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Being Together, Working Apart
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  • 71 tables
  • Page extent: 578 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.9 kg

Paperback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521607896 | ISBN-10: 0521607892)

  • There was also a Hardback of this title but it is no longer available
  • Published March 2005

Unavailable - out of print October 2011

$43.00



Being Together, Working Apart




Working mothers and fathers are now splitting three jobs between two people as they divide responsibilities for the family in addition to managing their own professional careers or jobs. Yet despite the fact that most parents are employed, how work affects the lives and well-being of parents and their children remains relatively unexplored. A recent study of 500 families, which focuses on middle-class dual-career families in eight communities across the US provides a holistic view of the complexities of work and family life experienced by parents and their children. This unique study has resulted in an unusually rich data set due to the variety of methods used. Drawing on the study, this book explores how dual-earner families cope with the stresses and demands of balancing work and family life, whether the time parents spend working is negatively affecting their children, how mothers feel managing both work and household responsibilities, and what role fathers are taking in family life. In answering these questions the authors argue for a new balance between work and family life. The book with its rich data, findings, and commentary from an interdisciplinary group of scholars provides a valuable resource for academics, policy makers, and working parents.

BARBARA SCHNEIDER is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Chicago, Principal Investigator for the new Data Research and Development Center at NORC and the University of Chicago, and Co-Director of the Alfred P. Sloan Center on Parents, Children, and Work. She is also a Senior Social Scientist at NORC and the University of Chicago and a Research Associate at the Ogburn-Stouffer Center for the Study of Population and Social Organization.

LINDA J. WAITE is the Lucy Flower Professor of Sociology at the University of Chicago and Co-Director of the Alfred P. Sloan Center on Parents, Children, and Work. She is also a Senior Social Scientist at NORC and the University of Chicago.





Being Together, Working Apart

Dual-Career Families and the Work-Life Balance



Edited by
Barbara Schneider and Linda J. Waite





PUBLISHED BY THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE
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© Cambridge University Press 2005

This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception
and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2005

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

Typeface Plantin 10/12 pt.   System LATEX 2e   [TB]

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Being together, working apart: dual-career families and the work–life balance / edited by Barbara Schneider and Linda J. Waite.
   p.   cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0 521 84571 8 (alk. paper) -- ISBN 0 521 60789 2 (pbk: alk. paper)
1. Dual-career families – United States. 2. Middle-class families – United States. 3. Work and family – United States. I. Schneider, Barbara L. II. Waite, Linda J.
HQ536.B432   2005
306.872 – dc22   2004056818

ISBN 0 521 84571 8 hardback
ISBN 0 521 60789 2 paperback

The publisher has used its best endeavours to ensure that the URLs for external websites referred to in this book are correct and active at the time of going to press. However, the publisher has no responsibility for the websites and can make no guarantee that a site will remain live or that the content is or will remain appropriate.





Contents




  List of figures page ix
  List of tables x
  List of contributors xiv
  Preface xix
  Acknowledgments xxi
 
Part I   Studying working families: an experiential approach
1   Why study working families? 3
  BARBARA SCHNEIDER AND LINDA J. WAITE
2   The design of the 500 Family Study 18
  LISA HOOGSTRA
  Commentary 39
  JOEL M. HEKTNER; JIRI ZUZANEK
 
Part II   Experiences at work and at home
  Overview 47
  JENNIFER HANIS-MARTIN
3   Spending time at work and at home: what workers do, how they feel about it, and how these emotions affect family life 49
  HOLLY R. SEXTON
  Commentary 72
  JERRY A. JACOBS; PATRICIA M. RASKIN
4   Women’s intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for working 79
  SYLVIA MARTINEZ
  Commentary 102
  PHYLLIS MOEN
5   Momentary emotion and cortisol levels in the everyday lives of working parents 105
  EMMA K. ADAM
  Commentary 134
  DOUGLAS A. GRANGER AND ELIZABETH A. SHIRTCLIFF
6   Emotional transmission between parents and adolescents: the importance of work characteristics and relationship quality 138
  JENNIFER L. MATJASKO AND AMY F. FELDMAN
  Commentary 159
  REED LARSON
 
Part III   Marriage and family
  Overview 167
  ALISA C. LEWIN
7   The everyday emotional experiences of husbands and wives 169
  CHI-YOUNG KOH
  Commentary 190
  ELAINE WETHINGTON; NORVAL D. GLENN
8   Couples making it happen: marital satisfaction and what works for highly satisfied couples 196
  MARK R. NIELSEN
  Commentary 217
  WILLIAM J. DOHERTY; SCOTT M. STANLEY
 
