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Artificial Intelligence
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Details

  • 187 b/w illus. 173 exercises
  • Page extent: 682 pages
  • Size: 253 x 215 mm
  • Weight: 1.31 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 006.3
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: Q342 .P66 2010
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Computational intelligence--Textbooks
    • Artificial intelligence--Textbooks

Library of Congress Record

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 (ISBN-13: 9780521519007)

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Artificial Intelligence
Cambridge University Press
9780521519007 - Artificial Intelligence - Foundations of Computational Agents - By David L. Poole and Alan K. Mackworth
Index

Index

= (equals) 532

A* search 89

Λ (and) 163

⇐ (base-level if) 581

← (if) 163, 496

⊫ (entails) 160, 499

⊫ (true in) 222

≠ (not equal to) 535

ɸ (denotation of terms) 496, 514

π (denotation of predicate symbols) 496

π (meaning of atoms) 159

—→ (rewritten as) 521

⊢ (derive) 167

∨ (or) 585

% (comment) 496

&(base-level and) 581

abduction 199, 200

abductive diagnosis 201

abilities 11

absolute error 290

absorbing state 399

abstractions 15

achievement goal 25, 355

action 45, 350

action constraints 361

action features 360

action function 74

action profile 425, 435

activation function 306

active learning 285

active sensor 64

acts 4

actuator 44, 45

acyclic 184, 195

acyclic directed graph 75

add list 354

additive independence 378

additive utility 378

admissibility 91

aerodynamics 10

agent 4, 10, 43, 45

embedded 59

purposive 44

agent system 45

agent system model 59

AI 3

algebra 222

algebraic variable 113

Allais Paradox 380

alpha-beta (α-β) pruning 431

alternative 615

analysis 4

Analytical Engine 7

ancestor 184

annealing schedule 138

answer 166, 171, 187, 504

answer clause 171

answer extraction 504, 509

anytime algorithm 26

application of substitution 506

approximately correct 332

approximately optimal 14

approximately optimal solution 14

arc 75

arc consistent 121

argument 197, 494

Aristotelian definition 567

array 634

Arrow's impossibility theorem 446

artificial intelligence 3

ask 161, 166

ask-the-user 175, 576

askable 175

assertional knowledge base 568

assignment space 118

assumable 187, 200

assumption-based truth maintenance system 207

asymptotic complexity 83

asynchronous value iteration 406

ATMS 207

atom 158, 163

atomic clause 163, 496

atomic proposition 158, 163

atomic symbol 494

attribute 552

auction 448

autonomous delivery robot 30

average reward 402

axiom 160, 161, 501

axiom schema 533

axiomatizing 161, 501

axioms

of probability 224

of rationality 373

back-propagation learning 317

background knowledge 17, 607

background variables 206

backtracking 80, 120

backward induction 430

bagging 319

base language 580

base level 580

base-level algorithms 319

Basic Formal Ontology 573

Bayes' rule 229

Bayesian classifier 309

Bayesian learning 334

Bayesian network

See belief network

Bayesian probability 220

beam search 141

belief 49

belief monitoring 271

belief network 235, 236, 458

causality 241

inference problem 252

belief state 48, 61

belief state transition function 49

best response 436

best-first search 88

beta distribution 337

BFO 573

bias 286, 321, 331

bias-free 331

bidirectional search 101

binary constraint 116

binary feature 112

biology 6

bit 231

blame attribution problem 465

body 44

agent 45

rule 163, 496

Boltzmann distribution 142, 473

Boolean property 553

Boolean variable 113, 126, 158

boosting 320

bottom-up proof procedure 167

boundary of a process 576

boundary of an object 575

bounded rationality 26

branch-and-bound 98

branching factor 77

breadth-first search 84

candidate elimination algorithm 329

canonical representation 534

cardinal 14

cardinal preference 25

case analysis 125

case-based reasoning 324

causal 48

causal link 364

causal mechanism 206

causal model 204, 206

causal network 241

causal rule 353, 601

causal transduction 48

causality 204, 241

central limit theorem 223

chain rule 227

chance node 384

characteristic function 559

children 142

choice space 615

choose 170

