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The Second Ottoman Empire
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  • Page extent: 306 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.58 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 956/.015
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: DR511 .T49 2010
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Turkey--History--1453-1683
    • Turkey--History--1683-1829
    • Osman--II,--Sultan of the Turks,--1603-1622--Assassination
    • Janizaries--History
    • Social change--Turkey--History--17th century

Library of Congress Record

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 (ISBN-13: 9780521519496)

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  • Published September 2010

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The Second Ottoman Empire
Cambridge University Press
9780521519496 - The Second Ottoman Empire - Political and Social Transformation in the Early Modern World - By Baki Tezcan
Index

Index

Abaza Hasan Pasha 215–216

Abaza Mehmed Pasha 162, 173, 213

Abdülhalim Karayazıcı 65, 66, 143–148, 150–151

Abdullah Efendi 169

Abdürrahim family 5, 220

Abou-El-Haj, Rifa'at Ali 9, 34, 217, 219

absolutism 80, 213

appointments, royal power of 55

army and 152, 180

conservatives and 49, 53

constitutionalists and 48–59

court politics and 114

definition of 54, 80

divine law and 29, 53, 157

historiography and 215

liberals and 49, 53

long wars and 180

market economies and 80

Mehmed III 65

Murad III 97

Murad IV 214

Mustafa I 77, 109

Mustafa II 43–44, 219

Osman II 80–81, 109, 116, 128–141, 153

political authority and 44

public law and 47, 48

sciences and 29, 241

Second Empire and 150

social mobility and 53, 54–55, 58

ulema and 29, 44, 169, 171

Age of Beloveds, The 1, 4

agriculture 17, 80, 88, 197, 231

See also timars

Ahizade Hüseyin 74

Ahmed Bey

See Etmekcizade Ahmed Pasha

Ahmed Cevdet 226

Ahmed I

accession to throne 72–73

chief gardeners 104

dynastic succession 47, 61–63

effects of survival of brother on 71

fratricide 64

Mehmed Pasha (Sokolluzade) and 108

Mustafa Agha and 110–111

Mustafa Efendi and 118

Osman II and 115

pious acts of 70

rebellions and 71, 120n22

Safavid wars 131–132

Sun'ullah Efendi and 70

warrior sultan tradition and 120

Ahmed III 197n18, 222–223, 225

Ahmed Pasha (deputy grand vizier) 167, 169

Ahmed Pasha (Etmekcizade)

See Etmekcizade Ahmed Pasha

Akarlı, Engin 41

alcohol 66, 67(fig), 174

Aleppo 15, 95, 104, 132, 148–149, 159–160, 162, 178n85, 189, 212

Algeria 223–224

Ali Agha 171, 172

Ali Bey 121

Ali Efendi (Sari) 37–38, 121

See also Mullah Ali

Ali Pasha (d. 1511) 101

Ali Pasha (1581–1621) 110, 111, 132–136, 137

alps, qualities of 84–85

ambassador reports, reliability of 113

Amcazade Hüseyin Pasha 219

ancien régime 191, 194, 226

Andrews, Walter 1, 4, 191

Ankara, Battle of (1402) 88

army

absolutism and 152, 180

administrators of 80

cavalry soldiers

See cavalry soldiers

decline narrative and 4, 195, 240

devşirmes

See devşirme system

dynastic succession and 47

economic interests and 190

endowment trusteeships and 189

expansion of 180, 181, 184, 186

financial entrepreneurialship of 131, 184–190

grandee households and 182–184

hereditary privileges of 185

infantry

See janissaries

janissaries

See janissaries

jurists and 66–68, 166, 170, 242–243

legal opinions demanded by 166, 221

membership selection 16, 179

mercenaries

See mercenaries

military prowess 241

monetization and 185

Murad III and 175

Muslim commoners 179

Mustafa I's second enthronement 170

Nasuh Agha and 169

opposition to court of 175–190

Osman II and 131, 141, 151

Osman II capture by 156–175

Osman II's new army 141, 171

outsiders (ecnebis) and 57, 179

pilgrimages and 157, 163

political power of 175–190

private armies 160

rebellions 4, 54, 163–175, 184, 190, 221–222

Safavid wars 131

salary payments and 163, 169, 171, 174, 177–179

Second Empire and 195

shopkeepers and 166

size of 177–179

slaves of the sultan

See slaves of the sultan

tax farming and 185, 186, 187

technology and

See military technology

as “Third Estate” 185

timars and 22

uprising (May 1622) 153, 170

viziers and 180

arpalıks 137

Aşık Çelebi 186

Aşık Pasha 84–85

askeri

collective identity of 236n30

court and estate records of 202

definition of 30–31, 186n118, 187

de-militarization and 197

devşirme system and 31, 186

dynastic authority and 44

outsiders (ecnebis) and 31, 179

expansion of 35, 44, 55, 232–233

feudal elite of the provinces 45

fiefs and 50

janissaries 203–204

membership in 44, 55

military prowess and 45, 241

Muslims and 186

patrimonial empire and 199

political authority and 35, 232

re'aya and

See under re'aya

Second Empire 193, 197

slaves of the sultan and 91–92

social mobility and

See social mobility

tax farming and 44, 186, 187

wealth distribution of 202–204, 210

Atman

See Osman I

a'yan (local notables) 44, 197, 225

Ayşe Sultan 103

Azmizade Mustafa 103

Baki Beşe (later Pasha) 14–15, 133, 167, 189

Balkans 19–21, 67, 81, 147, 162, 178, 189, 217–218, 219, 224

South Slav monetary systems 89

Barkan, Ömer Lutfi 27–29, 43, 49

Baron de Sancy

See Sancy, Achille de Harlay de

Bayezid I 88

Bayezid II (1481–1512) 21

dynastic politics and 42, 46, 92

forced retirement of 79

poison and 117n5

Bayezid, Prince 43, 61, 63

Bayram Pasha 185

Bedik 37

Berman, Harold 82

Bilgin, Vejdi 52

Birgili Mehmed 32–33

Black Sea area 136, 163

Blount, Sir Henry 230

Blue Mosque 70

Bohemia 137

Book of Alexander 119

Book of Asaph, (Lutfi Pasha) 96

Book of China 59

Book of Dede Korkut 85

Book on the Affairs of Muslims and the Interests of the Believers, The 96

Bosnia 148

Bosporus 120, 230

Bostanzade, Yahya 167, 169

Brenner, Robert 82, 211

Bulgaria 39

Bursa campaign 111

Busbecq, Ogier Ghiselin de 42–43

Byzantine Empire 19–20, 85–88, 91, 131

cadastral land surveys 19, 23–24, 47

Cafer Pasha 111–113

See also Hadım Cafer Pasha

“cage” (kafes) 61, 109

Çalık Ahmed 222–224

Çandarlı (grand vizier) 131

Canpoladzade Ali 149, 150, 161–162, 173

Canpoladzade Hüseyin Pasha 145, 149–151

Canpoladzade Mustafa 151, 162

capitalism 230–232

cash wakfs 31–35, 198

lords of the law and 37–38

Castle of Kings 55, 97

Çatalcalı Ali 216, 217

cavalry soldiers (salaried; excluding timariots)

