This is the first complete account of the physics of the creep and fracture of ice, and their interconnectivity. It investigates the deformation of low-pressure ice, which is fundamental to glaciers, polar ice sheets and the uppermost region of icy moons of the outer Solar System. The book discusses ice structure and its defects, and describes the relationship between structure and mechanical properties. It reviews observations and measurements, and then interprets them in terms of physical mechanisms. The book provides a road-map to future studies of ice mechanics, such as the behaviour of glaciers and ice sheets in relation to climate change and the dating of deep ice cores. It also highlights how this knowledge is transferable into an understanding of other crystalline materials. Written by experts in the field, it is ideal for graduate students, engineers and scientists in Earth and planetary science, and materials science.
Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Structure of ice; 3. Microstructure of natural ice features; 4. Physical properties: elasticity, diffusivity and friction; 5. Plastic deformation of the ice single crystal; 6. Ductile behavior of polycrystalline ice: experimental data and physical processes; 7. Modelling the ductile behavior of isotropic and anisotropic polycrystalline ice; 8. Rheology of high-pressure and planetary ices; 9. Fracture toughness of ice; 10. Brittle failure of ice under tension; 11. Brittle compressive failure of unconfined ice; 12. Brittle compressive failure of confined ice; 13. Ductile-to-brittle transition under compression; 14. Indentation fracture and ice forces on structures; 15. Fracture of the ice cover on the Arctic Ocean; References; Index.