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The Nuremberg SS-Einsatzgruppen Trial, 1945–1958
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  • Page extent: 354 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.69 kg
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 (ISBN-13: 9780521456081)

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  • Published April 2009

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The Nuremberg SS-Einsatzgruppen Trial, 1945–1958
Cambridge University Press
9780521456081 - The Nuremberg SS-Einsatzgruppen Trial, 1945–1958 - Atrocity, Law, and History - By Hilary Earl
Frontmatter/Prelims

The Nuremberg SS-Einsatzgruppen Trial, 1945–1958: Atrocity, Law, and History

Based on extensive archival research, this book offers the first historical examination of the arrest, trial, and punishment of the leaders of the SS-Einsatzgruppen – the mobile security and killing units employed by the Nazis in their racial war on the eastern front. Sent to the Soviet Union in the summer of 1941, four units of Einsatzgruppen, along with reinforcements, murdered approximately 1 million Soviet civilians in open air shootings and in gas vans and, in 1947, twenty-four leaders of these units were indicted for crimes against humanity and war crimes for their part in the murders. In addition to describing the legal proceedings that held these men accountable, this book also examines recent historiographical trends and perpetrator paradigms and expounds on such contested issues as the timing and genesis of the Final Solution, the perpetrators’ route to crime, and their motivation for killing, as well as discussing the tensions between law and history.

Hilary Earl is Assistant Professor of History at Nipissing University, North Bay, Ontario, Canada. Her research has been featured in several collections, including Lessons and Legacies IV (2004), Secret Intelligence and the Holocaust (2006), and Biography between Structure and Agency: Central European Lives in International Historiography (2008). Her most recent project, The Genocide Paradox: Prosecuting Genocide from Nuremberg to The Hague, is a historical examination of the legal outcomes of war crimes trials from the post–World War II period through the trials conducted by the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia. She has received fellowships from the Holocaust Educational Foundation, the Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, the Leonard and Kathleen O’Brien Humanitarian Trust, and the Joint Initiative for German and European Studies.


The Nuremberg SS-Einsatzgruppen Trial, 1945–1958

Atrocity, Law, and History

Hilary Earl

Nipissing University


CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
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Cambridge University Press
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www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521456081

© Hilary Earl 2009

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2009

Printed in the United States of America

A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library.

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataEarl, Hilary Camille, 1963–The Nuremberg SS-Einsatzgruppen trial, 1945–1958 : atrocity, law, and history / Hilary Earl.p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 978-0-521-45608-1 (hardback)1. Einsatzgruppen Trial, Nuremberg, Germany, 1947–1948. 2. War crime trials—Germany.3. World War, 1939–1945—Atrocities. 4. Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter-Partei.Schutzstaffel. Sicherheitsdienst. 5. Holocaust, Jewish (1939–1945)—Soviet Union.6. Holocaust, Jewish (1939–1945)—Poland. 7. Germany—History—1933–1945. I. Title.KZ1179.E36E37 2009341.6′90268 – dc22 2008044211

ISBN 978-0-521-45608-1 hardback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party Internet Web sites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other factual information given in this work are correct at the time of first printing, but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter.


For my parents, John and Barbara Earl


Contents

Illustrations and Tables
ix
Abbreviations
xi
Acknowledgments
xiii
Introduction
1
1.    The United States and the Origins of the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials
19
2.    Otto Ohlendorf and the Origins of the Einsatzgruppen Trial
46
3.    Defendants
96
4.    Defense
135
5.    Trial
179
6.    Judge and Judgment
217
7.    Aftermath: From Perpetrators of Genocide to Ordinary Germans
265
Conclusion
296
Bibliography
305
Index
329

Illustrations and Tables

Illustrations

1.    Mass shooting by an unidentified unit of the EGN in the Soviet Union, USHMM photo archive (#89063)
73
2.    A map that accompanied a secret undated report on the mass murder of Jews by EG A, used as evidence in the trial, USHMM photo archive (#03550)
74
3.    American army staffers organize stacks of German documents collected by war crimes investigators, USHMM photo archive (#03549)
80
4.    Defendants receive their indictments from Col. C.W. Mays, Marshal of the Military Tribunal, USHMM photo archive (#81980)
89
5.    Defendants, USHMM photo archive: Paul Blobel (#s 09921), Erwin Schulz (09926), Gustav Nosske (09928), Walter Haensch (09931), Werner Braune (09932), Erich Naumann (09935), Heinz Jost (09936), Ernst Biberstein (09938), Walter Blume (09940), Adolf Ott (09941), Otto Rasch (09943), Eduard Strauch (09944), Eugen Steimle (09922), Franz Six (09923), Sandberger (09924), Felix Rühl (09925), Otto Ohlendorf (09929), Matthias Graf (09930), Heinz Schubert (09933), Willy Seibert (09934), Lothar Fendler (09937), Emil Hausmann (09942), Waldemar Klingelhöfer (09939), Waldemar von Radetzky (09945)
98
6.    Ohlendorf in court, USHMM photo archive (#43038)
148
7.    Defendants in the dock, USHMM photo archive (#16813)
197
8.    Chief Prosecutor, Benjamin Ferencz in court, USHMM photo archive (#09918)
210
9.    Members of the prosecution team, USHMM photo archive (#16814)
211
10.   The Judges (Speight, Musmanno, and Dixon) of Military Tribunal II-A, USHMM photo archive (#16815)
253

Tables

1.    Defendants and Their Rank
82
2.    Age of Defendants
104
3.    Education of the Defendants
121
4.    Joining Date of Defendants
126
5.    Joining Dates of the SA, SS, SD, and Gestapo
129
6.    Einsatzgruppen Leaders
142
7.    Einsatzkommando Leaders
143
8.    Judgment and Sentences
259
9.    Recommendations of the Advisory Board on Clemency (Peck Panel)
283
10.   Recommendations of the Advisory Board on Clemency and John McCloy's Decisions
287
11.   Sentence Modifications of the Einsatzgruppen Leaders between 1948 and 1958
293



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