Part IV   Making it work at home
  Overview 227
  SHIRA OFFER
9   Measuring the gender gap in household labor: accurately estimating wives' and husbands’ contributions 229
  YUN-SUK LEE
  Commentary 248
  GLENNA SPITZE
10   A strategy for working families: high-level commodification of household services 252
  CAROLYN P. STUENKEL
  Commentary 273
  TOM FRICKE
11   Television use and communication within families with adolescents 277
  NICHOLAS P. DEMPSEY
  Commentary 297
  MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI; ROBERT KUBEY
12   Religiosity, emotional well-being, and family processes in working families 303
  JENNIFER A. SCHMIDT
  Commentary 325
  DON S. BROWNING
 
Part V   Parenting and adolescent development
  Overview 331
  PHILLIP L. HAMMACK
13   Adolescents’ assessments of parental role management in dual-earner families 333
  ELAINE MARCHENA
  Commentary 361
  RENA L. REPETTI, TALI KLIMA, AND TAMAR KREMER-SADLIK
14   Imagining family roles: parental influences on the expectations of adolescents in dual-earner families 365
  MATTHEW N. WEINSHENKER
  Commentary 389
  MICK CUNNINGHAM; JENNIFER GLASS
15   Transmitting educational values: parent occupation and adolescent development 396
  KIMBERLY S. MAIER
  Commentary 419
  JEYLAN T. MORTIMER
16   Following in their parents’ footsteps: how characteristics of parental work predict adolescents’ interest in parents’ jobs 422
  ARIEL KALIL, JUDITH A. LEVINE, AND KATHLEEN M. ZIOL-GUEST
  Commentary 443
  NANCY L. GALAMBOS
 
Part VI   Lessons to be learned
17   Achieving work–life balance: strategies for dual-earner families 449
  KATHLEEN E. CHRISTENSEN
 
Technical appendices
  Appendix A Obtaining accurate measures of time use from the ESM 461
  JAE-GEA JEONG
  Commentary 483
  SUZANNE M. BIANCHI; KAZUO YAMAGUCHI
  Appendix B Estimating and imputing incomes for middle-class families 491
  YONA RUBINSTEIN AND CASEY B. MULLIGAN
  Commentary 504
  LARS LEFGREN; ROSS M. STOLZENBERG
 
  References 515
  Index 542




Figures




3.1   Positive affect at home and work by self-directed versus conforming work orientation page 62
3.2   Negative affect at home and work by self-directed versus conforming work orientation 63
3.3   Engagement at home and work by self-directed versus conforming work orientation 64
3.4   Self-esteem at home and work by self-directed versus conforming work orientation 65
5.1   Schematic representation of the major components of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis 107
5.2   Observed cortisol values (in μg/dl) for participants by time of day (on a 24 hour clock) 117
5.3   Associations between ESM mood state factors and cortisol levels, controlling for time of day 118
5.4   Associations between ESM feelings about activities factors and cortisol, controlling for time of day 120
5.5   Associations between ESM reports of parent location (home, public, work) and ESM mood states 123
5.6   Associations between ESM reports of parent location (home, public, work) and ESM fellings about activities 125
6.1   Transmission of emotions between parents and adolescents (Level-1 coefficients) 146




