The Carolingian 'Renaissance' of the late eighth and ninth centuries, in what is now France, western Germany and northern Italy, transformed medieval European culture. At the same time it engendered a need to ensure that clergy, monks and laity embraced orthodox Christian doctrine. This book offers a fresh perspective on the period by examining transformations in a major current of thought as revealed through literature and artistic imagery: the doctrine of the Passion and the crucified Christ. The evidence of a range of literary sources is surveyed - liturgical texts, poetry, hagiography, letters, homilies, exegetical and moral tractates - but special attention is given to writings from the discussions and debates concerning artistic images, Adoptionism, predestination and the Eucharist.
• Gives serious consideration to the neglected area of the development of Carolingian theology • Offers an interdisciplinary approach, combining artistic, religious and literary sources • Offers a reassessment of some of the most striking and enigmatic representations of the Crucifixion to survive from the Carolingian era
List of illustrations; Preface; List of abbreviations; 1. Introduction; 2. The passion and Christological inquiry at the court of Charlemagne; 3. The crucified God in the Gellone Sacramentary and Hrabanus Maurus' In honorem sanctae crucis; 4. The crucified Christ in later Carolingian literature; 5. For whom did Christ die?: the controversy over divine predestination; 6. One-time sacrifice, daily food and drink: the controversy over the eucharist; 7. Three later Carolingian crucifixion images; 8. Conclusion; Select bibliography; Index.
'The result is without doubt the most thorough study of the passion in the Carolingian period to date.' David Appleby, The Medieval Review
' … an interesting and thorough book, full of insights.' Journal of Ecclesiastical History
'This book is filled with illustrations, most of them of great interest … There is a comprehensive index and a select bibliography.' Oxford Academic Journals
'Chazelle's careful, perceptive and engaging discussions, and her firm grasp of the sources, both primary and secondary, make this book an important contribution to the burgeoning literature on the so-called Carolingian Renaissance.' Journal of Ecclesiastical History
'This is a work of fine scholarship in a little known area, presented with style as well as insight, illuminating many theological themes which are of relevance today but above all showing how artistic representation and written word complement and illuminate one another.' Journal of Theological Studies
'This is a book in the best tradition of sophisticated theological, intellectual, and iconographical analysis. It should be required reading for all those concerned to explain that most distinctive of medieval constructions: the devotion - both intellectual and affective - to the crucified Christ.' Journal of Religion