Church-Turing thesis 7

clarity principle 114, 241

Clark normal form 538

Clark's completion 194, 538

class 298, 309, 451, 559, 568

classification 284, 298

classification tree 298

clause 126

definite 163, 494, 496

Horn 185

closed list 94

closed-world assumption 193

cluster 451

clustering 451

cognitive science 10

command 45

command function 49

command trace 46

commonsense reasoning 13

competitive 424

complements 381

complete 131, 167

bottom-up derivation 169

complete knowledge assumption 193

completeness

of preferences 373

complex preference 25

complexity 83

compositional measure of belief 226

compound proposition 158

computational 4

computational learning theory 332

computational limits dimension 26

computational linguistics 520

concept 572

conceptualization 494, 563

conditional effect 355

conditional

expected value 231

conditional probability 225

conditional probability distribution 227, 297

conditionally independent 233

Condorcet paradox 445

conflict 132, 187

conjunction 158

consequence set 167

consistency-based diagnosis 187, 189

consistent 328, 358, 608

constant 494

constrained optimization problem 144

constraint 115

constraint network 121

constraint optimization problem 145

constraint satisfaction problem 117

context-free grammar 521

context-specific independence 250

contingent attribute 562

continuant 573

continuous variable 113

controller 45, 48, 426

cooperate 444

cooperative 424

cooperative system 196

coordinate 444

coordination 437

cost 76

credit-assignment problem 285

cross validation 324, 325

crossover 142

CSP

See constraint satisfaction problem

culture 6

cumulative probability distribution 257

cumulative reward 401

cyc 564

cycle 75

cycle check 93

cyclic 184

DAG 75

Datalog 494

datatype property 568

DBN

See dynamic belief network

DCG

See definite clause grammar

dead reckoning 58

debugging 179

incorrect answers 180

infinite loops 184

missing answers 182

decision

sequential 386

single 384

decision function 391

decision network 384, 387, 428

decision node 384

decision tree 298, 382, 426

learning 298, 321

decision tree learning 232

decision variable 382

decision-theoretic planning 409

deduction 167, 200

Deep Space One 212

default 176, 196

definite clause 163, 494, 496

definite clause grammar (DCG) 522

definite clause resolution 169

delay 536, 590

delete list 354

delivery robot 30

DENDRAL 9

denote 496

dense 46

dependent continuant 573, 575

depth-bounded meta-interpreter 587

depth-first search 80

derivation 167, 171, 510

derived 167, 204, 354, 600

knowledge 558

description logic 568

design 4, 202

design space 19

design time reasoning 17

desire 49

deterministic 24

diagnosis 201

abductive 201

consistency-based 187

decision theoretic 383

probabilistic 245

diagnostic assistant 30, 33

dictator 447

difference list 522

differentia 567

dimension

computational limits 26

effect uncertainty 24

learning 26

modularity 19

number of agents 25

planning horizon 22

preference 24

representation scheme 20

sensing uncertainty 23

directed acyclic graph 75

directed graph 75

Dirichlet distribution 337

discount factor 402

discounted reward 402

discrete 46

discrete variable 113

disjunction 158, 185, 585

disjunctive normal form 189

disposition 575

distribution

normal 223

do 598

domain 112, 113, 496, 552, 633

domain consistent 121

domain expert 63

domain ontology 571

domain splitting 125

dominant strategy 446

dominates 439

don't-care non-determinism 170

don't-know non-determinism 170

dot product 271

DPLL 127

dynamic 599

dynamic belief network 272

dynamic decision network 409

dynamic programming 103

economically efficient 446

effect 350, 354

effect constraints 361

effect uncertainty dimension 24

effectively computable 7

effector 44

efficient 446

eligibility trace 479

elimination ordering 252

EM 452, 455, 460

embedded agent 59

embodied 44

empirical frequency 295

endogenous variables 206

engineering goal 4

ensemble learning 319

entails 160

entity 573

entropy 232, 292

environment 10

epistemological 221

epistemology 9

equal 532

error 288

absolute 290

sum squares 290

worst case 291

error of hypothesis 332

Euclidean distance 95, 325

evaluation 145

evaluation function 132, 433

event calculus 604

