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Speciation and Patterns of Diversity

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  • 22 b/w illus.
  • Page extent: 346 pages
  • Size: 247 x 174 mm
  • Weight: 0.7 kg
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 (ISBN-13: 9780521709637)

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  • Published January 2009

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Speciation and Patterns of Diversity
Cambridge University Press
9780521883184 - Speciation and Patterns of Diversity - Edited by Roger K. Butlin, Jon R. Bridle and Dolph Schluter
Frontmatter/Prelims

Speciation and Patterns of Diversity

Bringing together the viewpoints of leading ecologists concerned with the processes that generate patterns of diversity, and evolutionary biologists who focus on mechanisms of speciation, this book opens up discussion in order to broaden understanding of how speciation affects patterns of biological diversity, especially the uneven distribution of diversity across time, space and taxa studied by macroecologists. The contributors discuss questions such as: Are species equivalent units, providing meaningful measures of diversity? To what extent do mechanisms of speciation affect the functional nature and distribution of species diversity? How can speciation rates be measured using molecular phylogenies or data from the fossil record? What are the factors that explain variation in rates? Written for graduate students and academic researchers, the book promotes a more complete understanding of the interaction between mechanisms and rates of speciation and these patterns in biological diversity.

Roger Butlin is Professor of Evolutionary Biology, Animal and Plant Sciences, at the University of Sheffield. He has held a prestigious Royal Society Research Fellowship at the University of Cardiff and his work has been recognized by honorary fellowships at the Natural History Museum, Zoological Society of London, and Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences.

Jon Bridle is Lecturer in Biology, in the School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol. Since completing his PhD in Evolutionary Genetics in 1998, he has conducted research in quantitative genetics and evolutionary biology at University College London, University of Cardiff, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, and the Institute of Zoology, London. He was awarded a fellowship at the Zoological Society of London in 2002.

Dolph Schluter is Professor and Canada Research Chair, Biodiversity Research Centre and Zoology Department, at the University of British Columbia. He is a former President of the Society for the Study of Evolution and recipient of the Sewall Wright Award from the American Society of Naturalists. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of London and of Canada.


Ecological Reviews

Series Editor

Hefin Jones
Cardiff University, UK

Series Editorial Board

Mark Bradford
University of Georgia, USA
Jim Brown
University of New Mexico, USA
David Burslem
University of Aberdeen, UK
Lindsay Haddon
British Ecological Society, UK
Sue Hartley
University of Sussex, UK
Richard Hobbs
Murdoch University, Australia
Mark Hunter
University of Michigan, USA
Heikki Setala
University of Helsinki, Finland
Louise Vet
Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands

Ecological Reviews will publish books at the cutting edge of modern ecology, providing a forum for volumes that discuss topics that are focal points of current activity and are likely to be of long-term importance to the progress of the field. The series will be an invaluable source of ideas and inspiration for ecologists at all levels from graduate students to more-established researchers and professionals. The series will be developed jointly by the British Ecological Society and Cambridge University Press and will encompass the Society’s Symposia as appropriate.

Biotic Interactions in the Tropics: Their Role in the Maintenance of Species Diversity Edited by David F. R. P. Burslem, Michelle A. Pinard and Sue E. Hartley

Biological Diversity and Function in Soils Edited by Richard Bardgett, Michael Usher and David Hopkins

Island Colonization: The Origin and Development of Island Communities by Ian Thornton Edited by Tim New

Scaling Biodiversity Edited by David Storch, Pablo Margnet and James Brown

Body Size: The Structure and Function of Aquatic Ecosystems Edited by Alan G. Hildrew, David G. Raffaelli and Ronni Edmonds-Brown.


Speciation and Patterns of Diversity

Edited by

Roger K. Butlin

University of Sheffield

Jon R. Bridle

University of Bristol

Dolph Schluter

University of British Columbia


CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi

Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK

Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York

www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521883184

© British Ecological Society 2009

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2009

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication data

Speciation and patterns of diversity/edited by Roger Butlin, Jon Bridle and Dolph Schluter.
 p. cm. (Ecological reviews)
Includes bibliographical references.
1. Species diversity. 2. Biodiversity. I. Butlin, Roger, 1955– II. Bridle, Jon. III. Schluter, Dolph. IV. Series.
QH541.15.S64S62 2008
577–dc22
      2008025507

ISBN 978-0-521-88318-4 hardback
ISBN 978-0-521-70963-7 paperback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.


