8

and Lutheranism 445

and Nietzsche 516

and Stirner 501

consciousness 889

and Dilthey 317

and Kant 482–3

and Reinhold 69, 100

and representation (Kant) 25

and Schelling 354

unity of 26n21

conservatism, defined 604

Considérant, Victor 769, 775–6

consilience (Whewell) 231

Constitution (United States)

Fourteenth Amendment to 646n74

Ninth Amendment to 646n74

constructivism 392–5, 395n25

See also normativity, constructivist

Contemplation of the Destiny of Man (Spalding) 822

content, objective 39–40

context principle 289

contradiction 99–100, 103, 123

Contrat Social (Rousseau) 700

Contributions to a Critique of Language (Mauthner) 280, 894

conviction, ethics of (Fries) 483–4

and Hegel 485

copula (De Morgan) 122

Corn Laws 685–6

corporations

and Hegel 660–1

and Kant 711

correlation thesis 435–8

See also good, social

Correns, Carl Erich 221

Cournot, Antoine Augustin 3

Cours de philosophie positive (Comte) 311, 857, 890

Cousin, Victor 4, 55, 868, 880

and Comte 474

and Saint-Simon 474

Crites, Stephen 11

criticism, and Droysen 307

“Critique of Hegel’s Dialectic and General Philosophy” (Marx) 303

Critique of Hegel’s “Philosophy of Right” (Marx) 898

Critique of Practical Reason (Kant) 19, 21–2, 64, 216, 297, 323, 326, 329–30, 586–7, 609–10, 866, 872, 893, 898

Critique of Pure Reason (Kant) 546–7

Critique of the Power of Judgment (Kant) 1–2, 8, 35, 48, 174, 204–6, 211, 217, 224–5, 294, 321, 323–4, 326, 329, 334, 336

Croce, Bernard 803

cruelty, and Sade 496

culture 7–9

Culture and Imperialism (Said) 3

Cuvier, Georges 208–9, 212, 214–15, 294–5

Czolbe, Heinrich 6, 188, 191

d’Alembert, Jean Le Rond 202

Danto, Arthur 368

Darwin, Charles 6, 202, 213–20, 534–5

Darwin, Erasmus 213, 243, 248

Darwinism 6–7, 11

Social 9

and Spencer 672–4

Daubenton, Louis-Jean-Marie 207

Davidson, Donald 900–1

De Anima (Aristotle) 886

de Gouges, Olympe (Marie Gouze) 13, 761–3

De l’Allemagne (On Germany, Heine) 773

de Maillet, Benoît 213

de Maistre, Joseph 4, 11

De Morgan, Augustus 4, 95, 105–7, 121–4, 126, 152–4, 169–70

de Vries, Hugo 221

de Waal, Frans 901

Déclaration des droits de la femme de la citoyenne (Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen, de Gouges) 762

Déclaration des droits de l’homme et du citoyen (Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen) 615–16, 623, 634, 762

Dedekind, Richard 5, 133, 156, 161–2

“Dedekind cuts,” 162

deductibility (Bolzano) 124

deduction 230

metaphysical (Kant) 100

transcendental (Kant) 329

Degerando, Marie-Joseph 8

Dei Filius (First Vatican Council) 591

d’Eichthal, Gustave 854

deism 10

Démar, Claire 13, 767–9

and Enfantin 768

democracy 635–6

See also society

Democracy in America (Tocqueville) 445, 666–9

Démocratie pacifique, La (The Peaceful Democracy) 775

Denkmäler 306–7

“derivative” (Cauchy) 158–9

Désassarts, Perret 768

Descartes, René 5, 202, 244, 248–9, 867, 894, 901

Descent of Man, The (Darwin) 219

desire 462, 765–9

Destutt de Tracy, Antoine Louis Claude 8, 12, 245–6, 310, 898–9

determinability 100

determinism 229–31

causal, and Kant 399

Deussen, Paul 3

Deutsche Jahrbücher 524

Developmental History of the Most Recent German Philosophy (Michelet) 868

Dewey, John 9, 261

d’Holbach, Paul-Henri Thiry, baron 169

Dial, The (Emerson) 567

Dialektic (Schleiermacher) 110

Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (Hume) 522

Dickey, Laurence 14

Dictionary of Philosophy (Mauthner) 280, 894

Dictionnaire de medicine (Littré and Robin) 210

Diderot, Denis 202, 209, 226, 491

Diemer, A. 295

Dierse, U. 296

Difference Between the Fichtean and Schellingian Systems of Philosophy, The (Hegel) 888

Differential and Integral Calculus (De Morgan) 152

Dilthey, Wilhelm 24, 201, 220, 305, 320–2, 606, 794–5, 801, 804, 822, 882, 890, 895

and Boeckh 321

and Comte 318, 320–1

and Droysen 321, 809

and Hegel 314–17, 321

and Humboldt 321, 799, 812–13

and Kant 320–1

and Mill 318

and Müller 812–13

and Nietzsche 890–3

and Ranke 321, 811

and Weber 811

diminishing returns, principle of (Malthus) 684–5

Diogenes of Apollonia 879

discourse, “natural,” 202

Discourse on the Love of Country (Price) 615

disjunction, and Boole and Jevon 109n100

dissatisfaction, social 760–89

distinguishability thesis 44

Diversity of Human Language-Structure and Its Influence on the Mental Development of Mankind, The (Humboldt) 274

diversity principle 264

and Hamann 277

and Hegel 265

and Herder 277

and Humboldt 275

and interpretation 267–9

and Schlegel 275

and Schleiermacher 265–73

divination 873

and Schleiermacher 267n6

division of labor 458n50

Doctrine de Saint-Simon, Exposition 772–3, 776

Doctrine of Science (Fichte) 70–1

Doctrine of Wissenschaftslehre (Fichte) 2, 29, 33, 37, 68, 101, 178, 552

dogmatism 866–7

Drey, Johann Sebastian von 578–80

and Baur 578

and Schleiermacher 578

Driesch, Hans 210

Droysen, Johann Gustav 14, 295–6, 305, 606, 794, 797

and Humboldt 799

du Bois-Reymond, Emil 198, 220, 254

dualism 460–6

empirical (Schmid) 246, 257

and Hegel 27n29, 72, 562, 889

and Kant 1, 27–8, 66–7, 99

and Schelling 180, 562

and Sedgwick 465–6

subject-object 28–9

Duhem, Pierre 222

Dummett, Michael 281–2

Durkheim, Émile 670

Düsing, Wolfgang 828

duty.

“inclination to” (Schiller) 406–7

and Hegel 409–10

moral, and Fichte 482

See also right(s)

“dynamic whole” (Kant) 172

Eberhard, Johann August 23, 34

école sociétaire movement 775

See also Considérant, Victor

Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts (Marx) 898

economics

additive theory of (Smith) 680–1

classical 676

cost of production theory of (Smith, Ricardo, and Marx) 680

and labor theory of value (Ricardo) 688

neoclassical 676

subjective welfare theory of (Smith, Bentham, Walras, and Jevons) 680

theorem of welfare (Smith, Pareto, and Walras) 678

economy

and Hobbes 677–8

monetary 774

political 12, 676–98, 862–3

and conservative orthodoxy 682–4

and Mill 12

neoclassical 694–7

education, and revolution (Blanqui) 787

Edwards, Pamela 12

egoism 81, 526

absolute (Fichte) 563

absolute and finite (Fichte) 552–3

defined (Stirner) 504

and Herder 708

and Kant 708

rational (Sidwick) 465

and Schopenhauer 423

and Stirner 500–5

See also compassion

Eichhorn, J. G. 578

Einzige und seine Eigentum, Das (Stirner) 500

electricity 222

Elementarlehre (Reinhold) 2

Elementary Treatise on the Differential and Integral Calculus, An (Lacroix) 107

elements, “heterogeneity” of the 66

Elements of Logic (Whately) 102

Elements of Logick (Hedge) 102

Elements of Moral Science (Beattie) 296–7

Elements of the Philosophy of Right (Hegel) 23, 486

Eliot, George 851

emancipation

female 761–9

See also equality

Emerson, Ralph Waldo 4, 13, 46, 325

and Carlyle 361, 567

and Coleridge 567

and Nietzsche 361

and Schelling 360

empiricism 19, 890

Enlightenment 1

and German idealism 479

and Locke 26–7

materialist, and Hartley 614

and spiritualism 470

Empörung (insurrection), and Stirner 503

Encyclopedia (Diderot) 652

Encyclopedia (Hegel) 43

Encyclopedia and Methodology in the Philosophical Sciences (Boeckh) 270, 881

Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences (Hegel) 76, 299, 363

energy 223

Enfantin, Barthelémy-Prosper 766, 772

Engels, Friedrich 6, 57, 219, 500, 721

and Hegel 639

Enlightenment 1–2, 13–14

“cognitive crisis” of the (Kant) 20

and the French Revolution 613

philosophy and public education during the 2

Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Political Justice (Godwin) 617

ensembles 220–2

entropy 222–3

Entwicklungsgechichte der Thiere (Von Baer) 208

Enzyklopädie und Methodologie der philologischen Wissenschaften (Boeckh) 305

epistemology 7, 241

moral 469–89

and Bentham 472–3

and Comte 474–5

and Cousin 472–4

and Fichte 481–4

and Fries 482–4

and Hegel 484–7

and Kant 479–80

and Lotze 487–90

and Mill 476–9

and Reid 470–1

and Saint-Simon 472–5

and Whewell 476–7

and nature 228–32

Epochs of Nature (Buffon) 215

equality 668n37, 761–5, 771

gender 769

See also emancipation, female

Erdmann, J. E. 111, 252, 868

ergodic hypothesis 221

Erkenntnistheorie (“critical philosophy”) 188, 197

Esclavage des noirs. L’ (Negro Slavery, de Gouges) 762

Esprit de Lois (Montesquieu) 638

Essai analtique sur les facultés (Bonnet) 248

Essai de psychologie (Bonnet) 247–8

Essais sur l’organisation sociale (Saint-Simon) 772

Essay (Locke) 102

Essay in Aide of a Grammar of Assent (Newman) 594

Essay on Customs (Voltaire) 817

Essay on Genius (Gerard) 333

Essay on Taste (Herz) 324

Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine (Newman) 580–1

Essay on the Nature and Principles of Taste (Alison) 324, 338, 340–3

Essay on the Opus Postumum, An (Kant) 27

Essay on the Origins of Language (Herder) 826

Essay on the Principle of Population, An (Malthus) 774

“Essay toward the Unification of All of the Fine Arts and Sciences under the Concept of That Which Is Complete in Itself, An” (Moritz) 328

Essays (Emerson) 362

essence 439n7

communal human (Marx) 458

and Schleiermacher 558n38

Essence of Christianity, The (Feuerbach) 10, 524–6, 851, 891

Esser, Jakob 103

ethical life.