evidence 225

evidential model 205

evolutionary algorithm 466

exclusive-or 308

existence uncertainty 619

existentially quantified variable 500

exogenous variables 206

expanding 78

expectation maximization (EM) 452

expected monetary value 376

expected utility 386, 392

expected value 230

of utility of a policy 392

experience 468

expert opinion 297

expert system 9, 10, 61

explained away 201, 243, 245

explanation 201

exploit 472

explore 472

expression 496

extensional 559

extensionally 116

extensive form 426

external knowledge source 65

extrapolation 286

f(p) 89

factor 249, 634

factored finite state machine 50

factored representation 50

factorization 236

fail 170

failing naturally 96

failing unnaturally 96

failure 197

fair 170, 518

fairness 19

false 159, 498

false-negative error 14, 182, 292

false-positive error 14, 180, 292, 293

fault 187

feature engineering 484

feature-based representation of actions 353

features 21, 112

feed-forward neural network 316

fiat part of an object 575

fiat part of process 576

filler 556

filtering 58, 267, 271

finite failure 199

finite horizon 23

finite state controller 50

finite state machine 50

first-order predicate calculus 517

fixed point 169

flat 20

floundering goal 541

fluent 599

flying machines 9

for all 500

forward chaining 167

forward planner 356

frame 556

frame problem 618

frame rule 353, 601

framing effect 380

frequentist 220

fringe 77

frontier 77

fully observable 23

fully observable dynamic decision network 411

fully observable Markov decision process 401

function 575, 633

symbol 514

fuzzy terms 52

gambling 220

game tree 426

Gaussian distribution 223

general boundary 329

M ized additive independence 381

generalize 285

generalized answer clause 509

generalized arc consistency algorithm 122

generate and test 118, 146

genetic algorithms 142

genus 567

Gibbs distribution 142, 473

Gini index 302, 345

global minimum 149

goal 11, 25, 49, 171, 356

node 75

goal constraints 361

gradient descent 149, 304

grammar 521

context-free 521

definite clause 522

graph 75

greedy 23, 609

greedy ascent 132

greedy descent 132

ground 496

ground instance 506, 507

ground representation 580

h(n) 87

hard clustering 452

hard constraint 111, 115

head 163, 496

help system 246, 312

Herbrand interpretation 508

heuristic

function 87

knowledge 72

search 87

heuristic depth-first search 88

hidden Markov model (HMM) 267

hidden variable 244, 460

hierarchical 20

hierarchical Bayesian model 338

hierarchical control 50

hill climbing 132

history 10, 48, 468

HMM

See hidden Markov model

Hoeffding's inequality 259

horizon 361

Horn clause 185

how 17

how question 177

human-computer interaction (HCI) 578

hyperparameters 339

hypothesis 288

hypothesis space 288, 328

identity uncertainty 619

imperfect information game 428

implication 158

incoming arc 75

inconsistent 186

incorrect answer 180

incremental gradient descent 305

indefinite horizon 23, 399

independent 233

independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) 335

independent choice logic (ICL) 615

independent continuant 573, 575

indicator variable 141, 290

indifferent 373

individual 22, 141, 492, 496, 568

individual-property-value 552

induction 200, 284

inductive logic programming 606

inference 167

infinite horizon 23, 399

influence diagram 387

information content 232

information gain 232, 302

information set 428

information theory 231, 323

init 598

initial-state constraints 361

input features 288

insects 18

instance 504, 506

ground 507

instance space 328

insurance 377

integrity constraint 185

intelligent action 4

intelligent tutoring system 35

intended interpretation 161, 501

intensional 559

intensionally 116

intention 49

interpolation 286

interpretation 159, 496

intersection 636

intervention 204, 206, 241

involve 115

island 102

island-driven search 101

iterative best improvement 132

iterative deepening 95

A* 98

Java 495, 558

join 636

joint probability distribution 236, 252

k-fold cross validation 324

k-means algorithm 452

kd-tree 326

kernel functions 314

knowledge 12, 60

knowledge base 12, 17, 60, 160, 163, 494, 496

knowledge engineers 63

knowledge is given 26

knowledge is learned 26

knowledge level 16, 176