decline narrative and 191

grandees households and 183, 184

guilds and 189, 208

hereditary status of 183, 185

increases in numbers of 177

Istanbul uprisings by 175

janissaries and 164, 172, 184, 209

limits on expansion of 209

Mehmed III and 65, 66–67

military technology and 17

rebellions 66–67, 175, 183, 188, 215

recruitment sources for 183

salary payments 159, 163, 164, 175, 209, 215

six divisions of 175, 176(fig)

sources of political unrest within 183

tax collections and 187, 188

Çelebi Kadi, Lutfullah 39

Césy Philippe de Harlay, comte de 132–133, 158, 163

Chamberlain, Michael 40

charisma 60, 61, 63, 71, 77, 196

Osman II and 131, 153

chief black eunuchs 67, 71, 115, 160, 175

as extension of dynasty 103–104

history of 100

Mehmed Agha 102–103, 130

Murad III and 100–103, 113

Mustafa Agha 79, 103, 110–114, 119–120, 133, 137

Osman II and 79, 138(fig)

pilgrimage opposition by 163

Süleyman Agha 121, 138(fig), 166, 167, 170

chief white eunuchs 65, 67, 71, 175

appointments made through 101

as extension of dynasty 103–104

history of 101

medreses and 104, 105(fig)

pious endowments and 103

See also Gazanfer Agha

Christian population

See devşirme system, non-Muslim subjects

Cıgalazade Mahmud Pasha 74, 96

Cıgalazade Sinan Pasha (grand vizier) 66, 96, 102, 149, 151, 183

circumcision 115–116

civilization, concept of 10, 76, 197

Çivizade, Muhyiddin 32

clothing laws 66

coffeehouses 228–229

colleges of law (medreses) 28–29, 68, 70, 103–106

sciences and 29, 241

colonialism 232–233, 236, 238

commoners 16–17

distribution of wealth among 209–210

See under outsiders, re'aya

confiscations policy (müsadere) 37, 95, 133

conservatives

constitutionalists and 49, 53, 58

definition of 48, 54

jurists' law and 52

public law and 48, 51

social mobility and 51–52, 58

Constantinople

See Istanbul

constitutionalism 80, 237

absolutism and 48–59

See also absolutism

checks and balances 77

conservatives and 49, 53, 58

Constitution of 1876 59, 76

definition of 53–54

divine law and 52, 53–54

dynastic succession and 47, 76–77, 237

European observers of 7–8

kanun-ı kadim and 57, 66, 120

legitimization of depositions 5, 221

liberals and 49, 53

linguistic versus historical absence of terms 48

lords of the law and 68–71, 77, 129–31, 157, 241

market economies and 80

Mustafa I and 76, 120

rationalist epistemology and 129–31, 157, 241

royal authority 54, 241

social mobility and 53, 54–55, 58

unwritten constitution 243

Contarini, Simon 111

Cook, Michael 147

corporations

concept of 231–232

janissaries 207, 240

legal status of 198

corruption, perceptions about 5, 9, 65, 107, 194

Counsel for Sultans (Mustafa Ali) 124

Crete 25, 43

Crimea

Khans of 132, 222

politics 71

Crone, Patricia 234, 238

cultural activities 228–230

currency

coinage debasement 65, 167, 169

economic unification 17–18

European silver 18

inflation 127

legal system with universal claims 18

Mehmed II and 82, 89

monetary crises and 150

power-sharing and 198

unification of currencies 10, 17–18, 82, 89, 198

Damad Hasa Pasha 222

Darling, Linda 25, 39, 187

Davud Pasha 74, 112, 172–174

de Césy

See Césy, Philippe de Harlay, comte de

de Provin, Pacifique

See Provins, Pacifique de

decline narrative

1922 collapse 238

adaptation and 242

cavalry and 191

conventional view of 8–9, 242n48

cultural explanations of 242

depositions and 1

early modernity and 227–240

general discussion of 4–5, 238–242

grand narratives and 9

institutional responsibility and 242–243

janissaries and 191, 199, 240

kanun law and 29–30

Mehmed IV 5

modernity and 227–240

Murad III and 56

New Order and 194

Ottoman Empire dissolution 239

outsiders (ecnebis) and 194

question of 238

relative democratization and 194

Second Empire and 19

timars and 22

ulema and 29–30, 191, 241

Deli Hasan 148

democratization processes 7, 10

decline narrative and 194

monetization and 198

political expansion/participation

See political expansion/participation

of political privileges 233

power-sharing and 198

royal authority and 243

Second Empire and 233

social mobility and 197

demographic growth 22

Derviş Bey 144–145

Derviş Pasha (grand vizier) 70, 104, 107

dervish story 14

devlet (fortune; state) 60–61, 71–72, 76, 93, 196, 223

devşirme system 16, 17

askeri and 31, 186

dynastic authority and 44

fiefs and 50

final year of (1703) 44, 195

janissaries and 204

Mehmed II and 107

membership selection procedures 44, 236

musahib Mehmed 107

patrimonial empire and 236

slaves of the sultan

See slaves of the sultan

Dilaver Pasha (grand vizier) 151–152, 158, 166–167, 169–170

Dispelling the Darkness (Mullah Ali) 131

Diyarbekir 73, 114, 132, 152, 162, 171, 184n102

Druze 140, 158, 161

dynastic succession

accession term 72

ages of candidates for succession 74–76

Ahmed I 47, 61–62, 63

army and 214, 221–222

Bayezid, Prince 43, 61, 63

Bayezid II and 42, 46, 92

bloodless deposition of Mehmed IV 5, 217

brothers, succession of 46

the “cage” (kafes) 61, 109

constitutionalism and 47, 59, 76, 77

decline narrative and 1

depositions 1, 5, 8, 30, 44, 64, 66–67, 79, 80, 108–114, 120, 156, 159, 172–174, 184, 191, 192, 197, 200, 211, 213, 214–215, 218–225

dynastic wars 43, 46, 61

enthronement term 72

feudalism and 92

fratricidal tradition

See fratricide

janissaries 5, 8, 172–175, 191, 218–225

jurists' influence on 35, 36–43, 46–78, 221–222, 237

jurists' law and 42–43, 63, 75–77

legal debates over 47, 75

legal opinions for 62, 68, 74–76

legal principles and 59–76

legitimization of depositions 5, 220

legitimizing qualities 75

limits of royal authority and 47, 62–63, 76–77, 237

lords of the law and 47

market expansion and 34, 43

Mehmed, Prince 62–63

Mehmed III and 68

Mehmed IV and 217–218

mental capacity agruments 80, 109–111, 113, 214

military determinations of 47, 61

Murad III and 61, 92–93

Mustafa I 61–62, 74–76

Mustafa II 5, 219–221

Osman II 62–63, 74

patrimonial system and 92

provincial governorships and 61, 77

as public law 42–43, 76

reasons to murder deposed sultans 218

regicides 4–5, 12, 76, 117, 156, 162, 173, 184, 190, 191–192, 211, 213, 215, 220

regularized 196

royal authority and 63, 77

Sa'deddinzade Es'ad and 47, 63, 74–77

Second Empire and 196

Selim II (1566–74; Prince Selim, 1524–66) 43, 61, 92–93

seniority rule 47, 61, 72–76

slaves of the sultan and 93

soldiers and regicide 173–174

succession donations 114, 119

Süleyman I and 42–43, 63, 92

unwritten understandings 5

Eastern Question 239

Ebu Bekir 7

Ebulmeyamin Mustafa Efendi (grand mufti) 69(fig), 106, 126

legal opinions by 68, 71

Ebussu'ud 32–34, 41–43

ecnebis

See outsiders

economic development

agricultural production 17

cash wakfs and 33

conversion into political power 233

currency unification and 17–18

feudalism debate 19–21

financial administration 15, 107

financial institutions 131, 205–207

infantry and 24–25, 150

janissaries and

See army, janissaries

jurists' law and 31–33, 36–37

military rebellions and 190

monetization

See monetization

political unification and 17

tax farming and 50

education

palace school graduates 94, 183

patron-client relationships in 40

royal women and 104, 106

tutors 122

See also colleges of law, ulema

Egypt 18, 37, 64, 81, 101, 103, 110–112, 121, 158n8, 162, 182, 183, 192, 202, 224

