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Reasoning
Studies of Human Inference and its Foundations

$167.00

Jonathan E. Adler, Gilbert Harman, Bas C. van Fraassen, Bernard Williams, R. M. Sainsbury, Jon Elster, Amos Tversky, Daniel Kahneman, L. Jonathan Cohen, George Ainslie, Lance J. Rips, Philip N. Johnson-Laird, Keith Stenning, Michael van Lambalgen, Bart Geurts, Achille C. Varzi, Henry E. Kyburg, Jr., Peter Gardenfors, Daniel N. Osherson, Edward E Smith, Ormond Wilkie, Alejandro Lopez, Eldar Shafir, Steven A. Sloman, Evan Heit, Mike Oaksford, Nick Chater, Ulrike Hahn, Keith E. Stanovich, Jonathan St. B. T. Evans, David E. Over, Ken I. Manktelow, John Pollock, Paul Thagard, Hans Rott, Issac Levi, Jamin Halberstadt, Timothy D. Wilson, Reneé Elio, Frances Je, Lance J. Rips, David Lewis, Robert C. Stalnaker, Daniel Kahneman, Carol A. Varey, Stephen Edelston Toulmin, Deanna Kuhn, Lance J. Rips, Elijah Milligram, Jonathan Adler, H. Paul Grice, Dennis J. Hilton, Susan Carey, Elizabeth Spelke, Patricia W. Cheng, Keith J. Holyoak, Leda Cosmides, John Tooby, Dan Sperber, Vittorio Girotto, Jerry Fodor, Jerry Fodor, Brian Skyrms, Russell C. Burnett, Douglas L. Medin, Richard E. Nisbett, Kaiping Peng, Incheol Choi, Ara Norenzayan, Donald Davidson, Bernard Williams, Ronald de Sousa, Jonathan Haidt, Daniel Osherson, Daniella Perani, Stefano Cappa, Tatiana Schnur, Franco Grassi, Ferruccio Fazio
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  • Date Published: May 2008
  • availability: Available
  • format: Hardback
  • isbn: 9780521848152

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About the Authors
  • This interdisciplinary work is a collection of major essays on reasoning: deductive, inductive, abductive, belief revision, defeasible (non-monotonic), cross cultural, conversational, and argumentative. They are each oriented toward contemporary empirical studies. The book focuses on foundational issues, including paradoxes, fallacies, and debates about the nature of rationality, the traditional modes of reasoning, as well as counterfactual and causal reasoning. It also includes chapters on the interface between reasoning and other forms of thought. In general, this last set of essays represents growth points in reasoning research, drawing connections to pragmatics, cross-cultural studies, emotion and evolution.

    • Includes an introductory overview of the foundations of reasoning which provides a survey to readers encountering the topic for the first time
    • Includes key new contributions from major figures in the field as well as original work giving breadth and depth of coverage
    • Covers new sub-fields not previously documented and identifies where new research is likely to appear
    Read more

    Reviews & endorsements

    "This book provides a very comprehensive, almost encyclopedic overview in the general area of reasoning. It encompasses psychological research and philosophical considerations of inductive paradoxes, along with useful sections on argumentation, reasoning and cultures, emotions and reasoning, abduction, and belief change. [...] Readers would benefit from a background in introductory logic or a familiarity with the history and practice of formal reasoning, especially for those articles in which formalization predominates over natural language. [...], this worthwhile book will benefit a wide range of readers since most of the articles deal with problems and issues that are fundamental to understanding the various ways that reasoning works, can work in context, or could work to inform prescriptions in ethics or arguments addressed to the best explanations. Recommended."
    --J. Gough, Red Deer College, CHOICE

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    Product details

    • Date Published: May 2008
    • format: Hardback
    • isbn: 9780521848152
    • length: 1072 pages
    • dimensions: 254 x 178 x 56 mm
    • weight: 2.05kg
    • availability: Available
  • Table of Contents