knowledge-based system 60

knowledge-level debugging 180

landmarks 52

language 521

natural 520

language bias 331

latent tree model 314

latent variable 244, 309, 460

learning 61, 283–347, 441–445, 451–488, 606–611

Bayesian 334

bias 331

case-based 324

decision trees 232, 298

decision tree 321

multiagent 441

neural network 315

PAC 332, 340

relational 606

supervised 284

to coordinate 441

unsupervised 285, 451

version space 329

learning bias 321

learning dimension 26

learning rate 304

leave-one-out cross-validation 325

leaves 75

level of abstraction 15

life-long learning 6

likelihood 229

likelihood of the data 292

linear function 304

linear regression 304, 484

linearly separable 308

Linnaean taxonomy 567

lists 516

literal 126, 194

liveness 18

local minimum 149

local optimum 132

local search 130, 131, 609

localization 268

logic 495

logic program 514

logic programming 207

logical consequence 160, 499

logical variable 494

logically follows 160

logistic function 307

long-term memory 61

loop check 93

lottery 373

lowest-cost-first search 86

M features 360

M system 51

machine learning

See learning

maintenance goal 25, 355

MAP model 321

mapping 633

margin 314

Markov assumption 266

Markov blanket 235

Markov chain 266

Markov decision process 399, 463

matrix multiplication 271

maximum a posteriori probability 321

maximum entropy 233, 234

maximum likelihood model 292, 321

maximum-likelihood estimate 295

MDL principle 323

MDP

See Markov decision process

measure 221

mechanism 424, 446

mechanism design 446

meta-interpreter 579, 580, 582

ask the user 589

build proof tree 587

built-in predicates 586

delayed goals 590

depth-bounded 587

disjunction 586

vanilla 583

meta-level 580

metalanguage 580

MGU 507

min-factor elimination ordering 130

minimal

conflict 187

model 169

minimal diagnosis 189

minimal explanation 201

minimal model 509

minimax 430

minimum deficiency elimination ordering 130

minimum description length (MDL) 323

minimum fixed point 169

missing at random 461

model 15, 57, 116, 160

modular 20

modularity 19

modularity dimension 20

modus ponens 167

money pump 374

monitoring 267, 271

monotone restriction 95

monotonic 196

more general hypothesis 329

more specific hypothesis 329

most general unifier 507, 511

multiagent decision network 428

multiple agent 25

multiple-path pruning 93, 94

mutex constraint 361

MYCIN 9

myopic 23

myopically optimal 301

N3 555

naive Bayesian classifier 246, 310, 455

Nash equilibrium 436

natural kind 309, 313, 559

natural language processing 520

nature 44, 424

nearest neighbors 325

negation 158, 185

negation as failure 194, 199, 537

negative examples 607

neighbor 75, 131

neural network 315

no 166

no-forgetting agent 388

no-forgetting decision network 388

node 75

noisy 267

noisy or 250

non-deterministic 170

non-deterministic procedure 170

non-ground representation 580

non-monotonic 196

non-parametric distribution 223

non-planning 23

non-serial dynamic programming 151

non-terminal symbol 521

nonlinear planning 364

normal distribution 223

normal-form game 425

Notation 3 555

NP 170

NP-complete 170

NP-hard 170

number of agents dimension 25

number uncertainty 619

object 552, 575

object aggregate 575

object language 580

object property 568

object-oriented languages 495

object-oriented programming (OOP) languages 558

objective function 144

observation 11, 17, 174, 225

occurrent 573, 575

occurs check 518

Ockham's razor 287

off policy 470

off-policy learner 475

offline 61

offline computation 17

offline learning 285

omniscient agent 114

on-policy learner 475

one-point crossover 142

online 60, 64

online computation 17

online learning 285

ontological 221

ontology 61, 161, 175, 549, 563

OOP

See object-oriented programming

open-world assumption 193

optimal 74

optimal algorithm 105

optimal policy 386, 392, 403

optimal solution 13, 76

optimality criterion 144

optimization problem 144

oracle 170

orders of magnitude reasoning 52

ordinal 13

ordinal preference 25

organizations 6

outcome 373, 382, 425

outgoing arc 75

overfitting 303

OWL 564, 568

PAC learning 332, 340

pair 633

parametric distribution 223

parametrized random variable 613

paramodulation 534

parents 235

partial 267

partial evaluation 590