See Sittlichkeit

Ethical Studies (Bradley) 461

ethics 9–10, 434–67

in the early nineteenth century 439–43

and Fichte 447

and Kant 9

and Schopenhauer 376

and Sittlichkeit (Hegel) 497

ethology, and Mill 313–15

Euler, Leonard 156–7, 162

Eves, Howard 137

Evidences of Christianity (Paley) 574

evil 521

evolution 217–9, 532–5, 672–4

and Spencer 673–4

evolutionism 219, 627–8

Examination of the Utilitarian Philosophy (Grote) 478–9

excluded middle 103

existence-proofs (Kierkegaard) 84–5

Existentialism 434

exoticism 3

experience 225, 576–86

concept of 32

form and content in 26

and Hamann 587

in knowledge 1

and mathematics (Kant and Fourier) 146

and moral development (Kant) 334

subjective (Kant) 26, 32

unity of 35–6

Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, The (Darwin) 219

“extraordinary professors,” 48

fact

“atomic” (Rickert) 795

Causalnexus of (Ranke) 805–6

and Fichte 70

fragmented (Windelband) 795

faith 576–86

and antecedent considerations (Newman) 593–4

blind (Jacobi) 589

and Hamann 587–8

individuals of (Kierkegaard) 758n137

and Jacobi 81n48

and Kant 522–3

and Kierkegaard 584

moral 99

as a moral principle (Newman) 593

and Newman 593–4

prior to reason (Bautain) 590–1

rational (Kant) 546

to understanding 591

Faith and Knowledge (Hegel) 888

Fall of Robespierre, The (Coleridge and Southey) 619

family 301

and Comte 444

nuclear 766–7

and Hegel 412, 657–8

and Rousseau 652n1

Faraday, Michael 202

Fechner, Gustav 6, 8, 188, 241, 252, 256, 260

Fechner’s Law 256–7

Femme Libre, Le (The Free Woman) 769

Ferguson, Adam 296, 820

Feuerbach, Ludwig 10, 524–8

Fichte, Johann Gottlieb 1–2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 13–14, 51–2, 67, 227, 250, 349, 434, 636, 867

and Kant 69–71, 481

and Lessing 552

and Luther 717

and Spinoza 552

Fifteen Sermons Preached Before the University of Oxford (Newman) 592

Figlio, Karl 210

“first principle”

and Bentham 472

and Reid 471

Fischer, Kuno 15, 867

Fiske, John 7

Folina, Janet 5

force

attractive and repulsive

and Kant 173n9

and Schelling 182n46

form

and purposiveness (Kant) 331

rational concept of 63

substantial (Leibniz) 174

theory of (Plato) 895

Form and Function (E. S. Russell) 212

Form des Zusammenhanges aller Begebenheiten, die (“the form of the connection of all events,” Humboldt) 802

Formal Logic (De Morgan) 105

“formalism” or “axiomatics” (Hilbert) 146

forms, equivalent, principle of (Peacock) 151

Forster, Georg 602

Forster, Michael N. 3, 8, 14, 604

Foucault, Michel 14, 204, 294, 493, 769

Foundation of Arithmetic, The (Frege) 282–3, 289

Foundations of the Entire Science of Knowledge (Fichte) 101

Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (Kant) 406n71, 407n75, 480–1, 833, 863, 899

See also Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals

Fourier, François Marie Charles 13, 761–9, 773–5

Fragment on Government (Bentham) 616

Fragments on Recent German Literature (Herder) 273–4

François, Donatien Alphonse.

See Sade, marquis de

“free love,” 768

freedom 66

beyond one’s state (Kant) 714

freedom-necessity dualism 28

and Hegel 13, 412, 449

and Kant 397–9, 833–4

under law, for all 710–11

as moral autonomy (Kant) 406n67

objective (Hegel) 458

positive 9, 461

and Schiller 406

spiritual (Fichte) 446

subjective (Hegel) 412

Frege, Gottlob 4, 8, 133, 141–2

Freien, die 500

Frend, William 149–50

Friend, The (Coleridge) 566

Fries, Jakob Friedrich 9, 186, 250–1, 867

and Hegel 484–5

and Kant 96, 100

Frühromantik, 33

and Hegel 33

and Schelling 33

function, continuous (Cauchy and Bolzano) 161

Galileo Gallilei 22

Garve, Christian 332, 604, 610

Gatterer, Johann 820

Gauss, Carl Friedrich 4, 136–9, 141

Gay Science, The (Nietzsche) 310

Gedankenbild (“mental construct,” Weber) 815

Geist 53, 436–7, 457, 852

Geisteswissenschaften (“human sciences”) 8, 12, 14, 293–323, 821

background of 296–303

and Dilthey 295–7, 316, 320

and Hegel 296–303

and Kant 296–303

and Marx 296–303

and Möser 303–10

and Nietzsche 303–10

Genealogy of Morals, The (Nietzsche) 309–10, 513–16

General History of Philosophy (Deussen) 3

General Theory (Keynes) 683

genetic fallacy, and Nietzsche 897

Génie du Christianisme, Le (Chateaubriand) 577

genius

individual (Nietzsche) 811

and Mill 377–9

and Ruskin 380–1

and Schelling 355

and Schopenhauer 372–4

Gentz, Friedrich 605, 610–11

Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, Étienne 207, 213–14

geology 6, 215–16, 530

geometry 135–47

as a priori intuition (Kant) 135

and empiricism 141

and Frege 284n32

and Kant 5

non-Euclidean 4, 134, 136–9, 198

See also mathematics

George, Henry 643–4, 687

and Marx 687

Gerard, Alexander 333

German Constitution, The (Hegel) 719–20

German Ideology, The (Marx and Engels) 507, 897–8

Gervinus, Georg 307

Geschichte des Hellenismus (Droysen) 295

geschichtlichen Zusammenhanges (“historical whole,” Dilthey) 810

Gibbs, Josiah Willard 221

Gilbert, Felix 804

Girtanner, Christoph 206

Gladisch, A. 876

Gladisen, A. 3

Göchhausen, E. A. 604

God 27, 851–2

and Coleridge 566

existence of

and Kierkegaard 84n55

and Malebranche and Leibniz 202

and Feuerbach 525, 528

as first efficient cause 547n10

and Hamann 582

and Herder 828

and Kant 548–9

as necessary for moral reason (Kant) 522–3

as one and all 555n28

See also Christianity, monotheism, religion

God and the State (Bakunin) 785

Godart, Guillaume-Lambert 247

Godwin, William 617–18

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 6, 48, 204, 207, 602

and Wilde 738n37

Golineau, Joseph 3

Gomperz, T. 872

Gooch, G. P. 800

good

common 460–4

and Green 463

social 434–67

defined 435

and the individual 435–9

and Mill 478

Gothaische Gelehrte Zeitung 832

Göttingen, University of 50, 796, 810

See also philosophy, common sense, philosophy, and universities

Gottsched, Christoph 327

Gouze, Marie.

See de Gouges, Olympe

grammar

comparative (Schlegel) 275

and Humboldt 275–7

and Schlegel 275–7

Grammar of Assent (Newman) 592

“Grand Être “ (Comte) 436–7

Grassmann, Hermann 258

Gratry, Alphonse 591

“great chain of being,” 213

Green, Joseph Henri 207

Green, Thomas Hill 9, 118, 435, 437–9, 621, 639

Greene, Marjorie 231

Greenfield, William Smith 149–50, 153

Gregory, Duncan 107

Griffin, Donald R. 901

Grimm, Jakob 277, 295

Grolmann, L. A. 604

Grote, G. 872

Grote, John 478–9

Grotius, Hugo 625

Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals (Kant) 326, 335, 387–90

Grundkräfte 172–3

Grundlegung (Kant).

See Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals

Grundrisse (Marx) 781

Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychologie (Wundt) 260

Gruppe, Otto Friedrich 8, 289

and Hegel 893–4

and Herder 893–4

and Humboldt 893

and Schleiermacher 893

Gueroult, Martial 869

guilt, and Nietzsche 514

Guyer, Paul 8–9

Habilitationsvortrag (Riemann), and Mill 140–1

Haeckel, Ernst 6, 170, 197, 214

Haller, Albrecht von 243

Haller, Karl Ludwig von 11, 204

Hamann, Johann Georg 4, 8, 23, 263, 582–3, 606, 882, 893

and Herder 571

and Hume 587

and Jacobi 587–8

and Kant 586–7

and Socrates 587

Hamann and the Enlightenment (Unger) 882–3

Hamilton, William Rowan 151, 221

Hamilton, Sir William 3, 4, 95, 97, 103, 245, 258–9, 536

Handbook of the History of Greek-Roman Philosophy (Brandis) 880

Hanov, Michael Christoph 243

happiness, “general.”

See good, social

Hardenburg, Friedrich.

See Novalis

Harnack, Adolf 806–7

Hartley, David 247, 249, 614

Harvey, Van A. 10

Hatfield, Gary 8

Hayek, Friedrich 857

Haym, Solomon 882, 890, 895

Haytham, Ibn al- 248–9

Hedge, Levi 102

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 51, 97, 215–16, 227, 250, 434, 447–51, 638–9, 820, 854, 869, 871–2, 882

and Comte 447, 448

and Fichte 101–2, 448, 720, 888–9

Hegelian spirit 31–44

and Jacobi 888–9

and Kant 9, 71–8, 720, 722, 888–9

and Rousseau 722

and Saint-Simon 448

and Schelling 363–4, 368

and Schiller 409–10, 416–17, 448

and Schleiermacher 564

Hegel and His Age (Haym) 882

Heidegger, Martin 24, 46

Heine, Heinrich 773, 851

Heis, Jeremy 4

Helmholtz, Hermann von 2, 4–5, 7–8, 139–40, 187, 223, 241, 244, 252, 254, 257–8, 260, 309

Heraclitus 867, 879, 894

Herbart, Johann Friedrich 3, 7–8, 78, 251

Herder, Johann Gottfried 3, 4, 8, 12, 14, 23, 213, 263, 294, 304, 571, 606, 636, 820, 830–1, 854, 893, 901

Herder-Hamann tradition 263–78

and Kant 701

and Luther 703

and Montesquieu 701

and Rousseau 703

and Schlegel 270

and Schleiermacher 266–73

Herder in Accordance with His Life and Works (Haym) 882

Hericourt, Jenny Poinsard d’ 13

Hering, Ewald 258

hermeneutics 226–8

and Brandis 881n22

philosophical and methodological (Thomson) 811n136

romantic (Herder) 828

and Schlegel 270, 873–4

and Schleiermacher 265–73, 880

Herschel, William 6, 222

Herz, Marcus 324

Herzen, Alexander 784

heteronomy (Kant) 546

Heydenreich, Karl Heinrich 324, 339–40

and Kant 339

Heyne, Christian 820

hierarchy (Stirner) 500–1

“highest good” (Summum Bonum), and Kant 548n7, 834

Hilbert, David 133

“historical nexus.”

See Zusammenhang

historicism

and Burke 638

defined 606–7

and Herder 607–8

hermeneutic (Herder) 826

metaphysical principle of 840n110

and Möser 607–8

and Stadelmann and Meinecke 822n22

historicity 443–51

and religion 576–86

Historie de l’historie de la philosophie (Gueroult) 869

Histories (Ranke) 807

Histories of Latin and Germanic Nations from 1495–1514 (Ranke) 805

Historik (Droysen) 305

historiography 14–15

pragmatic (Gatterer) 820

See also history

historischen Zusammenhang (“historical nexus,” Dilthey) 810

historischer Zusammenhang (“historical connection,” Droysen and Dilthey) 809

Historism (Meinecke) 794

history 13–15, 529–32, 797

a priori and antiquarian 804–8

antiquarian 308–9

concept of (Holzhey) 830n64

and consciousness

of freedom 842

and Hegel 840

context in (Weber) 814–15

critical 308–9

didactic 308

disciplinary (Hegel) 839

as a discipline.