English Civil War 4, 8, 54–55

English limited monarchy 1, 4, 5

English merchants 126, 189n130

English parliament 242

English Revolution 211

Enlightenment 230

Es'ad

See Sa'deddinzade Es'ad

Eski Yusuf 159, 160

Esma Han 98

Esperanza Malchi (Jewish kiera) 65, 107, 175, 188

Essence of History (Mustafa Âli) 57, 59

Esztergom 108

Etmekçizade Ahmed Pasha 14–15, 16, 74

eunuchs

See chief black eunuchs, chief white eunuchs

See under specific persons

European imperialism 238–241

New Order and 193

European Union 19

Fakhr al-Dīn Ibn Maʿn 140, 144, 151, 158, 161–163

family law 53

Faroqhi, Suraiya 17

Fazıl Ahmed Pasha (Köprülü) 29, 215, 216

Fazıl Mustafa Pasha (Köprülü) 218–219

Ferhad Pasha 180–181

feudalism 20–21, 192

agricultural productivity 83, 88

alps and 86

capitalism and 232

cavalry during 17, 86

centrifugal forces of 82

conditional overlord sovereignty 83

dissolution of 19–30

as dominant mode of production 20

dynastic succession and 92

economics during 19–21

European 81–82, 85

extra-economic surplus appropriation 82, 86

fiefs

See timars

institutions of 47

law during

See under feudal law

markets and 19, 80, 93

medieval legacies 232, 242

mercenaries (sekbans) and 150–151

military power incentives 83

military technology and 17

monetary economy 21

networks of mutual obligations 84–85

patrimonial system and 81–93

provincial elites and 44

regional autonomy during 89

slaves of sultan and 88, 91–92

territorial conquests necessitated by 88

timars

See timars

unifying forces in 88

vassals, replacement of 88, 91–92

vertical (and horizontal) political tensions 90, 93

Feyzullah

See Seyyid Feyzullah

fiefs

See timars

Fındıklılı Mehmed (Silahdar) 218, 221

Fontanier, Victor 5–6, 8

fratricide

Ahmed I and Prince Mustafa (later Mustafa I) 60, 62–63, 64

Bayezid and Selim (later Selim II) 46, 61

devlet tested by 60–61

dynastic succession and 46, 47

judicial sanctions for 42

legal opinions and 42, 63

Mehmed II and 42

Mehmed III 46, 61

Murad III 46, 61

Murad I's brothers 42

Murad IV 63, 131, 214

Osman II and Prince Mehmed 118, 131, 136–137

political burden of 63

Selim, Prince (later Selim I) 46

wars of 60–61, 77

Gabor Bethlen 137

Galata Tower 28

Ganizade Nadiri 120

gardeners (bostancıs) 169, 171

Ahmed I and chief gardeners 104, 107

chief gardeners 65–66, 104, 174, 175

Derviş Pasha 104, 107

Hüseyin Pasha 137

Mehmed III and chief gardeners 104, 175

Osman II and chief gardeners 137, 162

uprising (May 1622) and 169, 171

Garibname text 84–85

Gazanfer Agha (chief white eunuch) 65

colleges of law and 104, 105(fig)

as imperial power broker 101–102

Gedikli, Fethi 210

Genghis Khan 52, 222

Ghazan Khan 84, 86

grand mufti, office of 63–72

political independence of 63

power of 71

revolts and 64, 66–67, 166

salary payments and 37

See also Ebussu'ud, Mehmed (grand mufti), Sa'deddin Efendi (mentor), Sa'deddinzade Es'ad, Sun'ullah Efendi

grand viziers, office of 91, 124, 131, 195–196

See under specific persons

grandee households 94–96

army soldiers and 183–185

confiscations of 37

Greco-Islamic governance traditions 192n2

guilds 189, 207–208, 210–212

Gürcü Hadım Mehmed Pasha 74, 101, 112

Habsburg lands 140(map)

Habsburg wars 7, 65, 108, 127, 142, 144, 175, 178–181, 218

Hacı İbrahim Pasha 66

Hacı Mehmed 15, 16

Hadım Cafer Pasha 142–143

Hafız Ahmed Pasha 162, 171, 213

Halil Pasha 73, 111, 112, 161–162

Safavid wars 132

Hamidi Mustafa Pasha 103

Hanafi School of jurists' law 26–27, 32–34

harem (the residential part of the imperial palace) 100, 102, 107, 109, 125, 153, 170

Hasan Halife 213

Hasan Pasha (Sokolluzade) 95, 147, 148

Hasanbeyzade 67, 72, 74

Hasht Bihisht (the Eight Paradises) 57

Hezarpare Ahmed Pasha 16

Hibri 72

Hinds, Martin 234, 238

historiography

absolutism and 215

grand narratives in 238

janissary corps 199

Köprülü era 215

Mehmed IV and 215–216

New Order and 226

power-sharing and 198

during Second Empire 196

teleology-contingency tension 239

uprising (May 1622) 173

History (Ahmed Cevdet) 226

Hoca Hasmı Osman Pasha 146

house of records (defterhane) 164

household of the sultan

See slaves of the sultan

Howard, Douglas 8–9, 22

Hungary wars 65, 108, 137, 139(fig), 177–178, 181

Hüseyin Hezarfenn 7

Hüseyin Özdeğer 203, 209–210

Hüseyin Pasha 104, 137, 151, 167, 172

appointment of 137, 167

uprising (May 1622) 169, 172

Hüseyin Tugi, chronicles of 158–159, 164, 166, 167, 169, 170, 173

Husrev Pasha 213

Ibn Maʿn

See Fakhr al-Dīn Ibn Maʿn

İbrahim (Süleymen's grand vizier) 131

İbrahim (reigned 1640–8) 5, 214–215, 220

İbrahim Pasha (brother of Canfeda Hatun) 107, 184n102

İbrahim Pasha (Mehmed III's grand vizier) 103

İbrahim Pasha (Sokolluzade) 95

Idrīs Bidlīsī 57

(imams) prayer leaders 62, 122

İnalcık, Halil 60, 84

on centralization 88–89

historian 17

on taxes 21

Iraq 183

İsazade 218

İskendername 119

Ismail 118

Istanbul 28, 165(map), 168(map), 216

conquest(1453) 131

Jacob, Margaret 238

Jalali rebellions 53, 65, 110, 127, 177, 178

Ahmed I and 120n22

mercenaries and 144–145

new army and 141

Syria and 143

Jalali-like manners 148

janissaries

Ahmed III and 223

appropriation of 199

as armed consultative assembly 6

askeri and 203–204

autonomy of 204

Bayezid II and 79

bribes and 205

cadets 179, 204

Çalık Ahmed's aspirations for 222–224

careers of 15

cavalry soldiers and 164, 172, 183, 209

as chamber of deputies 8

clothing of 200(fig), 201(fig)