partial-order planning 363

partially observable 23

partially observable game 428

partially observable Markov decision process 401, 411

particle 264

particle filtering 264, 265

passive sensor 64

past experience 11

path 75

consistency 125

payoff matrix 426

percept 45

percept stream 46

percept trace 46

perception 58

perceptron 306

perfect information 430

perfect information game 426

perfect rationality 26

philosophy 9

physical symbol system 15

physical symbol system hypothesis 15, 319

pixels 45

plan 356

planner 356

planning 356–370, 604

as a CSP 360

forward 356

partial-order 363

regression 357

planning horizon 22

planning horizon dimension 23

plate model 338, 613

point estimate 288

policy 103, 386, 390

policy iteration 407

policy search 466

POMDP

See partially observable Markov decision process

population 141, 264

positive examples 607

possible 358

possible world 113, 115, 382, 391, 615

posterior probability 225

pragmatics 521

precision 293

precision-recall curve 293

precondition 350, 353, 354, 601

precondition constraints 361

predicate symbol 494

preference 144

preference bias 331

preference dimension 25

preference elicitation 379

primitive 204, 354, 566, 600

knowledge 558

prior count 296

prior knowledge 10

prior probability 225

prisoner's dilemma 437

probabilistic independence 233

probabilistic inference 248

probabilistic relational model (PRM) 612

probability 219–275, 295

axioms 224

conditional 225

posterior 225

prior 225

semantics 222

probability density function 223

probability distribution 222

probability mass 262

probability measure 221

probable solution 14

probably approximately correct 259, 332

probably approximately correct learning 332

process 23, 576

process aggregate 576

processual context 576

processual entity 576

projection 636

Prolog 9, 494, 496

proof 167

bottom-up 167

top-down 169

proof procedure 167

proof tree 179

prop 552

property 552, 568

property inheritance 561

proposal distribution 260, 261

proposition 21, 158

propositional calculus 158

propositional definite clause resolution 169

propositional definite clauses 163

propositional satisfiability 126

prospect theory 380

proved 167

pseudocount 296

psychology 9

punishment 399

pure strategy 435

pure symbol 127

purposive agent 44

Q* 404

Q-learning 469

Q-value 404, 469

Qπ 403

qualitative derivatives 52

qualitative reasoning 52

quality 575

quantitative reasoning 52

query 166, 494, 496

querying the user 175

random initialization 131

random restart 131

random sampling 132

random variable 221

random walk 132

random worlds 233, 234

range 552, 633

rational 376

rational agent 373

RDF 555, 559, 564

RDF Schema 559

RDF-S 564

rdf:type 559

rdfs:subClassOf 559

reachable 599

realizable entity 575

reasoning 17

recall 293

recognition 201

record linkage 619

recursively enumerable 517

reflection 579

regression 284, 304

regression planning 357, 358

regression tree 314

reify 552

reinforcement learning 285, 463

rejection sampling 259

relation 22, 492, 633, 635

relational algebra 635

relational database 635

relational descriptions 22

relational probability model 612

relational uncertainty 619

representation 12

representation scheme 12

representation scheme dimension 20, 22

resampling 264

resolution 169, 171

SLD 169, 510

resolvent 171

resource 555, 564

Resource Description Framework 555, 564

restriction bias 331

return 469

revelation principle 447

reward 399

rewrite rule 521, 534

risk averse 377

robot 10, 30, 44

ROC curve 293

role 63, 575

root 75

rule 163, 494, 496

rule of inference 167

run 427

run-time distribution 138

safety goal 18, 355

sample average 258

sample complexity 333

SARSA(λ) 479

satisfiable 201

satisficing 14

satisficing solution 14

satisfies 116

policy 391

satisfy 115

scenario 201

scheme 115, 635

scientific goal 4

scope 115, 145, 634, 635

search 71–110

A* 89

best-first 88

bidirectional 101

breadth-first 84

cycle-checking 93

depth first 80

dynamic programming 103

gradient descent 149

heuristic 87

island driven 101

iterative deepening 95

local search 130

lowest-cost-first 86

search and score 462

search bias 331

second-order logic 517

second-price auction 448

select 170

selection 635

selector function 615