See Berlin, University of

discussional 308

and Droysen 305–8

and experience (Kant) 835

and German “progressive” scholarship 793–816

and Hegel 14–15, 39–44, 836–50, 887n34

and Herder 706–7, 821–9

and imagination 802–3

and inner connectedness 304

as insight and self-actualization (Hegel) 840

investigative 307

and justice (Hegel) 845

and Kant 829–36

making sense of (Hegel) 846–7

and Marx 850–64

meaning in 822

as a methodological fusion (Humboldt) 803–4

monumental 308

narrative 307

biographical 308

pragmatic 307–8

natural

classical 204

and Kant 830

of peoples (Herder) 827

and naturalism (Marx) 859

objective (Weber) 820

and objectivity 812

as organicism (Herder) 824

philosophical (Voltaire) 823

and philosophy 840–1

philosophy of 817–64

differentiated from historical knowledge (Ranke) 807–8

pragmatic 840

and Polybius 797

presentation modes 307–8

professionalization of 804

progressive (Schlegel) 870–1

as a project (Kant) 840

and Ranke 804–6

reflective (Hegel) 839–43

and Schiller 829–36

speculative philosophy of 820, 829–64

and subjectivity 811–12

and synthesis (Ranke) 808

teleological (Kant) 832–4

telos of 840

theory of 707–9

universal (Herder) 707, 826

See also historiography

“History and Natural Science” (Windelband and Rickert) 793

History of Economic Analysis (Schumpeter) 676

History of Hegel’s Youth, The (Haym) 882

History of Logic in the West (Prantl) 868

History of Mankind (Iselin) 822

History of Materialism (Lange) 252

History of Modern Philosophy (Fischer) 867

History of Our Western Philosophy: Developmental of Our Speculative, Both Philosophical and Religious, Ideas from Their First Beginnings up to the Present (Röth) 876–7, 888

History of Philosophy (Fries) 867

History of Philosophy (Ritter) 880

History of Philosophy (Tennemann) 867

History of Rome (Niebuhr) 800

History of the Last Systems of Philosophy in Germany from Kant to Hegel (Michelet) 868

Hobbes, Thomas 625, 769, 893

Hobsbawm, Eric 634, 643

Hodge, Archibald Alexander 535

Hodge, Charles 534–5

Hogarth, William 342–3

Hölderin, Friedrich 8–9, 30, 604

holism

interpretative 881n23

semantic (Schleiermacher) 266

Holmes, Oliver Wendell 646n74

Horkheimer, Max 493

Hornemann, Friedrich 3

Horstmann, Rolf-Peter 4

human rights.

See right(s), natural

human sciences.

See Geisteswissenschaften

Humanität (Herder) 826, 852

humanity

in full moral perfection (Kant) 550

religion of 731–61

Humboldt, Alexander Wilhelm Freiherr von 3, 8, 13–14, 57, 187, 289, 295, 304, 448, 604, 794, 875

and Schiller 446

Hume, David 102, 244, 293, 522, 601–2, 644, 817, 820, 855

Hume on Belief (Jacobi) 589

Hunter, John 210

Husserl, Edmund 112, 228

Hutcheson, Francis 323, 327, 342

Huxley, Thomas 169, 536

and Baur 536

and Hamilton 536

and Hume 536

and Kant 536

and Renan 536

and Reuss 536

and Strauss 536

and Volkmar 536

hylozoism 185

and Leibniz 174

Idea

and Descartes, Spinoza, and Fichte 867

and Schopenhauer 372–4

Idea for a Universal History (Herder) 707

“Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point of View” (Kant) 831–2

and Schiller 836

ideal

and enthusiasm 760

as robust realism 33

idealism 20, 864

and Berkeley 25

and Bradley 461

and Fichte 3, 34, 37–8

German 1, 3, 12–13

and Green 461–4

and Hegel 3, 34, 434

and Royce 58

and Schelling 34

and Schleiermacher 553–4

subjective

and absolute (Hegel) 33n44

and Kant 36

and objective 34

syntheses in 195–7

transcendental 588

and Kant 7

Idealismus 296

Idealrealismus 171

ideas, “fundamental” (Whewell) 31

Ideas for a Philosophy of History of Mankind (Herder) 822, 826, 828

Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature (Schelling) 353

Ideas for the Philosophy of History of Humanity (Herder) 275

Ideen (Schelling) 180

Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte des Menschheit (Herder) 213–14, 831n68

Identitätsphilosophie (Schelling).

See under identity, philosophy of

identity 103, 123

and Hegel 415

language-based (Herder) 702–4

philosophy of (Identitätsphilosophie, Schelling) 356, 364, 561–5

practical (Hegel) 411

principle of, and Hegel 75–6

unitary national (Mill) 724

idéologie 2

ideology 310–15

and Destutt de Tracy 246, 310

and Engels 507

and Marx 311, 506, 899, 901

as a science of ideas (Tracy) 310

illusion 29n32

imagination 555n29

and Coleridge 558–60, 573–5, 618–19

and “fancy” (Coleridge) 574

and history 802–3

and Kant 334–5

primary and secondary (Coleridge) 559–60

reproductive and productive (Coleridge) 558–9

and Schleiermacher 560

immediacy, “natural,” 416n113

immortality

and Feuerbach 527

and Kant 548–9

impartiality (“Rational Benevolence,” Sidgwick) 465

imperative

categorical

and Kant 393n19, 396–7

and Nietzsche 424

and Schopenhauer 420

hypothetical 396n29

imperialism 2–3

inclination, determinate normative significance of 390n8

Indifferenzpunky (“point of indifference,” Schelling and Hegel) 563–4

indirect reference, principle of 263, 274n15

and Frege 282

and Hegel 265

and Nietzsche 279

individualism 13, 220–2, 443–51

and Comte 441

constitutive 436

historical (Windelband and Rickert) 794–5

and Kierkegaard 434

liberal 13

and Mill 13

national 722

and Nietzsche 434

and Saint-Simon 441

and Schopenhauer 434

and the social good 435–9

and Spencer 434

“world historical” (Hegel) 498–9

individuation (Nietzsche) 424

induction 230–1

industrialization 528

and progress 770

industry, and Considérant 775–6

See also production

inequality, political 13

inference

experimental 230

from particulars to particulars (Mill) 142

inheritance 221

innen sachlichen Zusammenhang (“inner causal nexus,” Humboldt) 801

Innewerden (“reflective awareness,” Dilthey) 316

inquiry

ideographic (Windelband and Rickert) 793

nomothetic 793

Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding, An (Hume) 293

Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Smith) 678–82, 774

Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (Hutcheson) 323

inseparability thesis 44

insight (Dilthey) 802n118

Institut national (France) 2

Instruction pour une prise d’armes (Manual for an Armed Insurrection, Blanqui) 786

internal milieu (milieu intérieur, Bernard) 209

interpolation.

See imagination

interpretation 274n15, 873

allegorical 549n15

and Schleiermacher 265–73

interpretive difficulty and discerning word-usage, principle of 264

Introduction à l’étude de la médecine expérimentale (Bernard) 231

Introduction to the History of Philosophy (Cousin) 868

Introduction to the Human Sciences, An (Dilthey) 314–17, 891

Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (Bentham) 472, 617

introspection, systematic (Titchner) 261

intuition 469–70

and feeling (Schleiermacher) 556

intellectual.

See reason

and Schleiermacher 555–6

through sense (Sinnes-Empfindung, Jacobi) 589

transcendental.

See reason

intuitionism 254–5

and concept 42–3

and Fichte 27

intellectual 27, 35

and Mill 476

moral 9

and Newman 591–6

and Novalis 27

and Schelling 27

and Sidgwick 464–5

and space and time 253

and spiritualism 473–4

and understanding 42

and utilitarianism 472–3

and Whewell 476

intuitus (“intuition,” Spinoza) 555

Irmscher, Hans-Dietrich 826, 828

Iselin, Isaac 822

Jacobi, Friedrich Heinrich 2, 4, 23, 25, 587–9, 604

and Fichte 588

and Kant 79–83, 588

and Mendelssohn 588

and Schelling 588

and Spinoza 588

Jacobinism 632

Jaeger, Werner 886

James, William 195, 261

Jena, University of 47–54

Jena Allgemeine Literatur Zeitung 48

Jevons, William Stanley 12, 108–9

Jhering, Rudolf von 642

Johnson, Alexander 8

Jonas, Hans 231

Jones, Peter 875

Jouffroy, Theodore 473

judgment

a priori cognitive (Kant).

See under knowledge, a priori cognitive

absolute and hypothetical teleological (Kant) 707n16

and Boole 120–3

and Brentano 123

constitutive and regulative 707n16

constraints on 36

and De Morgan 121–2

and Fries 123

and Hamilton 121

and Hegel 41n64, 119

and Herbart 123

and inference 119–24

and Maimon 100–1

and Mansel 120

and Mill 120

and organization (Hegel) 846

and Peirce 120

reflective (Kant) 211n45, 225n96, 294

subjective, formal (Kant) 32–3

teleological (Kant) 175

as an Ur-teilen 30

and Whately 120

Justi, Johann Heinrich Gottlieb 603

justice, and Hegel 849

Kalligone (Herder) 336–9

Kant, Immanuel 14, 95–6, 210–11, 293–4, 323–5, 604, 707–10, 798, 803, 820, 827–8, 854, 869

early nineteenth-century responses to 250–2

and Herder 707

as a Jacobin 610

and Rousseau 835–6

and Voltaire 835–6

See also philosophy, and universities

Kantianism 19–24

dissatisfactions with 24–31

Keynes, John Maynard 683

Kielmayer, Carl Friedrich 206

moral 225

Kierkegaard, Søren 4, 9, 11, 13, 46, 57, 581, 847

and Hamann 583–5

and Jacobi 83–4

and Kant 83–6

and Lessing 583

Klein, Felix 139

knowledge 110

a priori cognitive (Kant) 20–2, 25, 32, 63–4, 866–7

and a posteriori (Kant) 830

absolute 27

and Hegel 364

and Bautain 573

foundations of 9

and Hamann 587

historical

“Kantian trinity” of 814

and the philosophy of history (Ranke) 807–8

or systematic (Kant) 830

and Jacobi 81–2

and Kant 562

and learning 830

moral.