Common Bank of 205–207

commoners and 209

corporation qualities of 198, 207, 240

decline narrative and 191, 199, 240

destruction of (1826) 193, 240

devşirme system and 204

dynastic succession and 5

economic development and 24–25

empire-wide phenomenon of 212

English parliament and 242

executions demanded by (1632) 213–214

expansion of 17, 204, 209

grandees’ households and 184

growth of 24, 177

guilds and 207–208, 210, 211–212

hereditary status of 185

historiography of 199

Hüseyin Pasha and 137

Hüseyin Tugi chronicles 158–159, 164, 166–167, 169–170, 173

Istanbul as center of 216

judged-by-peers privilege 174

Kadizadeli movement and 216

Köprülü era and 217

legal immunity from regular prosecution 207

as legitimate opposition 6

long-distance trade and 206

lords of the law and 213

Mehmed III and 183

membership in 199–206, 210–211

mercenaries and 141

military technology and 175–176, 204

monopolistic tendencies of 210

Murad IV and 211

Muslim population and 204, 205

Mustafa I and 113, 114, 171

New Order and 193

Osman II and 114, 211, 240–241

payroll registers of 204, 213

political unity among 211

preachers and 124

price controls and 207

rebellions 6, 211, 213–224

as representatives 8

republic of 222–224

royal authority and 241

salary payments to 17, 37, 114, 163, 169, 177, 205, 209

Second Empire and 191–226

size of 177–178, 199–200

social mobility and 199

solak contingent of 158

in Syria 148–149

territorial losses and 240–241

timars and 24

trade and 207, 209–210

uprising (May 1622) 169, 171

war participation rates for 177

wealth distribution among 206, 210–211, 212

Young Ottomans view of 6

Jewish kiera, Esperanza Malchi 65, 107, 175, 188

jurists' law (fiqh)

absolutism and 29, 44

army interests and 170

cash wakfs and 33

centralized system of 36

conservatives and 66

decline narrative and 240

definition of 26

dynastic politics and 35–43, 46–78, 237

economic development and 36

empowerment of 30–43

Es'ad and 74

Hanafi School of 26–27

independence from political authority 68

influence on dynastic succession 63

kanun law and 25, 27, 35, 47

market expansion and 34, 77

market relations organized by 44

as medium for political confrontations 71

monetization and 30

political authority and 26, 30–43, 66, 71, 234–237

public law and 51

religious fanaticism and 28, 234–235

rise of 19–30

Sharia and 19, 25–27, 29

socioeconomic context 30–36

Süleyman and 33, 42–43

traditionalist knowledge and 241

uprising (May 1622) 167, 171

Kadızade Mehmed (preacher) 119, 125, 126n52

Kadızadeli movement 28, 216–217

Kadızadelis 126

Kafadar Cemal 6, 8, 171, 199, 202

Kalpaklı, Mehmet 1, 4, 191

kanun 19

conservatives and 49

customs as the basis of legality for 19, 25, 27, 49

decline narrative and 29–30

definition of 19, 49–50

demise of 27, 43, 47, 235

divine law and 53

dynastic authority and 35, 44, 54, 59

Es'ad and 76

founding fathers and 57, 59

jurists' law and 25, 27, 35, 47

kanun term outlawed 28–29

kanunnames 25, 27, 49–50, 63

legitimation of 57, 59

liberals and 49, 51

Mehmed II (1451–81) and 57

Murad III and 56

openness to change 50

outsiders and 51

patrimonial empire and 27

political hegemony and 52

public law and 51

scholarship on 28

secular qualities of 28

Seyyid Feyzullah and 28–29

Sharia and 29

social mobility 51–52

Süleyman and 43

kanun-ı kadim (the ancient constitution) 57–58

Kara Mezak 172

Kara Mustafa Pasha (Köprülü) 215, 217, 219

Karaçelebizade Abdülaziz 215

Karanfilzade 14

Karayazıcı

See Abdülhalim Karayazıcı

kassam (supervisor of inheritance shares) 37–38

Katib Çelebi 29, 128

Kemaleddin Taşköprüzade 136

Kemankeş Mustafa Pasha 185

Kharijites 54

Khoury, Dina 212

Kınalızade Ali 51, 52

King James I of England 126

Koçi Bey 209

Konya battle (1559) 43

Köprülü, M. Fuad 84

Köprülü era 214, 215–217

Köprülü family 211, 215–216, 219

See also Fazıl Ahmed Pasha (Köprülü), Fazıl Mustafa Pasha (Köprülü), Kara Mustafa Pasha (Köprülü), Köprülü Mehmed Pasha

Köprülü Mehmed Pasha 215–216

Kösem Sultan 118

Kunt, Metin 25

Kurds 145, 216, 223–224

Ottoman Kurdistan 92n37

sciences and 29

kut 60

Kuyucu Murad Pasha (grand vizier) 70, 125n43, 149, 200

labor productivity 93

land surveys 19, 25, 47

land wealth, market economies and 94, 189

Lapidus, Ira 41

law

administrative law 19, 34, 234

ancient and customary practices 65–66, 170, 175

claims of God versus claims of men 26–27

courts implemented throughout empire 35–36

currency unification and 18

dynastic succession and 59–76

enjoining good and forbidding evil 127–128

janissary immunity 207

judges

See ulema

market societies and 44, 127

mevali

See lords of the law

positive law 19

positive law – natural law distinction 26

private law 234

public law

See public law

public-private law distinction 41

unification of legal systems 10

Law-Book of China 59

Lebanon 141, 143, 158, 161

legal opinions

ages of candidates for succession 74–76, 80

dynastic executions and 42–43

dynastic fratricide and 42, 63

dynastic succession and 47, 62, 68

Ebulmeyamin Mustafa Efendi 68, 71

İbrahim's deposition and 5, 220

increasing role in politics 30

by Kemaleddin Taşköprüzade 136

Mehmed III and 68, 106

Mustafa I 70, 170

Osman II and 136

Osman II execution 173–174

Prince Mehmed execution 137

Prince Mustafa execution 71

soldiers demand for 166

uprising (May 1622) 166

Yemişçi Hasan Pasha 67–68

Lello, Henry 68, 147

Lewis, Bernard 7–8

liberals 49, 51–54

libraries 28

literature 228–229

Lithuania

See Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth campaign

lords of the law (mevali) 36, 64

caliphate and 129

cash wakfs 38

constitutionalists and 157

dynastic succession and 40, 47

economic development and 36–37

heritable status of 36, 40–41

imams of sultans and 122

imperial power 38

janissaries and 213

judgeships of small towns and 137

jurists' law

See jurists' law

Köprülü era and 216–217

Mamluk comparisons 40

Mehmed IV and 217

Murad III appointing new ones 100

Mustafa I and 170

Mustafa II and 220

Osman II and 114, 137, 167

patron-client relationships 40

pilgrimage opposition of 163–164

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth campaign and 136–137

political empowerment of, 16th c. 36–43

retirement benefits abolishment 163

royal court authority and 107

royal endowments and 106

sciences and 130–131

teaching posts and 38, 40–41

uprising (May 1622) 153, 167, 170

Lutfi Pasha 96

Lutfullah

See Çelebi Kadi

Mahmud Agha 101

Mahmud II 8, 240

Mahmud Pasha (grand vizier) 57

mamluks 40–41, 224, 235

Mardin, Şerif 6, 8

market economies 10

cultural activities and 230

currency unification

See currency

dynasty pulled into jurists' law by 34

early modern period characterized by 232

expansion of 34–36, 47, 77, 80, 230, 232

feudalism and 19, 80, 93

Islamic legal principles and 127

jurists' law and 34, 36, 44, 77

land-based economies 94

long-distance trade 231–232

mercenaries and 150

monopolies in 231–232

political expansion and 34

preachers and 127

social mobility and 35

unification and 82

work ethics and 127

Marsigli, Count Luigi Ferdinando 6–7, 8, 185

Mecca 154(map), 155(fig)