    Preface
    List of contributors
    Introduction: philosophical foundations
    Part I. Foundations of Reasoning: Section 1. Some Philosophical Viewpoints:
    1. Change in view: principles of reasoning
    2. Belief and the will
    3. Internal and external reasons
    4. Paradoxes
    Section 2. Fallacies and Rationality:
    5. When rationality fails
    6. Extensional versus intuitive reasoning: the conjunction fallacy in probability judgment
    7. Can human irrationality be experimentally demonstrated?
    8. Breakdown of will
    Part II. Modes of Reasoning: Section 3. Deductive Reasoning:
    9. Logical approaches to human deductive reasoning
    10. Mental modes and deductive reasoning
    11. Interpretation, representation, and deductive reasoning
    12. Reasoning with quantifiers
    13. The problem of deduction
    Section 4. Induction:
    14. Patterns, rules, and inferences
    15. Inductive logic and inductive reasoning
    16. Reasoning in conceptual spaces
    17. Category-based induction
    18. When explanations compete: the role of explanatory coherence on judgments of likelihood
    19. Properties of inductive reasoning
    Section 5. Dual and Integrative Approaches:
    20. Human reasoning and argumentation: the probabalistic approach
    21. Individual differences in reasoning and the algorithmic/intentional level distinction in cognitive science
    22. Reasoning, decision making, and rationality
    Section 6. Abduction and Belief Change:
    23. Defeasible reasoning
    24. Explanatory coherence
    25. Belief revision
    26. Belief, doubt, and evidentialism
    27. Reflections on conscious reflection: mechanisms of impairment by reasons analysis
    28. Belief change as propositional update
    Section 7. Causal and Counterfactual Reasoning:
    29. Causal thinking
    30. Causation
    31. Propensities and counterfactuals: the loser that almost won
    Section 8. Argumentation:
    32. The layout of arguments
    33. The skills of argument
    34. Reasoning and conversation
    Part III. Interactions of Reasoning in Human Thought: Section 9. Reasoning and Pragmatics:
    35. Specificationism
    36. Presupposition, attention, and why-questions
    37. Further notes on logic and conversation
    38. The social context of reasoning: conversational inference and rational judgment
    Section 10. Domain-Specific, Goal-Based, and Evolutionary Approaches:
    39. Domain-specific knowledge and conceptual change
    40. Pragmatic reasoning schemas
    41. Beyond intuition and instinct blindness: toward an evolutionarily rigorous cognitive science
    42. Use or misuse of the selection task? Rejoinder to Fiddick, Cosmides, and Tooby
    43. Why we are so good at catching cheaters
    44. The modularity of mind: an essay on faculty psychology
    45. Commitment Brian Skyrms
    46. Evolution of inference
    Section 11. Reasoning across Cultures:
    47. Reasoning across cultures
    48. Culture and systems of thought: holistic versus analytic cognition
    49. On the very idea of a conceptual scheme
    50. The truth in relativism
    Section 12. Biology, Emotions, and Reasoning:
    51. Logic and biology: emotional inference and emotions in reasoning
    52. Distinct brain loci in deductive versus probabilistic reasoning
    53. The emotional dog and its rational tail: a social intuitionist approach to moral judgment
    Index.

  • Editors

    Jonathan E. Adler, Brooklyn College, City University of New York
    Jonathan E. Adler is Professor of Philosophy at Brooklyn College and the Graduate School, City University of New York. His D.Phil. in philosophy is from Oxford University. His main areas of research are epistemology, philosophy of psychology, informal logic, ethics, and philosophy of education. In 2002, he published Belief's Own Ethics.

    Lance J. Rips, Northwestern University, Illinois
    Lance Rips received his Ph.D. from the Psychology Department at Stanford University in 1974 and taught at the University of Chicago from 1974 to 1993. Since 1993, Rips has been a Professor of Psychology at Northwestern University. He is on the editorial board of Cognition, Public Opinion Quarterly, and Informal Logic.

    Contributors

    Jonathan E. Adler, Gilbert Harman, Bas C. van Fraassen, Bernard Williams, R. M. Sainsbury, Jon Elster, Amos Tversky, Daniel Kahneman, L. Jonathan Cohen, George Ainslie, Lance J. Rips, Philip N. Johnson-Laird, Keith Stenning, Michael van Lambalgen, Bart Geurts, Achille C. Varzi, Henry E. Kyburg, Jr., Peter Gardenfors, Daniel N. Osherson, Edward E Smith, Ormond Wilkie, Alejandro Lopez, Eldar Shafir, Steven A. Sloman, Evan Heit, Mike Oaksford, Nick Chater, Ulrike Hahn, Keith E. Stanovich, Jonathan St. B. T. Evans, David E. Over, Ken I. Manktelow, John Pollock, Paul Thagard, Hans Rott, Issac Levi, Jamin Halberstadt, Timothy D. Wilson, Reneé Elio, Frances Je, Lance J. Rips, David Lewis, Robert C. Stalnaker, Daniel Kahneman, Carol A. Varey, Stephen Edelston Toulmin, Deanna Kuhn, Lance J. Rips, Elijah Milligram, Jonathan Adler, H. Paul Grice, Dennis J. Hilton, Susan Carey, Elizabeth Spelke, Patricia W. Cheng, Keith J. Holyoak, Leda Cosmides, John Tooby, Dan Sperber, Vittorio Girotto, Jerry Fodor, Jerry Fodor, Brian Skyrms, Russell C. Burnett, Douglas L. Medin, Richard E. Nisbett, Kaiping Peng, Incheol Choi, Ara Norenzayan, Donald Davidson, Bernard Williams, Ronald de Sousa, Jonathan Haidt, Daniel Osherson, Daniella Perani, Stefano Cappa, Tatiana Schnur, Franco Grassi, Ferruccio Fazio

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