See morality

objective (Dilthey) 812–13

perception (Empfindung) and reason (Vernunft) (Jacobi) 589

physiological (Kant) 830n66

and Schleiermacher 553, 878n16

theories of 3

Kolmogorov, Andrei 221

Konstellationsforschung project (Henrich) 31n38

Körner, Gottfried Christian 344, 873

Koselleck, Reinhart 814, 821

Kraft und Stoff (Buechner and Czolbe) 188

Kreislauf des Lebens (Moleschott) 188

Kritisches Journal der Philosophie 363, 561, 564

Krug, Wilhelm Traugott 103

Krüger, Johann Gottlob 247–8, 256–7

Kuhn, Thomas 201–2

Kulturwissenschaften (“cultural sciences”) 316

Laberthonniére, Lucien 591

labor 763, 769–83, 853, 858–60

alienated (Marx) 782

concrete (Marx) 781

and Considérant 775

and Hegel 773, 779

and Malthus 774

and Marx 679, 780–1

objectified (Marx) 787

and Proudhon 782–3

See also capitalism, production, proletariat

Lacan, Jacques 493

Lacroix, S. F. 107, 156

Lagrange, J. L. 156–8, 162, 202, 221, 854

laissez-faire 677–83

Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste 204, 213, 777

Lambert, Johann Heinrich 137

Lamennais, Félicité Robert de 572

Lammenais, Hugues 4, 11

land rents 684–8

Lange, F. A. 252

language 7–9, 263–90, 893–5

and biblical anthropomorphism (Mansel) 581

and Bonald 573

and Bushnell 575–6

and Coleridge 573–6

defining nationhood (Fichte) 718

“families,” 820

genetic and organic (Irmscher) 826n45

as a gift from God 571

and Gruppe 277–81

and Hegel 264–5

and Herder 702–4

as the history of a people (Hamann) 571–2

as human invention (Condillac and Maupertius) 571

and Humboldt 274–7

language-based identity (Herder) 702–4

language-group (Herder) 705

language-sociality principle 264, 274n15

and Hamann 277

and Hegel 265

and Herder 277

and Mauthner 277–81

metaphysics of (Nietzsche) 539–40

nature of 571–6

and Nietzsche 277–81

philosophy of 274–7

plasticity of 272

as primary datum (Bonald) 573

private (Wittgenstein) 289

Romance, vs. German (Fichte) 276n21

and Schlegel 265–77

and Schleiermacher 265–74

and society 573

and thought 263

and Traditionalism 572

See also linguistics

Language and Wisdom of India, The (Schlegel) 3

LaPlace, Pierre Simon 5, 854

Lavoisier, Antoine 6, 208

law

copyright, and Hegel 301

and Dilthey 319–20

and Fichte 404

general (allgemein) (Kant) 709

and Herder 702

index (Boole) 107–8

and Kant 479

moral

and Kant 407, 609

and reason (Schiller) 406

natural 12, 40, 103, 112, 319, 353, 396, 453, 603, 605, 607

and Bentham 640

and Burke 615

and Grotius 640

and Jhering 642

and Kant 640–1

and Locke 614, 640

and natural right 625–9, 640

and Paine 618

and Savigny 304, 642

and natural right 640–3

and Schiller 405

“of three stages” (Comte) 229, 442–4, 855–6, 890–1

and universalization 393

“Law of the Heart, The” (Hegel) 889

Lawrence, William 210

Lazarus, Moritz 320

Le Verrier, Urbain 222

Lebensphilosophie 231

Leclerc, Georges-Louis.

See Buffon, Georges-Louis Leclerc, comte de

Leçons de physiologie expérimentale (Magendie) 206–7

“Lecture on the Formal Logicians” (Green) 118

Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy (Whewell) 15, 867, 882–3, 886–8

Lectures on the Philosophy of World History (Hegel) 888

Lectures on the True, the Beautiful, and the Good (Cousin) 473

“Legal Status” (Hegel) 889–90

Legendre, Adrien-Marie 137

Leibniz, Gottfried 6, 8, 98, 174, 202, 205, 213, 223, 244–5, 327, 603, 796, 798, 868

Lenoir, Timothy 206

Lenzer, Gertrud 856–7

Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim 14, 571

L’éternité par les astres (Eternity Through the Stars, Blanqui) 788–9

Letters and Social Aims (Emerson) 361

Letters for the Advancement of Humanity (Herder) 823, 826

Letters on the Aesthetic Education of Mankind (Schiller) 345, 348–52, 407, 445–6, 836

Letters on the Kantian Philosophy (Reinhold) 49

Lettres d’un habitat de Genève à ses contemporains (Letters of an Inhabitant of Geneva to His Contemporaries, Saint-Simon) 771

Levin, Rahel 2

Lewes, George Henry 244, 259, 857, 891

liberalism

and Matthew Arnold and Schiller 446

and Christianity 529–31

defined 604

by Newman 529

French

and Constant 444–5

and Guizot 444

and Royer-Collard 444

and Tocqueville 444–5

and Mazzini 636

libertarianism 434

liberty 646n74, 761–5, 771

and Bakunin 785–8

Lichtenberg, Georg Christoph 181

Liebig, Justus 187, 220

life.

and being 226n100

and mind 243–4

spiritual, periods in (Fichte) 442

See also biology

Life of Christ Critically Examined (Strauss) 524, 532–3

Life of Schleiermacher (Haym) 882

Limits of Concept Formation in Natural Science, The (Windelband and Rickert) 793

Limits of Religious Thought, The (Mansel) 536, 581

linguistics 274–7, 820

error theories 893–5

and Gruppe 895–7

and Mauthner 893–5

and Nietzsche 893–5

See also language

List der Vernunft (“cunning of reason,” Hegel) 843

Littré, Émile 857

“living for others,” 747n110

and Comte 739n47

See also benevolence

Livingston, James C. 11, 536

Lloyd, William Foster 688

Lobachevsky, Nikolai Ivanovich 4, 136, 138–9

Lochner v. New York 646n74

Locke, John 1, 8, 244, 614, 625, 644–5, 699–700, 893, 894

and Jefferson 614

and Newton 470

logic 4–5, 95–127

“anthropological” (Fries) 96, 100

Aristotelian 4

and Kant 4

and Bolzano 134

and conceptual representation (Kant) 115

demonstrative 96, 100

as the ethics of thinking (Sigwart) 112

formal (Kant) 97–100

general (Kant) 98–9

and Hegel 365

inductive 97

and Jacobi 80–1

and Kant 95–102

and language 124–7

and mathematics 124–7

and Mill 4, 104, 112

negation 88, 101, 121–2, 137, 303, 839

normativity and objectivity in (Lotze) 113

post-Hegelian 109–14

post-Kantian 97–102

and Realphilosophie (Hegel) 77–8

revival of, in Britain 102–9

symbolic

and De Morgan 95, 105–7, 109, 121–4, 126

and Lambert and Ploucquet 95

transcendental (Kant) 97, 100–1

Logic (Hegel) 186

Logic (Kant) 96, 102, 866

Logic (Lotze) 111

“Logic of Relatives, The” (Peirce) 109

loi des trois états.

See under “law, of three stages”

“Lordship and Bondage” (Hegel) 889–90, 898

Lotze, Rudolph Hermann 3–4, 6–8, 78, 97, 109–11, 188, 195–7, 241, 252, 289

love

and Hegel 410–12

and Schiller 408–9

Lovejoy, Arthur O. 213

Löwith, Karl 524

Lucinde (Schlegel) 497

Ludwig, Carl 254

lumen naturale.

See reason

Luther, Martin 272

Luxemburg, Rosa 787

Lyell, Charles 202

Ma loi d’avenir (My Law of the Future, Démar) 767–9

MacColl, Hugh 120

Machiavelli, Niccolò 699–700

machines 779–80

Magendie, François 206–7, 209

magnetism 222

Maimon, Solomon 3, 26, 70, 95–6

Maine de Biran, François-Pierre-Gonthier 7, 245, 591

Maistre, Joseph de 572–3, 854

Makkreel, Rudolf A. 8

Malebranche, Nicolas 202, 244–5

Malthus, Thomas 12, 683–4, 774

and Carlyle 684

Mansel, Henry 11, 104, 112, 536

and Hamilton 581

Manuel, Frank 852

Marbach, G. O. 868

Marbury v. Madison 646

Marheinke, Philipp Konrad 500

market, “invisible hand” of the (Smith) 679

marriage, monogamous 766–7

Marx, Karl 10, 12–14, 24, 46, 57, 219, 295, 434, 451–60, 524, 690–4, 721, 820

and Comte 857

and Condorcet 850

and Feuerbach 192, 457, 527, 852

and Fichte 456

and Green 464

and Hegel 192, 456, 458, 505–7, 639, 663–5, 852–4, 857

and Kant 456, 850

and Ricardo 690

and Saint-Simon 458

and Schelling 851

and Schiller 458, 860

and Smith 663, 682, 862

and Stirner 505, 507–8

Marxism 434, 690–4

Maseres, Francis 149–50

master-servant dialectic (Hegel) 773, 848

materialism 171, 219, 765, 781

antiphilosophical 6

dialectical 192–5

and German idealism 479

historical (Marx) 457, 852–3

scientific 6, 188–92

Matérialisme, Vitalisme, Rationalisme (Cournot) 229

mathematics 4–5, 856

and analysis 155–63

and De Morgan 106

hierarchical arrangement of (Bolzano) 159–61

and logic 124–7

and Lotze 489

parallel postulate in 4

philosophical ramifications of 139–47

philosophy of (1790–1870) 133–64

probability theory in 4–5

pure and applied 146

See also algebra, geometry

mathesis universalis 205, 224

matter

and Büchner 190–1

and Kant 171–3

triparte form of (Schelling) 182–3

Maudsley, Henry 244, 259

Maupertuis, Pierre Louis Moreau 202, 571

Mauthner, Fritz 277–81, 894

Maxwell, John Clark 6, 202, 221, 258

Mayr, Ernst 220

Mazlich, Bruce 852

Mazzini, Giuseppe 636, 721

McCosh, James 535

meaning

meaning-sensation principle 263

and Frege 283–4

and Hegel 265

and Nietzsche 278–9

meaning-usage principle 262

and Frege 282, 284

and Hamann 277

and Hegel 265

and Herder 277

and interpretation 267–9

and Mill 281

and Schleiermacher 265–73

and reference

and Frege 281–9

and Mill 281–9

mechanics, statistical 221–2

mechanism, rule of (Lotze) 196

Meckel, Johannes Friedrich 207, 214

mediators 556n33

Meditations on Poetry (Baumgarten) 323

Megill, Allan 820

Meier, Georg Friedrich 326, 328

Meinecke, Friedrich 794

Melissus 867

Menand, Louis 58

Mendel, Gregor 202

Mendel’s laws 221

Mendelssohn, Moses 14, 23, 328, 332, 380, 823

Metacritique on the Purism of Reason (Hamann) 586–7

Metamorphosis of Plants (Goethe) 212

Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (Kant) 172, 206

metaphysics 19–20

“descriptive fallacy” in (Nietzsche) 89

of experience (Paton) 21n6n.6

as linguistic confusion 264, 277

and Gruppe 277–8

and Mauthner 277

and Nietzsche 277–8

of morals and nature (Kant) 21n6

and Nietzsche 88–9

Metaphysics (Aristotle) 885–6

Metaphysics (Baumgarten) 329

Metaphysics of Morals, The (Kant) 335, 480, 899

Methods of Ethics (Sidgwick) 464–6

Michaelis, Johann David 820

Michelet, K. L. 500, 868

microscopes 222n91

Mikrokosmus (Lotze) 188, 487–8

Mill, James 12, 242, 258–9

Mill, John Stuart 46, 97, 141–5, 201, 229–30, 259, 287, 295, 325, 434, 438–9, 451–60, 582, 688–90, 721, 763, 851, 857

and Alison 377

and Bentham 452–5, 478, 612, 633

and Coleridge 456, 612

and Comte 312, 454, 456

and Grote 478–9

and Hamilton 104

and Hegel 452–4

and Malthus 688

and Marx 690

and Ricardo 688–9

and Schiller 446

and Sidgwick 464

and Smith 688

and Whately 104

mind 7–9

Modern Painters (Ruskin) 379–80

modernity, social 765–6

Möhler, Johann Adam 578–9

and Baur 578

and Schleiermacher 578

Moleschott, Jacob 6, 188–9, 244

moment, dialectical and speculative (Hegel) 102

Monge, Gaspard 854

monism 29–30

dual-aspect (Fechner) 257

naturalist (Haeckel) 197

spiritualist (Lotze) 196

monotheism 521

See also Christianity, God, religion

Montesquieu, Baron de (Charles Louis de Secondat) 12, 818

Moralität (Hegel).