See also Osman II pilgrimage

Medicis of Tuscany 161

Mehmed (chief gardener) 162

Mehmed (grand mufti), career of 63–64

Mehmed Agha (eunuch) 102–103, 130

Mehmed II (1451–81)

Çandarlı and 131

confiscation policies of 131

currency unification 82, 89

devşirme system and 107

as founder of laws 57–59

fratricide and 42

kanun law and 57

Law Book of 58, 63

Süleyman I and 89–93

taxation practices of 21

titles of 81

Mehmed III 64–68

chief gardeners and 104

fratricide 46

son's execution 68, 70, 106

Mehmed IV 5, 29, 215–219

Mehmed Pasha (Gürcü Hadım)

See Gürcü Hadım Mehmed Pasha

Mehmed Pasha (Köprülü)

See Köprülü Mehmed Pasha

Mehmed Pasha (lala, Mehmed III's grand vizier) 107

Mehmed Pasha (musahib) 107, 175

Mehmed Pasha (Sofu, deputy grand vizier under Ahmed I, Mustafa I, and Osman II) 74, 112–113

Mehmed Pasha (Sokollu)

See Sokollu Mehmed Pasha

Mehmed Pasha (Sokolluzade) 108

Mehmed Pasha (son of Sinan Pasha) 65, 148

Karayazıcı and 146

Mehmed Ragıb Pasha, prediction by 196

Mehmed Raşid 218–219

Mehmed Rumi 74, 120

Mehmed Vani 28–29, 216, 217

Memikzade Mehmed 103

mentorships/preceptors 29, 106, 122

mercenaries (sekbans)

Abaza Mehmed Pasha and 173

army corps and 171

feudal economics and 149–150

Habsburg wars and 144–145

Jalali rebellions and 141, 144

janissaries and 141

legitimate uses of force and 145–149

local authorities enhanced by 145

market economies and 150

military technology and 142, 149–150

monetization and 142, 143, 147

Nasuh Pasha and 150

new army hypothesis 160–161

origins of 141–145

Osman II and 116, 141–149, 151, 153

Osman II pilgrimage 162

recruitment of 151, 159, 162

as a reform attempt 141

regional political competition and 149–150

rise of 142–145

sekban term 141

Spanish silver and 150

Syria and 142–145, 150–151

Merchants and Revolution (Robert Brenner) 211

mevali

See lords of the law

Middle Ages

See feudalism

Middle East, New Order origins of 193

Mihrimah Sultan 159

military, modern Turkey and 197

See also army, cavalry soldiers, janissaries, military technology, navy

military technology

feudalism and 17

infantry and 175–176

janissaries and 204

mercenaries and 142, 149

navy and

See navy

millenium year 115, 227

Millet Library 28

Minkarizade Yahya 216–217

Mirim Çelebi 14

modernity

decline narrative and 227–240

early modern period and 1–10, 227–240, 232

Mahmud II reforms 8

markers of 230

market expansion and 232

Reşid Pasha reforms 8

secular 227

Moldavia 136, 140(map)

monetization 179–180

15th c. moves toward 89

army expansion enabled by 185

currency

See currency

democratic processes and 198

demographic growth and 21

empire-wide process 20–22, 89

feudal economics and 17, 21

jurists' law and 30

land wealth and 189

local authority and 198

market oriented production 20

mercenaries and 142, 143, 147

monetary crisis (1580s) 150

power-sharing and 198

slaves of the sultan 91–92

wars and 182

moneylending 32–33, 39

Mongols 84, 86

Montagu, Lady Mary 224

mosques

Mihrimah Sultan endowment for 159

Mosque of Ayasofya 5, 122, 124, 168(map), 169

Mosque of Mehmed II 167

Mosque of Sultan Ahmed (Ahmed I; Blue Mosque) 70, 111, 167, 168(map), 169

Orta Mosque 171, 172, 174

Süleymaniye mosque 122–123

Zal Pasha mosque 122

Mühimme registers 158

Mullah Ali (chief justice) 103, 129–131, 157

Murad I, dynastic fratricide and 42

Murad II, dream of 91

Murad III (1574–95)