Tables




2.1   Background and work characteristics of sampled parents page 28
2.2   Comparison of the March 2000 CPS and 500 Family Study college-educated subsamples 30
2.3   Emotional states and personal well-being of sampled parents 33
2.4   Characteristics of sampled adolescents 34
2.5   Characteristics of sampled kindergarteners 36
3.1   Primary work tasks by occupation category 54
3.2   Means for the composite variables, positive affect, negative affect, engagement, and self-esteem, for different types of work 58
3.3   Means for the composite variables, positive affect, negative affect, engagement, and self-esteem, at work for individuals who are self-directed versus conforming in work orientation 61
4.1   Summary of variables 86
4.2   Intercorrelations among variables 91
4.3   Summary of logistic regression analyses predicting intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for women 93
4.4   Summary of logistic regression analyses predicting intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for men 96
5.1   Hierarchical Linear Model predicting parents’ cortisol levels from time of day and mood state factors (N = 101) 119
5.2   Hierarchical Linear Model predicting parents’ cortisol levels from time of day and feelings about activity factors (N = 101) 122
5.3   Associations between parents’ emotions, feelings about activities and location by parent gender, controlling for time of day 124
5.4   Associations between location and cortisol controlling for time of day and health variables (Model 1) as well as mood state and feelings about activity variables (Model 2) 126
6.1   Multilevel crossover models – Time 2 adolescent emotion at home as a function of parent emotion at home (Level-2 coefficients) 148
7.1   Factor loadings of composite measures 175
7.2   Overall means and standard deviations of emotions during the week for husbands and wives 177
7.3   Husbands’ and wives’ average emotions in different locations 179
7.4   Husbands’ and wives’ average emotions with different companions 182
7.5   Husbands’ and wives’ average emotions while engaged in different activities 184
7.6   Differences in emotions of spouses by location 185
7.7   Difference in emotions of spouses by companions 186
8.1   Husband’s marital satisfaction and percent of wives who agree 202
8.2   Mean couple scores by level of marital satisfaction (n = 330) 203
8.3   Marital satisfaction and percent of relationship agreement for husbands and wives 204
8.4   Marital satisfaction and ranking of marital areas by husbands and wives 205
8.5   Depressive symptoms and self-esteem by marital satisfaction and gender 207
8.6   Percent of husbands and wives who come home from work feeling exhausted, emotionally drained, and angry by level of marital satisfaction 208
8.7   Ordered logistic regression of marital satisfaction on emotional well-being and years married for husbands and wives 210
8.8   Ordered logistic regression of marital satisfaction on individual ratings of marital functioning for husbands and wives 211
9.1   List of household tasks: survey and ESM 236
9.2   Number of hours spent on housework per week: survey 238
9.3   Number of hours spent on housework per week: the ESM 239
9.4   Number of hours spent on thinking about housework per week: the ESM 241
9.5   Estimates of number of hours spent on housework per week: survey and the ESM 241
11.1   Percent of time spent in secondary activities when television watching is the primary activity, by family member 284
11.2   Percent of time spent in secondary activities when interacting with family members is primary activity, by family member 285
11.3   Amount of time spent talking to other family members (summed proportion of primary and secondary activities), by family member by television use, with results of one-way ANOVAs 286
11.4   Regression of adolescents’ time spent talking to parents on family members’ time spent watching television, working, and parents’ experiences of parenting 287
11.5   Emotions when watching television and engaging in other leisure activities while talking with other family members, by family member 289
11.6   Emotions when watching television, with talking as primary or secondary activity, compared to exclusively watching television, by family member 291
12.1   Associations between maternal religiosity and maternal emotion 313
12.2   Associations between religiosity and adolescents’ emotion 315
12.3   Associations between maternal religiosity and parenting 317
12.4   Associations between religiosity and family dynamics 318
13.1   Variable descriptive statistics – mothers, fathers, and adolescents 342
13.2   Ordered probit models predicting mothers’ and fathers’ self-reported work-family role conflict (WFRC) from work and family characteristics – coefficients and changes in probabilities of predicting “high” conflict at the mean 348
13.3   Ordered probit models predicting adolescents’ assessments of mothers’ and fathers’ work-family role management (WFRM) – coefficients and changes in probabilities of predicting “excellent” assessment at the mean 353
14.1   Distribution of responses to family role expectation questions by gender of respondent 374
14.2   Means and standard deviations of independent variables 376
14.3   Logistic regression coefficients (expressed as odds ratios) from regressions predicting whether teenaged children of dual-earner parents expect to share tasks equally 377
15.1   Parental communication patterns with adolescents 405
15.2   Parental communication patterns with male and female adolescents 406
15.3   Mean of perceived challenge and support by adolescent gender 407
15.4   Unstandardized coefficients from logistic regression analyses of adolescent grades and graduate school aspirations 409
15.5   Regression coefficients from linear analysis of support and challenge 410
15.6   Results of hierarchical measurement modeling for mood 412
15.7   Results of hierarchical measurement modeling for self-esteem 413
15.8   Results of hierarchical measurement modeling for motivation 413
16.1   Descriptive statistics of all study variables 432
16.2   Bivariate correlations for all study variables 433
16.3   Ordered probit estimates for wanting a job like mother 434
16.4   Ordered probit estimates for wanting a job like father 436
A.1   Mean number of ESM responses by race, educational level, and gender 468
A.2   Unstandardized regression coefficients for the effect of time, place, activity, and psychological state factors on response rates (%) 471
A.3   Examples of procedures used in assigning weights 478
B.1   The current population survey data: 1999 through 2001 495
B.2   Distribution of annual earnings: married men and women, 16 through 65 years of age 495
B.3   Imputing wages 500




