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Customary International Law
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  • 14 b/w illus.
  • Page extent: 440 pages
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  • Weight: 0.59 kg
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 (ISBN-13: 9780521138727)

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Customary International Law
Cambridge University Press
9780521191364 - Customary International Law - A New Theory with Practical Applications - By Brian D. Lepard
Frontmatter/Prelims

Customary International Law

Customary international law, although long recognized as a primary source of international law, remains replete with enigmas, both conceptual and practical. These include how to determine the existence of opinio juris, the function of the state practice requirement, the definition of jus cogens customary norms, and the relationship between customary international law and ethics. In part because of these enigmas, the subject has generated a wide-ranging literature. However, no recent book-length work has attempted to articulate a comprehensive theory of customary international law that can effectively resolve these questions.

This book sets out to accomplish this goal. Its approach is unique in a number of ways. For example, it is multidisciplinary and draws insights from fields such as legal theory, philosophy, political science, and game theory. In addition, it is anchored in a sophisticated ethical framework and explores at length the interconnections between customary international law and ethics.

Brian D. Lepard is Law Alumni Professor of Law at the University of Nebraska College of Law and codirector of the university's Human Rights and Human Diversity Initiative. Professor Lepard has served as Chair of the International Legal Theory Interest Group of the American Society of International Law. His books include Hope for a Global Ethic: Shared Principles in Religious Scriptures (2005) and Rethinking Humanitarian Intervention: A Fresh Legal Approach Based on Fundamental Ethical Principles in International Law and World Religions (2002). His articles have appeared in such journals as the Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law and the Journal of Human Rights.


ASIL Studies in International Legal Theory

Series Editors:

Mortimer N.S. Seller
University of Baltimore
Elizabeth Andersen
American Society of International Law

The purpose of the ASIL Studies in International Legal Theory is to clarify and improve the theoretical foundations of international law. Too often the progressive development and implementation of international law has foundered on confusion about first principles. This series will raise the level of public and scholarly discussion about the structure and purposes of the world legal order and how best to achieve global justice through law.

The idea for this series grows out of the International Legal Theory project of the American Society of International Law. The book series ASIL Studies in International Legal Theory will deepen this exchange by publishing scholarly monographs and edited volumes of essays considering subjects in international legal theory.

Editorial Board

Samantha Besson
University of Fribourg
Allen Buchanan
Duke University
David Kennedy
Harvard University
Jan Klabbers
University of Helsinki
Larry May
Vanderbilt University
Helen Stacy
Stanford University
John Tasioulas
Oxford University
Fernando Teson
Florida State University
Onuma Yasuak
University of Tokyo

Customary International Law

A New Theory with Practical Applications

Brian D. Lepard

University of Nebraska


CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo

Cambridge University Press
32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, USA

www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521138727

© Brian D. Lepard 2010

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2010

Printed in the United States of America

A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library.

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication dataLepard, Brian D.Customary international law : a new theory with practical applications /Brian D. Lepard. p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 978-0-521-19136-4 (hardback) – ISBN 978-0-521-13872-7 (pbk.)1. Customary law, International. I. Title.KZ1277.L47 2010341 – dc22 2009026767

ISBN 978-0-521-19136-4 Hardback
ISBN 978-0-521-13872-7 Paperback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party Internet Web sites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.


For Jenina


Contents

Figures
xi
Acknowledgments
xiii
Cases
xv
PART ONE: THE ENIGMAS OF CUSTOMARY INTERNATIONAL LAW
1.        The Need for a New Theory
3
2.        Some Conceptual Enigmas
14
3.        Some Practical Enigmas
30
PART TWO: FOUNDATIONS OF A NEW THEORY OF CUSTOMARY INTERNATIONAL LAW
4.        Clarifying the Concept of Authoritative International Legal Norms
47
5.        Fundamental Ethical Principles and Customary International Law
77
PART THREE:RESOLVING THE CONCEPTUAL ENIGMAS OF CUSTOMARY INTERNATIONAL LAW
6.        Toward a New Normative Theory of Customary International Law
97
7.        A New Understanding of Opinio Juris
112
8.        The Function of the State Practice Requirement
122
9.        Ethics and Customary International Law
140
10.       Democratic Principles and Customary International Law
151
11.       The Relationship Between Customary International Law and General Principles of Law
162
PART FOUR:RESOLVING THE PRACTICAL ENIGMAS OF CUSTOMARY INTERNATIONAL LAW
12.       General Sources of Evidence of Opinio Juris
171
13.       The Role of Treaties as Evidence of Opinio Juris
191
14.       The Role of United Nations General Assembly Resolutions as Evidence of Opinio Juris
208
15.       The Role of Consistent State Practice
218
16.       The Persistent Objector Exception
229
17.       Defining Jus Cogens Customary Norms
243
18.       Defining Erga Omnes Customary Norms
261
19.       Resolving Conflicts with Treaties
270
20.       Changing Customary International Law and the Role of International Organizations
277
PART FIVE:SOME APPLICATIONS OF THE THEORY
21.       International Rules on Allocating Income for Tax Purposes
285
22.       International Human Rights Law in General
306
23.       Determining the Customary Law Status of Specific Human Rights
331
24.       The Right to Change One's Religion or Belief
346
PART SIX: THE FUTURE OF CUSTOMARY INTERNATIONAL LAW
25.       Customary International Law as a Dynamic Process
371
Bibliography
381
Index
397



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