absolutism and 54, 80, 97

accession to throne 97–98

appointees frequently dismissed by 55, 100

army and 175

decline narrative and 56

dynastic succession and 46, 61, 92–93, 97–98

eunuchs and 100–103, 113

kanun law and 54, 56

lords of the law (mevali) and 100

musahib Mehmed 107

mute of 99

Pecevi anecdote 97–98

Raziye Hatun 106–107

Selaniki on 98–100

slaves of the sultan 56

Sokollu Mehmed Pasha 97–98, 102, 108

viziers of 100

youth of 97

Murad IV

absolutism and 214

age of successors debate 75

Canpoladzade Mustafa and 151

charisma of 63

fratricide and 63, 131, 214

grand mufti executed by 214

janissaries and 211, 213

Kadızadeli movement 216

Safavid wars and 214

Yerevan conquest 131

Murad Pasha

See Kuyucu Murad Pasha

Murtaza Pasha 162

Musa Çelebi 214

Musa Efendi 169

music 228–229

Muslim population

army 179

askeri 186

janissaries 204–205

re'aya

See under re'aya

religion

See religion

Second Empire and 193

Mustafa Agha (chief black eunuch) 79, 103

Ahmed I and 110–111

Ali Pasha and 133

Hüseyin Pasha 137

Mustafa I deposition and 113, 114

Osman II and 79, 119, 120

pilgrimages 110

Mustafa Âli 38–39, 55, 56–58, 124, 178

Mustafa Efendi (Ahmed I's mentor) 118

Mustafa I

absolutism and 77, 109

ages of candidates for succession 74–76

allegiance oaths to 170

Cafer Pasha and 113

constitutionalists and 76, 120

deposition of 79, 108–114, 120

efforts to erase reign from history 120

enthronement of 59–60, 72–77, 108, 170, 172

Es'ad and 63, 72–73, 112, 113, 171

fratricidal tradition and 60

Hasanbeyzade 74

interpretations of 114

janissaries and 113, 114, 171

legal opinions and 170

limited exposure of 109

lords of the law and 170

mental capacity of 109–111, 113

military corps 170

Mustafa Agha and 113, 114

Osman II and 108–114, 120, 131

public reaction to 114

re-enthronement of 160, 173

Sofu Mehmed Pasha and 113

survival of Prince Mustafa 47, 60–63

terrorized living and 109

uprising (May 1622) 170, 172

women and 109

Mustafa II

absolutism and 43–44, 219

deposition of 5, 219–221

Edirne and 220–221

enthronement of 219

Friday prayers and 221

kanun law decree 28–29, 43–44

lords of the law and 220

Seyyid Feyzullah and 219–220

Sharia and 30

Mustafa Safi

See Safi Mustafa Efendi

mutes 99

Naili Abdullah Pasha (grand vizier) 195

Na'ima, Mustafa 222–223

Nakkaş Hasan Pasha 74

Namık Kemal 6, 8

Nasuh Agha 167, 169

Nasuh Pasha 64, 149–150, 160

navy 132, 134–135(fig), 161

political systems and 223–224

treasury funds supplied by 133

nepotism, perceptions about 107

Nevali Efendi (tutor) 103

new army

See mercenaries

New Order 191–194, 197

historiography and 226

Nişancı Mehmed Pasha 195

non-Muslim subjects 236

collective political identity and 235–237

corporations and 198

devşirme system

See devşirme system

European imperialism and 239–240

local notables and 197–198

political resentment of 239

poll tax collections 187

religion and

See religion

Nurbanu Sultan (queen mother) 103, 104, 159

Oguz Han, execution of 42

Öküz Mehmed Pasha (grand vizier) 132

Old Order 194

Old Palace 171

Ömer Efendi 37–38, 118–128

Ali Pasha and 133

background of 120–122

events of (May 18, 1622) 153, 166–167

grand mufti and 129

Osman II and 118–128

as preceptor 122

ulema appointments and 129

Orhan 87–88

Osman I 81–86

identified as Atman 83

Osman II

absolutism and 80–81, 109, 116, 128–141, 153

age issues 74–76, 79, 118–128

Ali Pasha and 111–113, 133

army and 114, 131, 141, 151, 152, 156–175, 211, 240–241

arpalıks and 137

avenging the death of 162

Cafer Pasha and 112

Canpoladzade Mustafa and 151

capital relocation possibility 162–164

charisma of 131, 153

decline narrative and 4

deposition of 141, 172, 190, 211

dynastic succession 62, 74, 118

early life of 115–116

Egypt and 162

enthronement of 79, 108–114

Es'ad and 64, 114, 125, 131

eunuchs and 79

execution of 1, 4, 162, 172–174, 191–192

fratricide 118, 131

grand viziers and 151

harem and 125

horses and 118–119

Hüseyin Pasha and 137, 151, 167, 172

imperial rescript of 169

janissaries and 114, 173–174, 211, 240–241

jurist retirement benefits abolished by 163

Kadızadeli and 126

legal opinions and 136

lords of the law and 114, 137, 167

mercenaries and 116, 141–151, 153

Mullah Ali appointment 129–131

Mustafa Agha and 79, 119, 120

Mustafa I and 108–114, 120, 131

Ömer Efendi 118–128

pilgrimage of

See Osman II pilgrimage

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth campaign

See Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth campaign

preachers and 125

prestige of a conquest 131

Prince Mehmed execution 137

rebel sultan characterization of 141, 145, 151, 163

as reformer 116

reign of (1618–22) 115–152

Safavid wars 118, 131–132

Shadow of God view of 156

Syria 158, 162

treasury funds and 174

ulema appointments and 129

uprising events of (May 1622) 163–169, 172

vengeance for murder of 173

warrior sultan tradition 119, 120, 136

women and 118, 125

Osman II pilgrimage 125, 140, 153, 156–163

army-raising purpose of 157, 162

deposition threats over 163

Mehmed VI and 156

Mustafa Agha 110

opposition to 163–164

treasury taken on journey 163–164, 174

uprising (May 1622) 167

Ottoman central army

See army

Ottoman Empire

See Second Empire, patrimonial empire

See under specific persons, events

Ottoman Empire, maps of 5–6(map), 140(map), 143(map)

Ottoman rule (ca. 1300–1453) 81–89

outsiders (ecnebis) 199, 239

askeri and 31

commoner origins of 31

decline narrative and 194

definitions of 50, 186

fiefs and 50

kanun law 51

military service and 57, 179

New Order and 194

Second Empire and 193

social mobility of 57

Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha (grand vizier) 95–96, 102

Öztürk, Said 202–203

palace school graduates 94, 183

patrimonial empire (c. 1453–1580)

artificial kinship 90

devşirme system and 236

dynastic succession and 92

feudal social structures 81–93, 242

kanun law and 27

market economy 93

promotions during 92

Second Empire and 194

slaves of the sultan and 56, 90, 93, 192

Süleyman the Magnificent and 10

viziers and 92

patron-client relationships 80, 94

Peace of Carlowitz (1699) 219

Peçevi 72

Peirce, Leslie 104

Persia

See Safavids

Persian Book of Kings (Shahname) 119

Pindar, Paul 46

pious endowments 103–104

Pocock, JGA 50

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth campaign (1621) 136–141

Ali Pasha and 133

events surrounding 163

lords of the law (mevali) and 136–137

map of 140(map)