Contributors




Authors

EMMA K. ADAM, Assistant Professor, Program on Human Development and Social Policy, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University

KATHLEEN E. CHRISTENSEN, Ph.D., Director, Program on Workplace, Workforce, and Working Families, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

NICHOLAS P. DEMPSEY, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago

AMY F. FELDMAN, Ph.D., Research Associate, Public/Private Ventures

LISA HOOGSTRA, Ph.D., Director of Research Services, Alfred P. Sloan Center on Parents, Children, and Work, University of Chicago

JAE-GEA JEONG, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago

ARIEL KALIL, Assistant Professor, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago

CHI-YOUNG KOH, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago

YUN-SUK LEE, Assistant Professor, Department of Urban Sociology, University of Seoul

JUDITH A. LEVINE, Assistant Professor, School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago

KIMBERLY S. MAIER, Assistant Professor, Measurement and Quantitative Methods, College of Education, Michigan State University

ELAINE MARCHENA, Postdoctoral Fellow, Emory Center for Myth and Ritual in American Life, A. Sloan Center on Working Families

SYLVIA MARTINEZ, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago

JENNIFER L. MATJASKO, Assistant Professor, Department of Human Ecology, Division of Human Development and Family Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin

CASEY B. MULLIGAN, Professor, Department of Economics, University of Chicago

THE REVEREND MARK R. NIELSEN, Ph.D., Research Affiliate, Alfred P. Sloan Center on Parents, Children, and Work, University of Chicago

YONA RUBINSTEIN, Assistant Professor, The Eitan Berglas School of Economics, Tel Aviv University

JENNIFER A. SCHMIDT, Assistant Professor of Educational Psychology, Northern Illinois University

BARBARA SCHNEIDER, Professor of Sociology and Human Development, Co-Director, Alfred P. Sloan Center on Parents, Children, and Work, University of Chicago

HOLLY R. SEXTON, MA, Data Administrator/Research Analyst, Alfred P. Sloan Center on Parents, Children, and Work, University of Chicago

CAROLYN P. STUENKEL, Ph.D, Research Affiliate, Alfred P. Sloan Center on Parents, Children, and Work, University of Chicago

LINDA J. WAITE, Lucy Flower Professor of Sociology, Co-Director, Alfred P. Sloan Center on Parents, Children, and Work, University of Chicago

MATTHEW N. WEINSHENKER, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago

KATHLEEN M. ZIOL-GUEST, Ph.D. candidate, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago


Commentators

SUZANNE M. BIANCHI, Professor of Sociology, University of Maryland

DON S. BROWNING, Alexander Campbell Professor of Religious Ethics and the Social Sciences, Emeritus, Divinity School, and Director of the Religion, Culture, and Family Project, University of Chicago

MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI, Director, Quality of Life Research Center, Drucker School of Management, Claremont Graduate University

MICK CUNNINGHAM, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Western Washington University

WILLIAM J. DOHERTY, Professor and Director of the Marriage and Family Therapy Program, Department of Family Social Science, University of Minnesota

TOM FRICKE, Professor of Anthropology, Director, Center for the Ethnography of Everyday Life, University of Michigan

NANCY L. GALAMBOS, Professor of Psychology, University of Alberta

JENNIFER GLASS, Professor of Sociology, University of Iowa

NORVAL D. GLENN, Ashbel Smith Professor, Stiles Professor in American, Studies, Department of Sociology, Population Research Center, University of Texas at Austin

RALPH E. GOMORY, President, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

DOUGLAS A. GRANGER, Associate Professor, Department of Biobehavioral Health, Pennsylvania State University

PHILLIP L. HAMMACK, Ph.D. candidate, Committee on Human Development, University of Chicago

JENNIFER HANIS-MARTIN, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago

JOEL M. HEKTNER, Assistant Professor, Child Development and Family Science, North Dakota State University

JERRY A. JACOBS, Merriam Term Professor of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania

TALI KLIMA, MA, Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles

TAMAR KREMER-SADLIK, Ph.D., Director of Research, UCLA Center on Everyday Lives of Families, A. Sloan Center on Working Families

ROBERT KUBEY, Director, Center for Media Studies, SCILS, Rutgers University

REED LARSON, Pampered Chef Endowed Chair in Family Resiliency, Department of Human and Community Development, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