See morality, and Hegel

morality 545

and autonomy 387–431

Christian.

See Christianity

and compassion (Schopenhauer) 418–23

and Comte 475n27

and Fichte 481–2

and government (Green) 621

and Hegel 415, 449–50, 485–6, 497, 721

and Hume 614

and Kant 387–90, 546–7

logic of (Nietzsche) 540

and Lotze 487–8

and Mill 477–8

and Nietzsche 428–9, 509–13, 542

and religion 546–53

and Sade 496

and Schleiermacher 553

and Schopenhauer 418, 421

slave (Nietzsche) 512

and Smith 614

and the Young Hegelians 508

Moritz, Karl Philipp 328, 346

morphology 225–6

as anology and homology 218

transcendental 207, 214–15, 218

Moser, F. C. 603

Moser, J. J. 603

Möser, Justus 304, 603–4, 606, 610

motion

and Kant 172

perpetual 223

Müller, Georg Elias 8, 241

Müller, Johannes 241, 243, 253–5, 260

Müller, K. O. 801, 808

mundus intelligibilis (“world of things in themselves”) 66

See also things in themselves

mundus sensibilis (“world of appearance”) 66

Munera Pulveris (Ruskin) 380

Murray, Gilbert 728

mysticism, romantic 551–9

myth, and Strauss 532–3

names

and Mill 115

predicate intension (Mill) 115n152

proper 287–8

Narodniks (Russian social revolutionaries) 784

nation

and Comte 444

as a corporate metaphor 699

nationhood (Kant) 711–12

nationalism 12–13

radical 727–30

See also community, society

nationality, and Mill 723n70

Nationalstaat, and Hegel 719–20

nation-state 699–730

and Fichte 715–18

and Hegel 302, 718–23

and Herder 701–7

and Kant 707–15

and Mill 723–7

and Rousseau 700

See also state, statism

Natorp, Paul 261

natura formaliter spectata (Kant) 172

natura materialiter spectata (Kant) 172

Natural Religion (Paley) 522

Natural Rights: A Criticism of Some Political and Ethical Conceptions (Ritchie) 623

natural world.

See nature

naturalism 36, 169, 193, 219, 248, 470, 532, 571, 627, 645, 793, 827–8, 831n68, 859

nature 3, 5–7, 765

conceptions of (1790–1870) 169–98

and Emerson 361

formal purposiveness of 174–5

and German idealism 6

and Goethe 169

and goodness (Kant) 834

and Hamann 582

and Hegel 40

hermeneutics of 225

historicity of 213–20

history of, and Kant 216

inorganic (Schelling) 184n56

and Kant 708

as matter in motion 189

metaphysics of (Kant) 171–7

moving in contradiction (Engels) 194

Ohmacht of 228

ontological domains of 204

philosophy of 224–8

rationality of (Hegel) 842

and Schelling 27, 177–86, 353–5

and Schleiermacher 555

without cognitive abilities 202

Nature (Emerson) 567

“Nature Aphorisms by Goethe” (Huxley) 169

Nature and Value of Universal History, The (Schiller) 470–1, 797–8

“Nature of Gothic, The” (Ruskin) 381

Naturphilosophie 57, 169–71, 184–97, 201, 225–6

and materialism 170–1

Naturwissenschaften (“natural sciences”) 296

necessity

and Hartley 619

and Kant 139

necessity-freedom dualism 28

normative (Kant) 38

neologism 10

Neue darstellung des Sensualismus (Buechner and Czolbe) 188

Neuhouser, Frederick 12

New Harmony 777

New Theory of Vision (Berkeley) 249

Newman, John Henry 529–31, 543

Nicea, Council of 580

Nicolai, Karl Friedrich 604

Nicole, Pierre 114–15

Niebuhr, B. G. 800–1, 804

Niethammer, Friedrich Immanuel 871

Nietzsche, Friedrich 7, 10, 13–14, 46, 278–80, 872, 894

and Feuerbach 541

and Kant 424–9

and Schopenhauer 424–9, 510, 515, 539

and Socrates and Plato 896

and Strauss 542

nihilism and Jacobi 588

nominalists, medieval 894

norm 40, 43–4, 58, 212, 398n35, 400–15, 423, 428, 430–1, 448, 481, 488–9, 497, 502–8, 531, 671, 689, 695, 700–4, 722, 727, 849

See also normativity

normative gap (Reginster) 390

normativity 387–431

autonomy view of (Reginster) 390

constructivist 392–4

and essence (Fichte) 401

and Fichte 399

and Kant 389

and law (Kant) 408

and Nietzsche 427–9

and reason (Fichte) 404–5

See also norm

noumena 25, 99

noumena-phenomena dualism 28

Novalis (Georg Phillipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg) 448, 604

and Spinoza 30

Nowak, Gregory 140

numbers, negative 148–53

Nussbaum, Martha 900

object

and Hegel 40n61

and Kant 26, 32, 35–6, 39

as moment of consciousness 34

object-subject dualism 28

“Objective Analog to the Philosophy of Subjective Speculation, The” (du Bois-Reymond) 198

objectivity (Hegel) 73

objektiv vorhanderen Zusammenhang (“knowledge of objectively existing relatedness,” Ranke) 806

Observations of Man (Hartley) 247

“Observing Reason” (Hegel) 889

“Of the Sublimity and Beauty of the Material World” (Alison) 342

Oken, Lorenz 185, 226, 296

Olle-Laprune, Léon 591

On Concept and Object (Frege) 283–4

On Goethe’s “Meister” (Schlegel) 270

“On Grace and Dignity” (Schiller) 405

On Incomprehensibility (Schlegel) 270

On Liberty (Mill) 377–9, 633–4

On Naïve and Sentimental Poetry (Schiller) 345, 351–2, 445–6

“On Poesy or Art” (Coleridge) 360–1

On Religion: Speeches to Its Cultured Dispisers (Schleiermacher) 553

On Sense and Reference (Frege) 282–4

On Socrates’ Value as a Philosopher (Schleiermacher) 880

On the Concept of History of Philosophy (Brandis) 881

On the Different Methods of Translation (Schleiermacher) 271, 878

On the Education of the Philosopher through History of Philosophy (Ritter) 881

“On the Essence of Religion” (Schleiermacher) 554

On the Historian’s Task” (Humboldt) 799, 801–2

On the Language and Wisdom of the Indians (Schlegel) 274–5, 875

On the Law of Inertia (Frege) 289

On the Natural and the Divine Principle of Things (Schelling) 565

“On the Religions” (Schleiermacher) 554

“On the Sublime”(Schiller) 350–1

“On the Uses and Disadvantages of History for Life” (Nietzsche) 308

On Translating: An Open Letter (Luther) 272

On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense (Nietzsche) 278

“Open Letter on Fichte’s Wissenschaftslehre” (Kant) 101

Operationskreis des Logikkalküls, Der (Schröder) 126

optics 241, 249–50, 253–8

and psychology 248–50

Opus Postumum (Kant) 173

order, social

Enlightenment 439–40

and Hamann 441

and Hegel 440–1

and Herder 441

and Jacobi 441

and Mill 440

rational (Comte) 440–1

Organisateur (Organizer, Saint-Simon) 772

organism, as principle of things (Schelling) 226

organon 110n108

Orientalism (Said) 3

Origin of Species, The (Darwin) 209, 672–4

originality, and Ruskin 380

Ospovat, Dov 214

“Ossian,” 823

Ostwald, Friedrich Wilhelm 170, 222

Oswald, James 3–4, 20

otherworldism 892, 896

Outline of a Theory of Civilization (Yukichi) 729

Outline of the History of Philosophy (Tennemann) 867

Outline of the History of Philosophy (Überweg) 868

Outlines of the Philosophy of Right (Hegel) 73–4

“Oversoul, The” (Emerson) 568

Owen, Richard 207

Owen, Robert 212–13, 218, 226, 776–7

Paine, Thomas 615, 628, 763

and Godwin 618

and Reid 618

and Stewart 618

Paley, William 522, 574

Pander, Charles H. 208, 211

pangenesis 217

panpsychism 6, 256–7

pantheism controversy 79n44, 588n37

paradigms (Kuhn) 201–2

Paradox, Absolute (Kierkegaard) 584–5

parallel postulate.

See mathematics, parallel postulate in

“Paralogisms of Pure Reason” (Kant) 356

paraphrase, paradox of 271

Parmenides (Plato) 867, 879

particular, irreducubility of the 224n96

Pascal, Roy 202

passion 228n166

and Fourier 766–7

and reason 843

patriotism 621

Patsch, Hermann 873

Peacock, George A. 150–2

Peirce, Benjamin 5

Peirce, Charles Sanders 4–5, 11, 109

perception, quantitative measurement in 255–8

Perpetual Peace (Fichte) 715

Phaedo (Plato) 896

Phaedrus (Plato) 879

Phalange, La 775

Phalanstère project (Fourier) 767

phenomena-noumena dualism 27–8

phenomenology 242n1

Phenomenology of Spirit (Hegel) 43–4, 227, 264–5, 524–5, 846–8, 887, 889

Philebus (Plato) 33

philology

and Boeckh 305–6

and Droysen 306–7

philosophia naturalis.

See history, natural

Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful, A (Burke) 332

Philosophical Fragments (Kierkegaard) 583

Philosophical Investigations (Wittgenstein) 289

Philosophical Theory of the State, The (Bosanquet) 621

Philosophie du Christianisme (Bautain) 572

Philosophie Propädeutik (Calinich) 295

Philosophie zoologique (Lamarck) 210

philosophy 52

common sense 2–4, 7, 20, 23, 818

and Paine 618

and Stewart 470, 618

See also Göttingen, University of

“Continental” tradition in 23, 61

and dialogue (Plato) 870–1

“elementary” (Reinhold) 3, 68

and the empirical sciences 43

as a formal enterprise (Kant) 24

in France 55

Frankfurt school of 24

as a fundamental science 2

genetic explanation of (Schlegel) 874, 886–7

in Great Britain 55

and Hamann 572

historiography of 14–15

and history 840–1

history of 866–901

and Dilthey 882–4

and Haym 882–4

and Hegel 884–90

and Schlegel 869–77

and Schleiermacher 878–82

as ideology 897–901

and Marx 897–901

and knowledge 870–1

and language confusions 894–5

and Leibniz 27

medieval

and Schlegel 877

and Schleiermacher 880

of nature 365

See under spirit, and Hegel

and nineteenth-century institutions 2

non-Western 3

“official” history of

and Hegel 866–9

and Kant 866–9

“from one principle,” 67–8

Oriental 3, 875–6

and physics 202

proper task of (Helmholtz) 229

as psychological pathology 895–7

and Nietzsche 895–7

pure, and Coleridge 566

as rational connection (Jacobi) 81

rationalist 19, 30, 866

as dogmatism 34

and empiricism 867

“real” (Hegel) 365

as reflective inquiry 2

and religion 564–8

and Schelling 357

as a scholastic concept (Kant) 297

and scientific specialization 6

as self-cognition of reason (Hegel) 74

social conditions of 46–59

as speculative knowledge 297

systematicity in 4

Thomistic 570–1

transcendental 9, 63, 561–8

and Christianity 567

and Kant 1, 21

proper and “critique” (Kant) 22n11

and Schlegel 869

synthetic method in (Fichte) 1

in the United States 55, 58

and universities 46–59

See also Berlin, University of, Göttingen, University of, Jena, University of

as a worldly concept (Kant) 297

Philosophy in the Boudoir (Sade) 495

Philosophy of Art, The (Schelling) 353, 356

Philosophy of Enlightenment, The (Cassirer) 14

Philosophy of History (Voltaire) 817

Philosophy of Nature (Hegel) 227–8

Philosophy of Philology (Schlegel) 270, 873

Philosophy of Right (Hegel) 23, 300–3, 412, 449, 722–3, 841

Philosophy of Right (Rousseau) 654, 658

Philosophy of the Greeks in Its Historical Development, The (Zeller) 47, 868, 880

Philosophy of the Human Mind, The (Stewart) 618

“Physical Description of the World, The” (Humboldt) 57

physics

mechanistic 6

Newtonian 223

and “philosophy,” 202

physics, social, and Comte.