Osman II and 133

Osman II direct participation in 136

soldier-count during 174

political advice literature of 16th c. 96

political authority

absolutism and 44, 157

askeri and 35

a'yan and 44

cash wakfs 35

charisma and

See charisma

as client of change, not agent 34

clientele power-bases 107

deposition process 197

devşirme conscripts and 44

divinity and 128–129, 197

dynastic authority 40–44, 47, 237–238

dynastic successions 42–43

experience and 98

feudal law and 35, 44, 52

fratricidal wars and

See fratricide

hegemonic conrol of ruling class 44

horizontal tensions 89–90

jurists' law (fiqh) and 26, 34, 35, 41, 43, 64, 66, 68, 71, 234–235, 237

legal opinions and 42–43

legitimacy of 65–68

limitations of 232

local courts and 35–36

local notables and 44

longevity of 237–238

lords of the law and 40, 107

popular legitimacy of 237–238

private law and 234

public-private law unification 35

qualities rulers should possess 67, 75

rule by consensus 44

ruling class expansion and 232

Sharia and 44

slaves of the sultan and 96

social discipline laws and 66

territorial conquests and 89–90

vertical tensions 90

viziers and 101, 106–107

political development

civilization and 76

claims of absence of 234

currency unification and 198

Es'ad as an example of 76

historiography and 198

market expansion 34

mercenaries and 150–151

monetization and 198

money and 16

political expansion 34, 76–77

power-sharing 198

proto-democratization and 77, 198

regional political competition 151–152

socioeconomic transformations and 14–15

political expansion/participation 76–77, 232

askeri status 55

class tensions and 53

decline narrative 240

democratization and

See democratization processes

economic unification and 17

Europe and 233–234

market expansion and 34

political unification and 17

tax farming and 55

political identity 239

American examples 236, 239

colonialism and 236

formation of 233, 234

non-Muslim subjects and 235–237

public sphere enlargement and 235

race and 236

religion and 236

Roman influences on 236n30

of ruling class 236n30

Turkish Republic and 237n35

upward mobility and 240

political models, Teschke model 81–82

political systems

class-state system 34

democracy

See democratization processes

feudalism

See feudalism

Greco-Islamic intellectual traditions of governance 192n2

imperialism

See Second Empire

limited monarchy 7

nation-state concept 230

New Order

See New Order

North African provinces 223–224

patrimonial

See patrimonial empire

pyramid versus web structures 192, 193, 195

Second Empire (ca. 1580–1826) 192–193

population growth 22

Porter, Sir James 7, 8

preachers (va'iz) 119–125

market societies and 127

Mehmed Vani 216

Prince Mehmed execution (1621) 63, 137

promotion systems 95–96

tradition against sons surpassing fathers 95

pronoia 19–20

provinces

army expansion and 180

cavalry soldiers and 19, 22

cavalry soldiers recruited from 183

governorships in dynastic successions 61, 77

jurist-scholars from 227

social mobility and 53

timars and 19, 22

treasuries in 180

wars as distributing wealth to 182

Provins, Pacifique de 169

public law 34, 43, 47–51, 52–53

divine law and

See Sharia

dynastic succession as 76

fratricide and 63

Quataert, Donald 6, 8, 200

Qur'an 124, 147

Rami Mehmed Pasha 219–220

Rapoport, Yossef 235

rationalist epistemology

constitutionalism and 157

Mullah Ali (chief justice) and 157

science and

See science

Raziye Hatun 106–107

re'aya (“flock”) 34, 199, 239

askeri and 31

definition of 31, 235n28

Second Empire 193

shift in meaning of 235

rebellions (1589) 107

rebellions (1591) 184

rebellions (1593) 183

rebellions (1595) 183, 184

rebellions (1600) 65, 107, 188

rebellions (1601) 65, 184

rebellions (1603) 66–67, 184

rebellions (1632) 213–214

rebellions (1658) 215, 216

rebellions (1686) 217

rebellions (1703) 222

rebellions (1730) 195

See also uprising (May 1622)

Receb Agha 104

religion

capitalism and 231–232

class tensions and 236

divine law 51–53, 197

fanaticism 27–30

holy war 127

jurists' law and 28, 234–235

Kadızadeli movement

See Kadızadeli movement

millenarian movements 227

political identity and 236

public law and 48

religious affiliations

See Muslim population, non-Muslim subjects

secular law and 44

separation of church and state principle 192

Sharia

See Sharia

Repp, Richard 27–28

Reşid Pasha 8

Rhodes conquest (1523) 131

Roe (English ambassador) 158, 160, 163

royal authority

absolutism and

See absolutism

army as in opposition to 175–190

colleges of law and 106

constitutionalists 241

decline narrative 240

divine mandate to rule 60

dynastic succession and

See dynastic succession

feudal law and 54, 59

grand mufti as center of opposition to 71

janissary corps and 241

limits on 108, 240

as loci of power 114, 116

lords of the law and 106

Murad III and 80

Mustafa I and 80

Osman II and 80

political authority of

See political authority

proto-democratization and 243

public law and 51, 53

royal offices 55–56

ulema and 241

unwritten constitution 243

viziers and 108, 179, 184

wars and 180–181

royal slaves (kul)

See slaves of the sultan

Rum province 159

Rüstem Pasha (grand vizier) 94–95

Rycaut, Paul 205–206

Sa'deddin Efendi (mentor) 106, 220

Sa'deddinzade Es'ad (grand mufti)

career of 63–64

dynastic succession 47, 63

feudal law and 76

independence of 64, 70, 76

jurists' law and 74

maturity requirement for rulers 80

Mehmed III and 64

Mustafa I and 72–73, 170

Mustafa I deposition 112, 113

Mustafa I enthronement 63

Osman II and 64, 114, 125, 131, 164

political expansion and 76

Prince Mehmed execution 63

Safiye Sultan and 70

significance of actions of 237

uprising (May 1622) 167

Safavid Shah Abbas 131

Safavid wars 73, 108, 112, 127, 150, 213

(1578–90) 131, 142

(1603–12) 131

(1615) 131–132

(1635) Yerevan conquest 131

Ahmed I 131–132

army as financial institution and 131

Ferhad Pasha 180–181

Halil Pasha 132

Murad IV and 214

Osman II 118, 131–132

silk and 131–132

Safavids 113, 180

Ismail 118

Shah Tahmasp 42–43, 180

Safi Mustafa Efendi 62, 70

Safiye Sultan (Queen Mother) 64, 70, 71, 103, 107, 148

college of law endowed by 106

Nasuh Pasha and 160

Şahkulu rebellion (1511) 22

Salih Pasha 15–16

Sancy, Achille de Harlay de 79, 109–110, 112–113

Sarı Mehmed Pasha 224

Sarrac Hasan Pasha (vizier) 103

Saturcı Mehmed Pasha 178

science

absolutist camp and 29

colleges of law and 29

decline narrative and 240–241

Kurds and 29

law schools and 241

lords of the law and 130–131

rationalist epistemology 130–131, 157

Second Empire (ca. 1580–1826)

1826 collapse 240

absolutism and 150–151

askeri and 193

decline narrative and 19

definition of 9

demilitarization of ruling class 197

dynastic succession regularized 196

as an early modern state 10

eventful period of (1617–22) 10

general discussion of 191–198

grand viziers during 195–196

historiography during 196

janissaries as the leading actors of 191–226

key dates during 195

limits of era 195

military decline during 195

millenium year and 115

Muslim population and 193

Old Order and 194

origins of 17

patrimonial empire and 194

peace during 195

political structure of 192–193, 193, 233

re'aya 193

rebellions (1730) 195

social stratification and 151

tax farming and 17

territorial decline during 195, 226

web 195

sekbans

See mercenaries

Selaniki 178, 181, 188

on Murad III 98–100

soldier unrest and 183

Selim I (1512–20) 54

father's forced retirement 79

Selim II (1566–74)

death of 97

dynastic succession and 43, 46, 61, 92–93

Sokollu Mehmed Pasha and 97–98

Selim III 193

Seljuks 20

Semiz Ahmed Pasha (grand vizier) 100, 195

Seyyid Feyzullah 43, 219

feudal law and 28–29

Mustafa II and 219–220

ulema and 30

Shadow of God view of the sultan 128–129, 156

Shah Tahmasp 42–43, 180

Sharia

absolutist camp and 29

disowned by Turkish Republic 77–78

dynastic authority 44

fanaticism and 30

feudal law and 29

jurists' law and 19, 25–27, 29

Mustafa II and 30

Shiites 128

shopkeepers 166

silk 66, 131–133

Sinan Pasha 98–99, 142, 178, 180–181, 183

Sinanbeyzade Mustafa Çelebi 14, 16

Sivasi Abdülmecid (preacher) 125

Siyavuş Pasha 175, 183

Slade, Adolphus 7–8

slaves of the sultan

devşirme system

See devşirme system

dynastic succession and 93

feudal vassals replaced by 91–92, 94

grand viziers and 91

indirect expansion of power by 96

local aristocracies replaced by 96

monetization 91–92

Murad III and 56

Osman II murdered by 192

patrimonial system and 90, 93

political authority and 96

ruling class and 44, 91–92

slavery in general 91

Süleyman and 56

unity of 93

social discipline laws 66

social mobility

absolutists and 58

class tensions and 53

class-state system 34–35

conservatives and 51–52, 58

constitutionalists and 58

democratic processes and 197

early modern period and 233

feudal law and 51–52

financial entrepreneurship 17

French example of 16

imperial capital and 53

janissary corps 199

liberals and 51–52

market forces and 35

outsiders (ecnebis) 57

political identity and 240

provincial elites and 53

rebellions and 184

Second Empire and 151

tax farming and 44, 186

three-souls argument against 52

Sofu Mehmed Pasha 16

See also Mehmed Pasha (Sofu, deputy grand vizier under Ahmed I, Mustafa I, and Osman II)