LARS LEFGREN, Assistant Professor of Economics, Brigham Young University

ALISA C. LEWIN, Postdoctoral Fellow, Alfred P. Sloan Center on Parents, Children, and Work, University of Chicago, Lecturer, University of Haifa

PHYLLIS MOEN, McKnight Presidential Chair, Sociology, University of Minnesota

JEYLAN T. MORTIMER, Professor of Sociology, University of Minnesota

SHIRA OFFER, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago

PATRICIA M. RASKIN, Associate Professor, Program in Social-Organizational Psychology, Department of Education and Leadership, Teachers College, Columbia University

RENA L. REPETTI, Professor, UCLA Department of Psychology, Core Faculty Member, UCLA Center on Everyday Lives of Families, A. Sloan Center on Working Families

ELIZABETH A. SHIRTCLIFF, Ph.D. candidate, Biobehavioral Health, Pennsylvania State University

GLENNA SPITZE, Distinguished Service Professor, Department of Sociology, University at Albany, SUNY

SCOTT M. STANLEY, Ph.D., Co-Director, Center for Marital and Family Studies, University of Denver

ROSS M. STOLZENBERG, Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago

ELAINE WETHINGTON, Associate Professor and Co-Director, Cornell Institute for Translational Research on Aging, Department of Human Development and Department of Sociology, Cornell University

KAZUO YAMAGUCHI, Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago

JIRI ZUZANEK, Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo





Preface




Over the past thirty years, the life of the American family has experienced profound changes. Rather than the traditional arrangement of two adults with two jobs for them to do, one the breadwinner and one the homemaker, most families today have three jobs, two breadwinner jobs and one homemaker job, to distribute among its two adults. It is not surprising that in today’s world people often feel there is too much to do.

   Recognizing that we are living through a historic change in middle-class family life, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation established the Workforce, Workplace and Working Families Program in 1994. The goal of the program is to produce much-needed scholarship focused on working families; and to educate the next generation of scholars on issues of working families.

   At the heart of the program have been our six Centers on Working Families. The Centers function as both regional and national laboratories for the rigorous examination of the issues faced by families in which both parents work. Housed within leading research universities across the country, the Centers focus on issues ranging from employment options for older workers and retirees, to the role of myth and ritual in family life, to the changing nature of the ordinary activities of everyday life.

   The research efforts and policy recommendations of the Centers contribute to national discussion through conferences, publications, and media dialogue. The graduate and undergraduate students at the Centers receive important training that will help them to contribute to society’s ability to integrate work and family life.

   Founded in 1997 at the University of Chicago, the Center on Parents, Children, and Work is headed by Barbara Schneider and Linda Waite. Under their direction, the Center undertook a major research effort: the 500 Family Study. Using innovative research methods and in-depth analyses they and the scholars who wrote the chapters in this book paint a rich and detailed picture of what life is like today for middle-class families in which both parents work. Through their research, they provide a compelling description both of the challenges that Americans face in trying to handle the dual demands of work and family, and of the ways in which work and family nurture them and engage them.

President, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation     RALPH E. GOMORY





Acknowledgments




Many individuals helped to make this book a reality. First and foremost are the 500 families who participated in our study. Despite their busy lives, they let us into the privacy of their homes, answered our many questions, and responded every day for a week to a watch that beeped at the most inopportune moments. We owe them our deepest thanks and appreciation. We are also indebted to the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and particularly Kathleen Christensen, our Program Director, for their generous support in establishing the Sloan Center on Parents, Children, and Work, which made it possible for us to conduct the 500 Family Study. A decade ago, the Foundation, under the direction of Ralph Gomory, embarked on a bold initiative to create a vital research community throughout the US and abroad committed to the study of working families. Our work has greatly benefited from the Foundation’s efforts, which included networking and collaborating with other Sloan Center directors and researchers.

   The interdisciplinary community at the University of Chicago facilitated our research. A special thanks to Craig Coelen, President of NORC, who generously housed and administratively supported our Center. Richard Saller, Provost, and Mark Hansen, Dean of the Social Sciences Division, provided us with support for graduate students, workshops, and conferences. We would especially like to thank Kathleen Parks, Director of the Academic Research Centers at NORC, who assisted in numerous ways with staffing, office space, and Institutional Review Board issues; Isabel Garcia, Grants and Contracts Administrator, who provided budget oversight and reimbursements; Brian Whitely, who supplied editorial assistance; and Gail Spann and Adelle Hinojosa who made the little everyday problems disappear.