See sociology

physiognomy, and characterization (Kant) 298

physiology

and Engels 195

“immanent” (Kant) 176

sensory 241, 252–5

Physique de l’ame, La (Godart) 247

Pinkard, Terry 2

Pippin, Robert P. 2

“Plan of the Scientific Operation Necessary for Reorganizing Society” (Comte) 855

Plato 870–1, 884–5, 894–5

“Pleasures of the Imagination, The” (Addison) 323

“Poet, The” (Emerson) 362

Poetics (Aristotle) 874, 899

poetry 823, 825

“Poetry and Imagination” (Emerson) 361

Poincaré, Henri 133, 140

polis 445

politics

and Bakunin 784

and Considérant 769

and Saint-Simon 771

Polybius 801, 806, 810

Pomian, Krzysztof 788

Pope Leo XIII 570–1

Popper, Karl 857

population principle (Malthus) 683–4

Porter, Noah 11

portraiture, and Hegel 367n191

positivism 229, 434, 853, 890–3

and Comte 6, 890–3

and Dilthey 890–3

and Feuerbach 890–3

and Mansel 581–2

and Marx 890–3

and nature 228–32

and Nietzsche 890–3

Positivity of the Christian Religion, The (Hegel) 889

postulate, parallel

and Gauss 137–9

and Lambert and Legendre 137

and Playfair 136

poverty, and Hegel 773

power (freedom), and Nietzsche 429n169

pragmatism 58

Prantl, C. 868, 886

prehistory, and Hegel 838n103

“Preliminary Dissertation on the Nature of Language” (Bushnell) 575–6

Presentation and Critique of Descartes’ Philosophy, Together with an Introduction to the History of Modern Philosophy (Erdmann) 868

Price, Richard 11, 614–15

and Burke 615

Priestley, Joseph 248–50, 614

Principia (Newton) 247

Principia philosophia (Descartes) 202

principles

and Schelling 178–9

teleological (Kant) 178

vital and metaphysical (Leibniz) 174

Principles (Ricardo) 682

“Principles of Genial Criticism” (Coleridge) 360

Principles of Geology (Lyell) 215–16

Principles of Political Economy (Mill) 688–9, 772

Principles of the Philosophy of the Future (Feuerbach) 891

priority thesis (Kant) 117

Prize Essay (Kant) 866

production 680, 689–94, 783, 858–61

and Saint-Simon 771

See also capitalism, class, industry, labor, proletariat

progress 10, 819, 821

and Blanqui 788

and industrialization 770

social 673n46

and Comte 671–2

and Huxley 673n46

as species destiny (Kant) 834

See also change, social

Progress and Poverty (George) 687

Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (Kant) 20

proletariat 779, 863

Promenades dans Londres (The London Journal, Tristan) 777–8

propensity, and Kant 545n4

property 301, 899

and Owen 776

private 862–3

and Comte 669n44

as theft (Proudhon) 782–3

Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph 13, 782–3

psyche (soul), powers of 243

psychologism (Erdmann) 111–12, 252

fallacy of 244

psychology 5–6, 8, 241–62

Aristotelian 243

biological (Spencer and Lewes) 259

as a branch of physics 243

British developments in 258–9

and Comte 443

and Dilthey 316–18

empirical 8

experimental 260

and Hegel 300

methodological trends in (Sachs-Hombach) 242n1

and Mill 8, 312–13

“new,” 242

and optics 248–50

of peoples (Völkerpsychologie) 320

in philosophy 244–6

scientific 241

Ptolemy 249

purity, and Fries 484

purposiveness and form (Kant) 331

Pycior, Helena 152

Quellen 306

Quentin Dunward (Walter Scott) 807

Quine, Willard Van Orman 900

Rabelais 491

racism 3

radicalism 13

Ranke, Leopold von 14, 55–6, 304–5, 606, 794, 801, 804–6

and Dilthey 806

and Droysen 806

and Humboldt 806

and Niebuhr 806, 808

rape, justified (Sade) 496n6

Rapports du physique et du moral de l’homme (Cabanis) 219

Raspail, François-Vincent 208

“Rational Benevolence” (Sidgwick).

See impartiality

“rationalistic postulate” (Cassirer) 798

rationality

practical (Green) 437–8

and spirit (Hegel) 840–9

realism

empirical (Kant) 25

medieval 894

metaphysical 25

normative 395n25n.25

reality

Ereignis, Sein, and Geltung (Lotze) 488–9

principle (Freud) 847

and Schelling 356

and Schopenhauer 375

sensory 27

reason 202, 224, 470

acquired (Herder) 827

and actuality (Hegel) 72

and Aufklärung 588

and Burke 576–7

and Coleridge 566

and Comte 440

and the Counter-Enlightenment 586

discursive

and Bautain 590

and Jacobi 590

and the Enlightenment 817–19

and Fichte 71

and the French Revolution 609

and Garve 611

general (consensus omnium) 590

and Gentz 611

and Hamann 586

and Hegel 562, 563, 841–3

and Herder 703

historical, and Dilthey 315–20

and imagination 833

implicit and explicit (Newman) 594

independent of experience (Kant) 19–20

inductive (Mill) 104

as instrument of falsification (Nietzsche) 87

and intellect, and Schopenhauer 421

and Jacobi 80–1, 589

and Kant 19–24, 36–7, 224–5, 547–8, 608–11

in knowledge 1

and Lessing 583

liberty through 612–13

and Möser 611

and Newman 592

and normativity (Fichte) 404–5

and passion (Hume) 471

practical, and Schopenhauer 420

pure (Kant) 64

purism of 576–86

and reality (Hegel) 40

reason-understanding dualism 28

and Rehberg 611

and Robespierre 609

and Saint-Just 609

and Schelling 562, 563

and self-determination 346–7

and Sieyès 609

unity of 61–91

and Wolff 608

See also Critique of Practical Reason, Critique of Pure Reason

recapitulation 214

and Haeckel 218n76

Recherches physiologiques sur la vie et la mort (Bichat) 206

Rechtsstaat (Kant) 641

reductionism 224

reference 281–9

reflection

and Hegel 31

methodological 320–2

Reflections on the Revolution in France (Burke) 607, 615–16, 763

Réflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu (Carnot) 223

reflexivity 545–68

and empiricism 545

Reginster, Bernard 9

Rehberg, August Wilhelm 4, 11, 604, 610–11

Reid, Thomas 3–4, 7, 20, 102, 245, 249

and Butler 471

Reimann, Bernhard 136, 156, 161–2

Reinhold, Karl Leonard 2–3, 28, 51, 67, 100, 102, 349, 602

and Kant 68–9

“Relation of Art to Use, The” (Ruskin) 381–2

Relationship of Skepticism to Philosophy (Hegel) 869

religion 10, 519–94

assumptions (philologia sacra) 873

and Bentham 528

and Feuerbach 525–6, 528

and Hegel 302, 523, 849–50

and historicity 576–86

of humanity (Mill) 621, 731–61

an intuition 523

and Jacobi 588

and Kant 10–11, 430

and Marx 898

and Mendelssohn 588

and the middle class 528

and James Mill 528

modernism in 11

of morality 546–53

natural, and Kant 551–2

and Nietzsche 537–42

and philosophy 564–8

positive 523, 550–1

and Sade 495

and Schleiermacher 553–61

and Schopenhauer 537–8

and Sedgwick 465

speculative

defined 545

types of 545–8

and the state (Bakunin) 785

and Strauss 532–3

therapeutic (Rieff) 543

traditional 570–96

and “utility,” 528

and the working class 528

and the Young Hegelians 532–3

See also Christianity

Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason (Kant) 49, 549–52

Renan, Ernest 536

rent

ground, theory of (Malthus) 684–5

unearned (Ricardo) 685–8

representation (Vorstellung), and Reinhold 68–9

Republic (Plato) 879, 896

respect, and Schiller 407–9

ressentiment, and Nietzsche 512–13

Reuss, Edouard 536

Rêve de d’Alembert (Diderot) 219

revelation

and Drey and Lessing 579–80

positivism of (Barth) 581

revolution 783–9

ennervating the collective (Benjamin) 770

French 11–12, 601–22, 629–30

British responses to 611–22

and German philosophy 602–11

intellectual goal of 760

minority, and Blanqui 785–9

as structural change (Pomian) 788

revolution, marginal 694–7

Revue philosophique 2

Rheinische Zeitung 524

Ricardo, David 12, 295, 684, 685–8

and Lloyd 688

and Malthus 686

and Marx 688

and James Mill 687

and J. S. Mill 687

and Senior 688

and Smith 687–8

and Whately 688

Richards, Joan 152, 214

Rickert, Heinrich 793–5

Rieff, Philip 543

Riemann, Bernhard 4, 140–1

Riesse, J. K. 604

right(s)

absolute (Hegel) 449–50

abstract (Mill) 453

defined (Kant) 709

and duties 709–10

and Kant 709–10

and Mill 749n110

and Fichte 715–16

and Hegel 497–8

innate (angeborne) and external (äußerlich) (Kant) 709

international 713–15

national 710–13

natural 12, 710–13

and Bentham 621, 623, 632–3

and Burke 623–4

and Christian ethics 629

decline of 622–50

defined 625–9

and democracy 635–6

and economics 643–5

as emancipatory 626

as fundamentally egalitarian 626

and George 643–4

and Green 639

and Hegel 639

and Hume 627

as inherently subversive 629–30

and law 640–3

and Locke 614

and Marx 634

and James Mill 633

and J. S. Mill 621

and natural law 640

as nonsense upon stilts (Bentham) 615, 623

and Price 614

and Priestley 614

in progressive politics 631–7

and rationalism 628

and Rousseau 636

and Sabine 630

and Spencer 645

and Tocqueville 628

in the United States 645–9

original (Fichte) 447

property (Kant) 712–13

of states (Staatenrecht) (Kant) 712n33

Rights of Man, The (Paine) 615, 763

Ritchie, David G. 623, 628, 643

Ritter, H. 880–1

Ritterakademie (“knightly academy”) 50

Robertson, William 820

Robespierre 609

Robinet, Jean-Baptiste 213

Robinson, Hoke 879

Rodrigues, Olinde 772

Romantic School, The (Haym) 882

romanticism 52, 760

and Cobban 612

defined 604

“romantic syndrome,” 765

Röth, E. 3, 876–7

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 3, 12, 625, 642, 644, 651–7, 699–700, 819, 822