Sokollu Mehmed Pasha (grand vizier) 55, 97

Gazanfer Agha and 101–102

Murad III and 97–98, 102, 108

sales of offices by 94

Selim II and 97–98

status passing on to sons 95

Soranzo, Giacomo 94

Spain 135

ships of 161

silver 143, 150

Steenbergen, Jo Van 41–42

Sublime Ethics 51

Sufis 121, 128

Süleyman Agha (cavalry general) 183

Süleyman Agha (chief black eunuch) 121

death of 170

uprising (May 1622) 166, 167, 170

Süleyman Pasha 101

Süleyman I, the Magnificent (1520–66)

cash wakfs 32–34

dynastic succession and 63, 92

execution of sons 42–43

feudal law and 43

Hungary wars 139(fig)

Ibrahim (grand vizier) 131

jurists' law and 33, 42–43

Mehmed II and 89–93

military slaves and 56

Rhodes conquest 131

Süleymaniye College of Law 68, 104, 106

Süleymaniye mosque 122–123

Sun'ullah Efendi (grand mufti) 66–68, 70–71

Syria 143(map), 151

Jalali rebellions and 143

janissaries in 149

jurist scholars of 40–41

mercenaries and 142–145, 183

Osman II and 152, 158, 162

Spanish silver and 150

Tabanıyassı Mehmed Pasha (grand vizier) 103

Tabriz 132

Tanzimat era 237

taxes 187–188

army expansion and 185, 186

avarız taxes 33

askeri status and 186, 187

banditry compared 147

bidding process 39, 44

cash payment in lieu of services 21

cash wakfs and 33

cavalry soldiers and 187

decree denouncing kanun law and 44

economic monetization and 50

fiefs and 17, 186

Halil İnalcık on 21

judges and 39

levy of army provisions 38–39

life-term tax farms (1695) 44

lords of the law and 37

on luxuries 214

Mehmed II 21

military service for 20, 187

paid in cash 21

paid in services 21

political expansion and 55

poll tax on non-Muslims 187

records grow increasingly detailed 19, 25

ruling class membership and 44

Second Empire and 17

social mobility through 16, 44, 186

special extraordinary taxes 38

subleasing 44

wars and 38–39

Taylor, Alan 239

teachers of royalty, decline of 61

teaching licenses 38, 40–41

technology 17

See also military technology

terminology, linguistic versus historical absence of terms 48

Terzioǧlu, Derin 217

Teschke model for international politics 81–82, 83, 88

Thirty Years War 137

timars

askeri and 50

cadastral land surveys and 25

competition for 82

conquest and 86

decline narrative and 22

decreasing documentation of 25

devşirmes and 50

eligibility of commoners (1530 order) 50

European comparisons 20

farmed out to clients 19

as fiefs 19

infantry and 24

iqṭā ʿ and 20

military service and 22

monetary economy and 17, 189

origins of 19–20

outsiders and 50

provincial cavalry soldiers and 19, 22

question of 20–23

replacement of original holders of 21

strong central control over grants of 20

tax farming and 17, 186

transformation of 94

time, perceptions of 227–230

Timur, Taner 7, 8

tobacco 125–127

Tophaneli Mahmud Efendi 103

Trabzon conquest (1461) 91

trade

long-distance 206, 232

luxury goods 95

See also silk, tobacco

Transylvania 137, 140(map)

treasury funds

Ali Pasha and 133

central (outer) treasury 133

navy as source of 133

Osman II pilgrimage and 163–164, 174

revenues (for 1547) 95

sultan's inner treasury 182

viziers access to 182

Treasury of Justice (anon.) 127, 128–129

Treaty of Carlowitz (1699) 7

Tripoli 161, 223–224

Tugi

See Hüseyin Tugi

Tunis 110, 111, 223–224

Turhan Sultan (queen mother) 29

Turkish Republic

militarization and 197

New Order and 197

political identity and 237n35

Sharia and 77–78

Turkomans of Aleppo 159–160

Ukraine (Khotin) 115, 137, 141, 154(map)

ulema, (jurist-scholars) 7

1826 and after 240

absolutism and 169, 171

appointments 129

decline narrative and 29–30, 191, 241

dynastic succession and 221–222

economic power of 39

lords of the law

See lords of the law

Mehmed Agha (eunuch) and 103

mentality 28, 43–44

moneylending 39

Ömer Efendi and 129

royal authority and 241

Seyyid Feyzullah 30

uprising (May 1622) 167, 169, 170

viziers

See viziers

uprising (May 1622)

Abdullah Efendi 169

Ahmed Pasha 167, 169

Ali Efendi (Mullah Ali) 169

army 170

Baki Pasha 167

Dilaver Pasha (grand vizier) 166, 167, 169, 170

Es'ad 167

events of the 18th of May 164–167

events of the 19th of May 167–172

events of the 20th of May 172–173

events of the 21st of May 173

exile orders 170

gardener corps 169

Hafiz Ahmed Pasha 171

harem 170

history of 173

Hüseyin Pasha 169

janissaries 169–171

jurists and 167, 171

legal opinions 166

legitimacy of 173

lords of the law 167, 170

Musa Efendi 169

Mustafa I and 170, 172

Nasuh Agha 167, 169

Ömer Efendi (tutor of Osman II) 166, 167

Osman II 169, 172

pilgrimages 167

rescripts during 169

shopkeepers and 166

soldiers 170

Süleyman Agha 166, 167, 170

Tugi's chronicle

See Hüseyin Tugi, chronicles of

ulema and 167, 169, 170

Vahyizade (preacher) 121

Va'iz Emir Abdülkerim (preacher) 122–124

Venice 94, 134, 136

Vienna 137, 217

viziers

army and 180, 184

control of provincial treasuries and 180

grand viziers

See grand viziers, office of

growth in power of 97–98

independent power of 95–100, 108

Murad III appointing viziers 100

Osman II execution 173–174

patrimonial empire and 92

political patronage and 94

promotion system of 92

quantifying the power of 94–95

rebellions and 184

royal court and 80, 93, 101, 106–108, 179, 184

salary-receiving appointments and 184

sales of offices 94

sons of 95

struggle among 179, 184

sultans and 106–107

treasury funds and 182

ulema

See ulema

wars and 180, 181

Wahhabis 54

Wallachia 140(map)

wars

absolutism and 180

army and

See army

as distributing wealth to provinces 182

salary-receiving personnel 180–181

infantry participation rates 177

monetization and 182

tax collections and 38–39

viziers and 181

warrior sultan tradition 120

wealth distribution 209–210

Weinstein, Barbara 238

Weiss, Bernard 25

women 103, 104

construction projects and 104

educational-scholarly hierarchy and 104

Esma Han 98

Esperanza Malchi 65, 107

Mihrimah Sultan 159

mother of Mustafa I 171–172

Mustafa I and 109

Nurbanu Sultan 103, 159

Old Palace and 171n60

Osman II and 118, 125

Raziye Hatun 106–107

royal women 56

Safiye Sultan 64, 70, 103, 160

teacher of the sultan 109

Yahya (“the bird”) 106

Yemen 111–113

Yemişçi Hasan Pasha (grand vizier) 67, 184

legal opinion on 68

Yeni İl 159–160

Yerevan 63, 131, 132

Young Ottomans 6

Zal Pasha mosque 122

Zaman, Muhammad Qasim 235

Zekeriyazade Yahya 74

Zübde Bey 14

Zufar 32




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