Contents

List of contributors
vii
Preface
ix
Acknowledgements
xi
1     Speciation and patterns of biodiversity
Roger K. Butlin, Jon R. Bridle and Dolph Schluter
1
2     On the arbitrary identification of real species
Jody Hey
15
3     The evolutionary nature of diversification in sexuals and asexuals
Timothy G. Barraclough, Diego Fontaneto, Elisabeth A. Herniou and Claudia Ricci
29
4     The poverty of the protists
Graham Bell
46
5     Theory, community assembly, diversity and evolution in the microbial world
Thomas P. Curtis, Nigel C. Wallbridge and William T. Sloan
59
6     Limits to adaptation and patterns of biodiversity
Jon R. Bridle, Jitka Polechová and Tim H. Vines
77
7     Dynamic patterns of adaptive radiation: evolution of mating preferences
Sergey Gavrilets and Aaron Vose
102
8     Niche dimensionality and ecological speciation
Patrik Nosil and Luke Harmon
127
9     Progressive levels of trait divergence along a ‘speciation transect’ in the Lake Victoria cichlid fish Pundamilia
Ole Seehausen
155
10    Rapid speciation, hybridization and adaptive radiation in the Heliconius melpomene group
James Mallet
177
11    Investigating ecological speciation
Daniel J. Funk
195
12    Biotic interactions and speciation in the tropics
Douglas W. Schemske
219
13    Ecological influences on the temporal pattern of speciation
Albert B. Phillimore and Trevor D. Price
240
14    Speciation, extinction and diversity
Robert E. Ricklefs
257
15    Temporal patterns in diversification rates
Andy Purvis, C. David L. Orme, Nicola H. Toomey and Paul N. Pearson
278
16    Speciation and extinction in the fossil record of North American mammals
John Alroy
301
Index
324

Contributors

John Alroy

The Paleobiology Database, University of California

Timothy G. Barraclough

Division of Biology, Imperial College London

Graham Bell

Biology Department, McGill University

Jon R. Bridle

School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol

Roger K. Butlin

Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield

Thomas P. Curtis

School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne

Diego Fontaneto

Division of Biology, Imperial College London

Daniel J. Funk

Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University

Sergey Gavrilets

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Department of Mathematics, University of Tennessee

Luke Harmon

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho

Elisabeth A. Herniou

Division of Biology, Imperial College London

Jody Hey

Department of Genetics, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey

James Mallet

Galton Laboratory, Department of Biology, University College London

Patrik Nosil

Zoology Department and Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia

C. David L. Orme

Division of Biology, Imperial College London

Paul N. Pearson

School of Earth, Ocean and Planetary Sciences, Cardiff University

Albert B. Phillimore

NERC Centre for Population Biology and Division of Biology, Imperial College London

Jitka Polechová

Biomathematics & Statistics Scotland

Trevor D. Price

Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago

Andy Purvis

Division of Biology, Imperial College London

Claudia Ricci

Università di Milano, Dipartimento di Biologia

Robert E. Ricklefs

Department of Biology, University of Missouri – St. Louis

Douglas W. Schemske

Department of Plant Biology and W. K. Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan State University

Dolph Schluter

Zoology Department and Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia

Ole Seehausen

Centre of Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, EAWAG

William T. Sloan

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Glasgow

Nicola H. Toomey

Division of Biology, Imperial College London

Tim H. Vines

Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionelle et Evolutive Montpellier

Aaron Vose

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Department of Computer Science, University of Tennessee

Nigel C. Wallbridge

Nomad Digital Limited


Preface

This volume is derived from the Annual Symposium of the British Ecological Society on ‘Speciation and Ecology’ which was held at the University of Sheffield, 28–30 March 2007. The idea for this Symposium arose during a previous meeting in the series, the 2002 ‘Macroecology: Concepts and Consequences’ meeting organized by Tim Blackburn and Kevin Gaston. The 2002 meeting concentrated on large-scale diversity patterns. Many speakers acknowledged the role of speciation in generating diversity and influencing patterns of diversity. Although there was some discussion of the factors that determine rates of speciation, it was striking how little contact there seemed to be between the discipline of macroecology and the large and active field of research into mechanisms of adaptive divergence and speciation. ‘Ecological speciation’ has been an area of research growth in recent years, asking how ecological drivers influence the speciation process. However, the opposite direction of effect, how speciation processes impact on ecological patterns, has been studied less. Therefore, we proposed a meeting whose central objective was to foster dialogue between these two fields.

The meeting had an unusual mix of participants but we hope that they managed to communicate effectively with one another! The chapters in this book reflect the range of topics discussed and we hope that they will help to continue the conversations that were started in Sheffield. In our introduction, we try to set the scene by considering mechanisms of speciation and their potential impacts on biodiversity, both in terms of species’ geographical distributions, and their interactions within ecological communities. In particular, speciation mechanisms can be divided into those that generate ecologically distinct species and those that do not, for example because reproductive isolation is driven by sexual conflict. These two classes of speciation mechanism may contribute to diversity in different ways, adding to either local diversity or beta diversity, for example, or affecting levels of within-species functional diversity. We also introduce the problems surrounding the estimation of speciation rates, an essential preliminary to understanding the factors that influence those rates.

We have not subdivided the book because we are reluctant to separate parts of a spectrum. However, the chapters are ordered in a progression, similar to that used at the Symposium, which begins with the nature of species, how we count the units of biological diversity and some of the limits on diversity; considers mechanisms of speciation and adaptation; and then looks at rates of speciation both from the perspective of molecular phylogenetics and that of the fossil record. We hope that readers will see some logic in this arrangement and will find the book stimulating and enjoyable.





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