semantic interoperability 65, 550

semantic network 554

semantic web 555, 564

semantics 159, 520

propositional calculus 159

variables 496

sensing uncertainty dimension 23

sensor 44, 45, 64

sensor fusion 270

separable control problem 58

sequential decision problem 386

sequential prisoner's dilemma 438

set 633

set difference 636

short-term memory 61

sigmoid 307

simulated agent 59

simulated annealing 136

single agent 25

single decision 384

single-stage decision network 384

site 575

situation 598

situation calculus 598

SLD derivation 171, 510

SLD resolution 169, 510

slot 556

Smalltalk 558

smoothing 267, 271

SNLP 370

social preference function 446

society 6

soft clustering 452

soft constraint 111, 145

soft-max 473

software agent 10

software engineer 63

software engineering 13

solution 73, 75

sound 167

spatial region 573, 575

spatio-temporal region 576

specialization operator 609

specific boundary 329

squashed linear function 306

stable 453

stack 80

stage 23

start node 75

start states 74

starvation 170, 518

state 20, 72

state constraints 361

state space 72

state-space graph 351, 356

state-space problem 74

static 599

stationary 266, 399

stationary policy 403

step function 306

step size 150, 151

stimuli 45

stochastic 24

stochastic beam search 142

stochastic local search 134

stochastic simulation 256

stochastic strategy 435

stopping state 399

strategic form of a game 425

strategically 424

strategy 426, 427, 435

strategy profile 427, 435

strictly dominated 147

strictly dominates 440

strictly preferred 373

STRIPS assumption 354

STRIPS representation 354

structure learning 461

subClassOf 559

subgame-perfect equilibrium 439

subgoal 171

subject 552

subjective probability 220

substitutes 381

substitution 506

sum-of-squares error 290, 453

supervised learning 284, 288

support set 435, 439

support vector machine (SVM) 314

SVM

See support vector machine

symbol 15, 114

symbol level 17

symbol system 15

syntax 520

Datalog 494

propositional definite clauses 163

synthesis 4

systematicity 370

tabu list 135

target features 288

TD error 467

tell 161

temperature 473

temporal difference error 467

temporal region 575

term 494, 514

terminal symbol 521

terminological knowledge base 568

test examples 288

theorem 167

there exists 500

thing 573

thinking 4

threat 438

time 46, 598

tit-for-tat 438

top-down proof procedure 169

total assignment 115

total reward 402

trading agent 30, 37

training examples 284, 288, 328

transduction 48

transitivity of preferences 374

tree 75

tree augmented naive Bayesian (TAN) network 314

treewidth 130, 256

triple 552, 555, 606, 633

triple representation 552

true 159, 498, 633

true-positive rate 293

truth maintenance system 207

truth value 159

truthful 446

try 131

tuple 115, 633, 635

Turing test 5

Turtle 555

tutoring system 30

two-step belief network 272

type 559

type 553, 559

UML 558

unary constraint 116

unconditionally independent 235

unification 511

unifier 507

Uniform Resource Identifier 555, 564, 568

uninformed search strategies 80

union 636

unique names assumption 535

unit resolution 127

units 315

universally quantified 498

universally quantified variable 498

unsatisfiable 186

unstable 319

unsupervised learning 285, 451

URI

See Uniform Resource Identifier

useful 358

user 64, 114, 175

utility 14, 376

utility node 385

Vπ 403

V* 404

validation set 324

value 401

value of control 398

value of information 397

vanilla meta-interpreter 582, 583

variable 113

algebraic 113

Boolean 113

continuous 113

decision 382

discrete 113

existentially quantified 500

logical 494

random 221

universally quantified 498

variable assignment 498

variable elimination 386

belief networks 248

CSPs 127

decision networks 392

optimizing soft constraints 147

variational inference 248

VCG mechanism 447

VE

See variable elimination

verb 552

version space 329

virtual body 50

walk 131

weakest precondition 358

weakly dominated 147

weakly preferred 373

Web Ontology Language 564

what 17

why question 177

whynot question 177

win or learn fast (WoLF) 445

word 494

world 10

worst-case error 291

wrapper 65

XML 564

yes 166

zero-sum game 424, 430




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