This 2001 book charts the evolution of clientelist practices in several western European countries. Through the historical and comparative analysis of countries as diverse as Sweden and Greece, England and Spain, France and Italy, Iceland and the Netherlands, the authors study both the 'supply-side' - the institutional context in which party leaders devise and implement their political strategies - and the 'demand-side' - the degree of 'empowerment' of civil society - of clientelism. This approach contends that clientelism is a particular mix of particularism and universalism, in which interests are aggregated at the level of the individual and his family 'particularism', but in which all interests can potentially find expression and accommodation 'universalism'. In contrast, 'consociationalism' and 'corporatism' are systems of interest representation in which interests are aggregated at the level of 'social pillar' or the functional association 'universalism', but in which not all interests can find representation and accommodation 'particularism'.
• Presents clientelism and patronage as political strategies • Applies a historical /comparative approach to Western Europe • Engages the past and future of democratic interests representation
Preface; 1. Clientelism in historical and comparative perspective Simona Piattoni; 2. Why is there no clientelism in Scandinavia? A comparison of the Swedish and Greek sequences of development Apostolis Papakostas; 3. Patronage and the reform of the State in England (1700–1860) Frank O'Gorman; 4. Clientelism in the building of the state and civil society in Spain Georgina Blakeley; 5. Constraints on clientelism: the Dutch path to modern politics (1848–1917) Nico Randeraad and Dirk Jan Wolffram; 6. Mass parties and clientelism in France and Italy Carolyn M. Warner; 7. From patronage to clientelism: comparing the Italian and Spanish Experiences Jonathan Hopkin and Alfio Mastropaolo; 8. Clientelism in a cold climate: the case of Iceland Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson; 9. Clientelism, interests and democratic representation Simona Piattoni.