and Hegel 654, 657–8, 661

and Locke 699–700

and Machiavelli 699–700

and Smith 654–7

Royal Academy (Prussia) 2

Royce, Josiah 11, 58, 195

Royer-Collard, Pierre-Paul 4, 473

Rueger, Alexander 7

Ruge, Arnold 500, 524

Ruskin, John 325

Russell, Bertrand 59, 133, 141, 195, 261, 287, 612n18

Russell, Edmund 4, 212

Sabine, George 630, 645

Saccheri, Giovanni Girolamo 136–7, 139, 146–7

Sachs-Hombach, Klaus 242n1

Sade, marquis de (Donatien Alphonse François) 3, 493–6, 766

and Adorno 493

and Beauvier 493

and Foucault 493

and Horkheimer 493

and Lacan 493

Saint-Just, Louis-Antoine 609

Saint-Simon, Henri de 13, 434, 765, 771–3

Sartre, Jean-Paul 46

Satz, Deborah 12

Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue 901

Savigny, Friedrich Karl von 304, 642

Say, Jean-Baptiste 12, 682–3

Say’s law of markets 682–3

and Smith 682

Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von 5, 8–9, 11, 51, 225–7, 325, 430–1, 604, 636

and Fichte 561

and Hegel 363–4, 561–5

and Spinoza 30

schematism(Kant) 269

Schiele, F. M. 8

Schiller, Friedrich 8–9, 13, 48, 325, 344, 604, 797–8, 803

and Hegel 352

and Kant 405–9, 446

and Novalis 352

and Schelling 352

and Schlegel 352

Schlegel, August Wilhelm 275, 277, 345, 553, 874–5, 877

Schlegel, Friedrich 3, 8–11, 52, 295, 345, 553, 604, 828, 890, 895

and Aristotle 874–5

and Herder 270

and Plato 870

and Spinoza 30

Schleiden, Matthias Jacob 208

Schleiermacher, Daniel Friedrich 8–9, 11, 110, 201, 523, 542, 604, 801, 869, 872–3, 877, 890, 895

and Fichte 553–4

and Herder 266–9

and Kant 553

and Schlegel 870–1

and Spinoza 554–5

Schlözer, August von 797–8, 800, 822

Schmid, C. C. E. 246, 248

Schmidt, Johann Kaspar.

See Stirner, Max

Schneewind, J. B. 10

scholasticism 12

Science of Logic (Hegel) 579

schöne Wissenschaften (“beautiful sciences”) 820

Schopenhauer, Arthur 3, 6–9, 46, 57, 87–8, 228, 323–4

and Feuerbach 539

and Kant 370–1, 418

Schopenhauer, Johanna 2

Schröder, Ernst 109, 125

Schulbegriff (“scholastic concept”) 297

Schulze, Gottlob Ernst 3, 25, 70

Schumpeter, Joseph 676

Schwann, Theodor 208

Schweitzer, Albert 533

science (scientia) 5, 61–2

and Comte 671n43

defined by Vienna Circle 222–3

deterministic or stochastic 224

positive (Comte) 312, 441

and technology 858

Science as a Vocation (Weber) 814

Science of Logic (Hegel) 39, 42, 77, 99, 101–2, 452

sciences

moral, and Mill 310–15

natural 205, 210–32

challenges to philosophy 204–24

defined 220

nineteenth-century philosophical status of 203

and the soul 247–8

Scientific Ways of Treating Natural Law, The (Hegel) 720

“scientist” (Whewell) 5, 202

Searle, John 287, 900

Secondat, Charles Louis de.

See under Montesquieu, baron de

security, and Mill 452–3

selection

artificial 217

natural 217–18

and Darwin 219n82

self, and intellect (Nietzsche) 425–6

self-activity (Fichte) 445–7

self-awareness.

See under selfhood

self-consciousness 887, 889–90

and Hegel 299–300, 525

self-culture 13, 731–61

See under selfhood

self-denial (Stirner) 500

self-determination

and Fichte 400

and Hegel 412, 417

and Herder 708

and Kant 397–8

and Mill 725

and Nietzsche 423–7

and Schiller 348, 406

sexual (Démar) 768

self-differentiation (Hegel) 525

self-enjoyment (Selbstgenuß, Stirner) 501

self-expression (Goethe) 347

selfhood (Selbstischkeit) 7, 299

reason and feeling in 9

See also self-culture

self-identity (Drey) 580

self-interest

empirical (Schopenhauer) 421

metaphysical (Schopenhauer) 421–2

and Smith 678–9

self-legislation

and Fichte 402–4

See also autonomy

and Kant 715

and Nietzsche 424

and Schiller 405

self-liberation (Fichte) 717

self-love (Kant) 547

self-mastery (Nietzsche) 427

self-reflection (Dilthey) 316–17

self-sufficiency (Fichte) 401–4

self-thought (Selbstdenken) 607–8

self-valuation (Nietzsche) 511–12

Sellers, Wilfrid 39, 222

Semler, J. S. 801, 811

Seneca Falls Declaration 631, 648

Senior, Nassau 688

sensation, quantitative measurement in 255–8

sensationalism 470–1

and Condillac 1, 7, 470

and Locke 470

Sense, Illative (Newman) 595

sensibility 208

and Hegel 417

and Kant 66, 98–9

sensibility-understanding dualism 28

sensitivity, and Heydenreich 339

sentimentality 351–2

Serres, Étienne 207, 214

set theory 156

sexuality, and Sade 495–6

Sidgwick, Henry 9, 435, 436, 451, 460–1, 464–6, 621

and Mill 479

Sieyès, Emmanuel Joseph 609

Sigwart, Christoph von 4, 97, 109–12

Simon, Richard 820

Sinneswissenschaften (“sciences of sense”) 296

Sittlichkeit (Hegel) 448–50, 720–1

skepticism 19, 20, 866–7

and Hegel 884, 887, 889–90

and Hume 7

and Huxley 536

and Schlegel 871–2

and Stirner 500

Skorupski, John 9, 145

slavery 648

Sluga, Hans 289

Smith, Adam 12, 601–2, 625, 644, 651–7, 677–82, 774, 820

Smith, Robert 249

Social Contract (Rousseau) 652, 654–7

socialism

and Stirner 501

utopian 771, 851

society 11–13

and Bentham 621

and Bonald 572

capitalist (Smith) 655n7

civil

and Hegel 12, 301–2, 365, 657–62

and particularity (Hegel) 661

and Rousseau 653

communist (Marx) 458–60

and Comte 669–72

conceptions of

eighteenth-century 651–7

nineteenth-century 651–74

as a cultural tradition (Herder) 12

distinguishing (Montesquieu) 667n31

external organization of (Dilthey) 319

and German idealism 479

and Hegel 657–62

and language 573

and Maistre 572

and Marx 12, 662–6

“mass,” 13

and Mill 621

and Montesquieu 667

as a political state 12

and Rousseau 652

and Smith 12, 655

and Spencer 673–4

and the state 651–74

and Tocqueville 666–9

See also community, democracy, nationalism

socinianism 10

sociology 311, 854–6

and Comte 310–15, 443, 669–72

and Mill 314

positivistic (Durkheim) 857n185

Socrates 884–5

Sonnenfels, Joseph 603

Sophism 869–70, 894

Sophist (Plato) 879

soul

beyond nature (Herder) 828

and Coleridge 566

as immaterial nature (Hegel) 299

“myth” of the 557n37

and the natural sciences 247–8

and universe 362

space

as a priori intuition (Kant) 135

as an intuition (Kant) 140

of reasons and causes (Seller) 36

Spalding, Johann 822–3

Spallanzani, Lazzaro 206

specialization 445–6

species

gradual change of 215n66

species-being (Feuerbach) 303

Spectator (Addison) 323

speculation, principle of (Hegel) 74–5, 563–4

Speeches on Religion to Its Cultured Despisers (Schleiermacher) 523, 561, 564

Spencer, Herbert 6, 9, 201, 242, 244, 259, 621, 628

and Darwin 672

Spezialgeschichte (Hegel) 840

Spinoza, Baruch 6, 10–11, 231, 244–5, 552n26, 820, 867

spirit 843–4, 846–7

Absolute 29, 846

and Biedermann 586

and Hegel 448n20, 565n51, 849–50, 886

and Marx 901

free (Nietzsche) 423

and Hegel 295, 365, 497

See also spirit, Absolute

indwelling (Herder) 824–5

and Kant 295

Objective 300–3, 365, 848–9

Subjective 300

Spirit of Christianity, The (Hegel) 889

Spirit of the Laws (Montesquieu) 839

spiritualism

and Cousin 473–4

and empiricism 470

and German idealism 479

and intuitionalism 473–4

Spittler, Ludwig Timotheus 604

Stael, Mme. de 2

Stahl, Georg 22

Starck, August 604

state.

and Bakunin 785

and Comte 670

constitutional (Hegel) 657

and Hegel 302, 450, 497, 659–62, 719n54, 844

and Herder 659

and Marx 664–6

and Rousseau 654

and Smith 655–6

and society 651–74

See also nation-state, statism

Statics (Spencer) 645

statism 844–5

See also nation-state, state

Statism and Anarchy (Bakunin) 784

Stäudlin, Friedrich Carl 15

Steffens, Heinrich 225

Steigerung (“potentiation”) 195

Stein, Heinrich Friedrich Karl 448

Steinbuch, J. G. 253

Steinthal, Heymann 320

Stewart, Dugald 3–4, 8, 258–9, 470

and Coleridge 618–19

Stirner, Max (Johann Kaspar Schmidt) 10, 13

and Bruno and Edgar Bauer 500

and Engels 500

and Hegel 500

and Marheinke 500

and Michelet 500

and Ruge 500

and Schleiermacher 500

“Stoicism” (Hegel) 889

Stones of Venice (Ruskin) 380–1

Stout, G. F. 261

Strauss, David Friedrich 191, 524, 532–3, 578, 851

Strawson, Peter 287

Stufenfolge der Natur (Schelling) 183–4, 186

Stumpf, Carl 261

sublime, and Kant 332

Süßmilch, Johann Peter 901

suffering

and Nietzsche 513–17, 540–1

and Schopenhauer 418n122

Sulzer, Johann Georg 328

Sumner, William Graham 674

Sur l’admission des femmes au droit de cité (On the Admission of Women to the Rights of Citizenship, Condorcet) 762

“survival of the fittest” (Darwin) 219n82

Svarez, Carl G. 604

syllogism

and De Morgan 105, 123–4

and Hamilton 123–4

and inference (Lotze) 127

and Jacobi 81

and Locke 102–3

and Maimon 101

and Mansel 123

and Mill 104–5, 123

and Twesten 123

and Überweg 110–11

and Venn 124

and Whately 123

symploke (“weaving together,” Polybius) 797

syntheses

absolute (Hegel) 101–2

and history (Ranke) 808

idealist 195–7

and Marx 853, 857

objective (Weber and Cassirer) 815

system.