   The 500 Family Study relied on the scholarly contributions of many researchers, including those who designed the study, the graduate and undergraduate assistants who collected, coded, and analyzed the data, and the staff members who supervised them. In designing the study and instruments we owe special thanks to several Center Research Associates: Charles Bidwell, William Claude Reavis Professor Emeritus of Sociology and Education at the University of Chicago; Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, C. S. and D. J. Davidson Professor of Management at Claremont Graduate University and Professor Emeritus of Psychology, Human Development, and Education at the University of Chicago; Janet Shibley Hyde, Helen Thompson Woolley Professor of Psychology and Women’s Studies at the University of Wisconsin; Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Professor of Social Policy at Northwestern University; Rita Gorawara-Bhat, Research Associate, Department of Medicine at the University of Chicago; Reed Larson, Professor of Human and Community Development, Psychology, Leisure Studies, and Kinesiology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Kevin Rathunde, Associate Professor, Department of Family and Community Studies, University of Utah; and Ariel Kalil, Susan Lambert, Judith Levine, Casey Mulligan, Damon Phillips, Ross M. Stolzenberg, and Kazuo Yamaguchi, all professors at the University of Chicago. We would also like to thank Emma Adam, Richard Bernard, Regina Bures, Qin Chen, Rachel Gordon, Lisa Hoogstra, Lianne Kurina, Kim Maier, Jennifer Schmidt, and Maud Schaafsma, former postdoctoral fellows with the Center who are now pursuing careers in teaching and research. Each chapter in this volume was critiqued by senior scholars: Their reviews of earlier versions of the chapters were invaluable in helping authors refine their arguments and analyses. We gratefully appreciate the careful, thoughtful reviews of these scholars, who also contributed the chapter commentaries that appear in this volume.

   Fielding the 500 Family Study involved the efforts of countless graduate and undergraduate assistants who helped with phone calls, scheduled interviews, visited families and conducted interviews at various sites across the country, and followed up and retrieved data from study participants. Space does not allow us to thank every person, but we have singled out a few who deserve special thanks for their hard work and dedication. We particularly thank Jennifer Schmidt, former Director of Research for the Center, who oversaw training, data collection, and coding for the 500 Family Study and without whose hard work, experience, and calm direction the study could not have been completed. Special thanks to Colleen Spence, Jennifer Hanis, Gloria Williams-McCowen, Ali Swanson, and Christine Li for their coordination of fieldwork efforts. Thanks also to the graduate and undergraduate students who helped with various phases of data collection, transcription, coding, and data analysis, including Alisa Ainbinder, Nora Broege, Nicholas Dempsey, Allison Deschamps, Chi-Young Koh, Jennifer Kottler-Smith, Page Lessy, Laura Lewellyn, Elaine Marchena, Maureen Marshall, Sylvia Martinez, Mark Nielsen, Carolyn Stuenkel, Cheryl Sutherland, Matthew Weinshenker, Emily Bernstein, Sarah Crane, Sunny Chang, Joelle Gruber, Sara Ann Jachym, Lars Jarkko, Mary Elizabeth Jowers, Dana Kolom, Jennifer Lohmann, Melinda Luo, Annie Maxfield, Nick Papageorge, and Clara Park. We also thank Tom Howe for preparing the data files for the 500 Family Study.

   Several undergraduates need to be acknowledged for their contributions to the preparations of this volume, including Allison Atteberry, Paul Hanselman, Jessica Lester, Ann Owens, Jacob Rogers, and Emily Rook-Koepsel. We appreciate their hard work in formatting chapters and tables, entering editorial corrections, proofreading, checking references, and indexing. Thanks also to Ye Luo, Senior Research Analyst with the Center, who helped with data analysis in chapter 2, and Surella Seelig, former Project Administrator for the Center, who was involved with the early stages of the book’s preparation.

   Three individuals helped transform early manuscripts into chapters. Jason Labate, the Administrative Director of the Center, was command central; his organizational skills helped to keep us on schedule, track changes, and coordinate the efforts of a rocking and rolling staff. Holly Sexton, our Data Administrator, checked every analysis, oversaw all editorial changes, and could be depended on to catch every wrong number in the text and tables. And then there is Lisa Hoogstra, Director of Research Services, whose careful, meticulous, helpful critiques created a book. Thank you all.


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