cultural (Dilthey) 318–19

idea of 61–91

and Fichte 69–71

and Hegel 71–8

and Herbart 78n43

and Jacobi 79–83

and Kant 62–7

and Kierkegaard 83–6

and Nietzsche 87–90

and Reinhold 68–9

as a promise and problem 62–78

as a wrong path and dead end 78–90

See also systematicity

System des transzendentalen Idealismus (Schelling) 562

System of Aesthetics (Heydenreich) 324, 339

System of Ethics (Fichte) 71, 399–400, 481

System of Logic (Mill) 436, 476–8, 591

System of Logic, Deductive and Inductive (Mill) 8, 229–30, 295, 312

System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive (Mill) 104

System of Transcendental Idealism (Schelling) 352–3

systematicity 61

and Hegel 4

and Mill 3

See also system

systematischer Zusammenhänge (“systematic connections,” Dilthey) 810

Système de la nature (d’Holbach) 169

Système de politique positive (Comte) 857

Systemstreit (“battle of systems”) 177

tätsachlichen Zusammenhang (“factual nexus,” Dilthey) 813

Taylor, Charles 837–8, 901

Taylor-Mill, Harriet 763, 772

technology 769–83

and science 858

teleology (Kant) 211–12, 721

telescopes 222n91

telos 857

Tennemann, Gottlieb 15, 867, 882

terms

and Boole 116

doctrine of 114–19

and Frege 116

and Hamilton 115

and ideas (Arnauld and Nicole) 114–15

intension and extension of 115

and Jevons 116

and Mansel 116

Tetens, J. N. 250

Textbook of the History of Philosophy (Marbach) 868

Textbook of the History of Philosophy (Windelband) 867

Theaetetus (Plato) 871

theism 570

theorem, intermediate value (IVT) and immediate zero (IZT) 160–1

Théorie des fonctions analytiques (Lagrange) 107

Théorie des quatres mouvements et des destinées générales (Theory of the Four Movements and the General Destinies, Fourier) 761

Theory of Justice, A (Rawls) 899

Theory of Science, A (Bolzano) 114, 124

Theory of the Moral Sentiments, A (Smith) 679

“Theory-Practice” (Kant) 609–10

thermodynamics 222

Theses on Feuerbach (Marx) 527, 850, 897

things in themselves (Kant) 19, 24–5, 72n31, 99

See also mundus intelligibilis

thinking

and Hegel 852n165

and Kant 98–9

and Marx 852n165

Thompson, David 630

Thompson, E. P. 631

thought

dominion of (Stirner) 507

laws of 103–4

thought-language principle 263

and Frege 281–2

and Hamann 277

and Hegel 264–5

and Herder 277

and Humboldt 275

and interpretation 267–9

and Mill 281

and Nietzsche 278–80

and Schlegel 275

and Schleiermacher 265–73

Thought, The (Frege) 282, 284–6, 289

“Thoughts on Poetry and Its Varieties” (Mill) 377

Three Essays (Mill), and Kant 10

Thus Spake Zarathustra (Nietzsche) 764

tidology, and Mill 312

Tiedemann, Dietrich 15, 866, 868

Timaeus (Plato) 33–4

Time and Tide (Ruskin) 380

“titanism,” 612n18

Titchener, E. B. 261

Tocqueville, Alexis de 666–9, 728

and Montesquieu 666–7

Torrens, Robert 684

Torricelli, Evangelista 22

Totalhabitus (Heyne) 820

totality 826

hen kai pan (“one and all”) 30, 34–5

redemptive (Kant and Hegel) 837

Tourtual, C. T. 253

Toward a Critique of Political Economy (Marx) 897–8

Tractatus (Wittgenstein) 288

and Mauthner 280–1

tradition, and Coleridge 619

traditionalism 589–90

defined 572

transcendentalism

and Emerson 361

as moral idealism and nature blended 561

transformation, imaginative, and nature 7

transitivity, and De Morgan 105–6

translation difficulty and bending word-usage, principle of 264

Treatise of Human Nature, A (Hume) 247, 328

Treatise on Algebra, A (De Morgan) 152–5

Treatise on Algebra, A (Peacock) 107, 150–2

Treatise on the Eye: The Manner and Phenomena of Vision (Porterfield) 249

Treitschke. Heinrich von 642

Trendelenburg, Adolf 4, 56, 96–8, 109–11, 124–5, 289, 804

Treviranus, Gottfried Reinhold 204

Tribune des Femmes (The Women’s Tribune) 769

Tridon, Gustave 787

Tristan, Flora 777–9

and Owen 778

Troeltsch, Ernst 794

Trois urnes, ou le salut de la patrie, par un voyager aérien, Les (The Three Urns, or the Salvation of the Country, by an Aerial Traveler, de Gouges) 762–3

truth 113n135

and Coleridge 566

and Hamann 582

and law (Hobbes) 769

and Lessing 578

moral, and subjective sentiments (Hume) 293

and Nietzsche 89n67

subjective (Kierkegaard) 585

and untruth

and Frege 112

and Lotze 112–13

Truth vs. Ashurst (Bentham) 617

Tschermak von Seysenegg, Gustav 221

Tübingen, University of 578

Turgot, Robert Jacques 311, 314, 818–19, 854

Turner, William 380

Twilight of the Idols (Nietzsche) 892, 894–6

Two Treatises on Civil Government (Locke) 628

types 212

Types of World Views and Their Unfoldment within Metaphysical Systems, The (Dilthey) 883

“Über die Aufgabe des Geschichtsschreibers” (Humboldt) 304

Überreste 306

Überweg, Friedrich 15, 109–11, 868, 882

“Über das Verhältniß der Naturphilosophie zur Philosophie überhaupt,” 564

unconscious, and Nietzsche 897

underconsumption theory (Malthus) 683–4

understanding

and Coleridge 592

and intuition 42

and Jacobi 589

and Kant 66, 98–100

and Schelling and Hegel 562

understanding-reason dualism 28

understanding-sensibility dualism 27–8

Unger, R. 882–4

“Unhappy Consciousness” (Hegel) 889–90, 898

unity

and coherence (Dilthey) 811

original 30–1

and Reinhold 68

systematic

and Kant 62–3, 65n13, 174

and reason 63–4

Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens (Kant) 830

Universal Principle of Right (Kant) 641

universalization (Kant) 392–3, 413–15

and Schopenhauer 418–19

Unto This Last (Ruskin) 380

Urrechte (“original rights,” Fichte) 447

Ur-teilen 30

Urvolk (“original people,” Fische) 718n51

“Usurpations of Reason, The” (Newman) 592

utilism, defined (Feuerbach) 525

utilitarianism 434, 688–90, 899

and Bentham 451, 628, 632–3

and Burke 628

and Coleridge 617

defined 689

hedonistic (Whewell) 476–7

and intuitionism 472–3

and James Mill 632

and J. S. Mill 454–5, 478, 628, 632

utility, and Mill 453

validity

and Lotze 113n135, 489

objective (Kant and Weber) 813–14

universal subjective (Kant) 329

values

moral 895

and Nietzsche 888

Van Dyke, Joseph S. 535

variants 220n88

Vatican Council, First 591

Venn, John 5, 95, 108–9

Verstand, and Dilthey 320

Verstehen, and Dilthey 320

Versuch einer Experimental-Seelenlehre (Krüger) 247

Versuch einer neuen Logik oder Theorie des Denkens (Maimon) 100–1

Vico, Gaimbattista 14, 317, 824–5

Vicq d’Azyr, Félix 204, 207

Vindication of the Rights of Man, A (Wollstonecraft) 763

Vindication of the Rights of Woman, with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects (Wollstonecraft) 763

Virchow, Rudolf 208, 210

virtue 406n71, 6, 30, 208, 210, 226

See also “highest good” vitalism,

Vlastos, Gregory 879

Vogt, Karl 6, 244

volition 7

Volkmann, W. F. 251

Volkmar, Wilhelm Fridolin 536

Voltaire (François Marie Arouet) 10, 14, 625, 817–18

voluntarism (Bautain) 591

Wagner, Richard, and Schopenhauer 539

Waitz, T. 251

Waldron, Jeremy 12

Wallace, R. J. 213, 217, 219

Walrus, Marie-Éspirit Léon 12

Ward, Mrs. Humphrey 261

Warren, John 153

Wartofsky, Marx 525

“Was Frege a Philosopher of Language?” (Dummett) 281–2

wealth, and Comte 743n73

Wealth of Nations, The (Smith) 654–5, 658, 663, 862

Weber, Ernst Heinrich 8, 24, 252

Weber, Max 257, 260, 793, 796, 801, 806, 813–16

and Dilthey 814

Weber’s Law 256–7

Wechselwirkung (“reciprocal action”) 194

Weierstrass, Karl 5, 155–6, 161–2

welfare, universal.

See good, social

Welt als Willie und Vorstellung (Schopenhauer) 186

Weltbegriff (“worldly concept”) 297

Weltgeschichte project (Baumgarten) 820

Weltseele (Schelling) 180

Wesen der Religion, Das (Feuerbach) 526

West, Sir Edward 684

Westminster Review 2

Wette, W. M. L. de 578

Wezel, J. K. 246

“What Does It Mean and To What End Do We Study Universal History?” (Schiller) 51

“What is X” question 895

Whately, Richard 102–3, 688

Wheeler, Anna Doyle 13

Whewell, William 5–6, 201–2, 230

Whitehead, Alfred 198, 231

Wilhelm von Humboldt: A Life and Characteristic (Haym) 882–3

will

arbitrary, and Kant 430

and Fichte 399, 403–4

general

and Bosanquet 621

and Rousseau 445

and Hegel 412, 417n118

and Kant 395–9, 416, 430, 547–9

and Nietzsche 423–6

and Schopenhauer 420–1

Will to Power, The (Nietzsche) 896

Winckelmann, Johann 820

Windelband, Wilhelm 97, 793–5, 803, 867, 882, 888

Wirkungszusammenhänge (Dilthey) 810

Wissen (“speculative knowledge”) 297

Wissenschaft vom Geiste, and Hegel 295

Wissenschaften 53

Wissenschaftlichkeit (“being a science”) 61

Wissenschaftslehre (Fichte) 2, 29, 68, 101, 552

nova methodo 37

Wissenschaftstheorie 188

Wittgenstein, Ludwig 280–1, 287, 894

Wöhler, Friedrich 209

Wolf, F. A. 800–1

Wolff, Christian 98–9, 246, 250, 327, 796, 798, 868

Wollstonecraft, Mary 13, 763–5

Woodhouse, Robert 150

Wordsworth, William 620

work, right to (Fourier) 774–5

Worker’s Union, The (Tristan) 778

World as Will and Representation, The (Schopenhauer) 3, 323–4, 371

“world-historical individuals” (Hegel) 843

worthiness, and virtue 833

Wright, Chauncey 6, 9

Wundt, Wilhelm 241, 244, 252, 257–8, 260–1

Xenophanes 868

Young, George Malcolm 536

Young, Thomas 258

Young Germany 851

Young Hegelians 57, 500–1, 851

Yukichi, Fukuzawa, and Mill 729

Zammito, John 14

Zeller, E. 868, 872, 880, 886

and Hegel 885n31

Ziolkowski, Theodor 837

zoology 225–6

Zoonomia (E. Darwin) 248

Zusammengehang der Tätsachen (“nexus of facts,” Rickert) 795

Zusammengehörigkeit (“coherent entity,” Rickert) 795

zusammengesetztes Verfahren (“composite procedure,” Dilthey) 812

Zusammenhang 793–816

and composite methodology (Dilthey) 809–13

defined (Dilthey) 795–6

and Geschichte (Chladenius) 802n58

and Humboldtian tradition 797–804

and Schiller 798

and Wolff 796–7

Zusammenhang der Dinge (“coherence or interconnection of all things”)

and Humboldt 801

and Leibniz and Wolfe 796

Zusammenhang der Teile des Ganzen (“larger whole,” Dilthey) 809

zusammenhängenden Ganzen (“rationally coherent whole”)

and Humboldt 803

and Schiller 798




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