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America's Struggle for Same-Sex Marriage
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America’s Struggle for Same-Sex Marriage
Cambridge University Press
0521848563 - AMERICA’S STRUGGLE FOR SAME-SEX MARRIAGE - by Daniel R. Pinello
Index




Index

ABC, 123, 161

abortion, 59, 127, 179, 180;

same-sex marriage like, 72

ACLU, 25, 105–7, 113, 115, 116, 138

activist judges, 19, 75, 110, 172–4, 176, 183

Adams v. Howerton, 22

adoption of children, 150, 152, 155, 157

African-Americans, 17, 44, 52, 60, 66, 114, 130, 138

age, compared with gay rights, 113

AIDS, 137, 139, 192, 193

Akers, Joshua, 2, 4, 5

Alabama, 68, 173, 174

Albany, New York, 146

Albuquerque, New Mexico, 4, 6

Albuquerque Journal, 2, 5

Alliance Defense Fund, 16, 41, 80

Alliance for Marriage, 32

“America the Beautiful,” 48

American Center for Law and Justice, 32, 41

American Political Science Association, 22

American Psychological Association, 155

amicus briefs, 26, 41, 42

Ammiano, Tom, 73

Andersen, Ellen Ann, 102, 103

Arizona, 15

Arkansas, 66, 67, 102, 176–8

Armada rule, 110

artificial insemination, 157

Asbury Park, New Jersey, 19

Asian-Pacific-Islanders, 100

Associated Press, 4

Atkins, Cory, 66

attorney general: of California, 80;

of New Mexico, 2, 3, 10, 16;

of New York, 146;

of Oregon, 112, 115, 116, 118

Badgett, M. V. Lee, 91

Baehr v. Lewin, 25, 27, 32, 33

Baker, Jack, 22

Baker v. Nelson, 22

Baker v. State, 28, 29, 33, 35

Bali, 149

Balser, Ruth, 65

baptism, 81

Baptist church, 131

“basic biology” argument, 157, 159

Basic Rights New Mexico, 7

Basic Rights Oregon, 31, 104, 107, 111, 112, 115, 116, 119, 120, 127, 137, 139, 184;

annual dinner of, 136

Becht, Paul, 16

Belgium, 92

Benton County, Oregon, 115

bereavement benefits, 154, 162

Berkeley, California, 99

Berlin Wall, 79

Bernalillo, New Mexico, 4, 6, 12

bigotry, and acceptance of same-sex marriage, 166–72

Bill of Rights, 44, 174; see also“Top 20” gay Bill of Rights

Billiam and Jeffrey, 143, 144

binational couples, 162, 165; see alsosame-sex marriage, immigration

Birmingham, Thomas, 36, 47, 56

Bonauto, Mary, 41, 186

Boston, Massachusetts, 31, 40, 41, 51, 52, 60, 192

Boston Bar Association, 42

Boston Globe, 43, 71, 170, 183

Bowers v. Hardwick, 42

Brian and Doug, 163

Britt, Harry, 73

Bush, George W., 13, 19, 32, 74, 93, 144–6, 174, 178, 180, 183, 184;

endorsement of civil unions, 161, 182;

reelection of, 128, 179

Cahill, Sean, 156, 169, 189

California, 20, 23, 24, 41, 73–101, 103, 127, 138, 142, 148, 156, 160, 165, 176, 177, 179, 181, 183, 186, 195; see also specific cities and counties

California Constitution, 76, 93, 98

California Court of Appeal, 93

California Family Code, 74

California Legislature, passing same-sex marriage bill, 98

California Superior Court, 92

California Supreme Court, 19, 73, 74, 80, 87, 89, 90, 97, 99, 187;

and familiarity with LGBT people, 91

Campaign for California Families, 80

Campbell, David, 180

Canada, 87, 92, 169, 186

Canon, Bradley, 175

Catholic Church, 8, 50, 58, 59, 61, 80

Catholic schools, 125

Catholics, 58, 67, 80, 158, 180;

and divorce, 9

CBS News, 9, 178

child abuse, 58, 153

children,see same-sex couples ,raising children

Chip, 162

Chris and Ileana, 154–5, 162

Christian Coalition, 147

Christians, see evangelical Christians, fundamentalist Christians

Christine and Marianne, 188

Church Street Flowers, 85

churches, and political activity, 120–1, 128; see also citizen initiatives, churches

Ciampa, Vincent, 70

citizen initiatives, 36, 39, 72, 95, 103, 176;

in 2008, 192;

and churches, 128;

compared with legislative and other policy means, 108–9;

and fraud, 37, 38;

funding of, 131;

legislative approval of, 98, 103;

in Oregon, 103;

practical effect of, 178;

processes of, 109, 118–19, 122, 123;

signatures needed for, 36, 71, 99, 109, 120, 122;

strategy to combat, 37, 39, 99, 129, 130;

and two-subject rule, 110; see also signature gathering

civil rights: and backlash, 180;

and popular votes, 65, 66, 97, 100, 173, 174; see also “Let the people vote!”

civil rights movement, 60

civil unions, 7, 8, 20, 29, 32, 33, 39, 40, 43, 45, 55, 57, 65, 67, 71–3, 95–7, 110, 117, 118, 140, 142, 161, 182, 184;

adequacy of, 8, 13, 19, 160, 164;

circumstances for adoption of, 176;

endorsed by George W. Bush, 161;

first enactment of, 30;

lack of portability of, 97, 165;

LGBT acceptance of, 188;

as political fallback position, 182;

proscriptions of, 177;

public support of, 179;

as second-class citizenship, 188, 193;

taxation of benefits of, 163; see also domestic partnerships; reciprocal benefits

Clark, Kelly, 113–15, 118, 126, 133, 135, 137, 140

clergy, African-American, 60, 66

Clinton, Bill, 29, 75

COBRA, 12

Common Benefits Clause, 28, 30

Congress, 20, 29, 30, 33, 75

Connecticut, 6, 8, 160, 176, 177

consanguinity proscriptions, 166

conservatives and political organizing, 147

constitution, see state constitutional amendments, U.S. Constitution

constitutional conventions, 36;

of 2002, 36, 39, 47, 48;

of 2004, 45, 46, 53, 57, 60, 61, 187, 188;

of 2005, 71

Coordination Proceeding, 93

Corvallis, Oregon, 115

courts: as antidemocratic, 174;

role of the, 30, 46, 47, 66, 87, 97, 98, 112, 113, 172–4; see also activist judges, judicial

cousins, marriage of, 159, 166

Craig and Greg, 5–9, 184–5

Creem, Cynthia, 65

Crews, Ronald, 36, 41, 42, 52, 55, 62, 69, 157, 166, 169–171

Crow, Jim, 141, 173

curriculum vitae, 21

Curtatone, Joseph, 70

Dahl, Robert A., 30

Daughters of Bilitis, 74

D’Avolio, Gerry, 42

De Santo v. Barnsley, 22

Dean v. District of Columbia, 22, 26

Defense of Marriage Act, 29, 32, 33, 35, 40, 75, 102, 105, 163; see also marriage, definition of

Defense of Marriage Coalition, 114–18, 122, 123, 126, 130

Demakis, Paul, 64

Democratic Party, 3, 5, 16, 37, 74, 78, 80, 93, 141, 146–8; see also Republican Party

Denmark, 87

Diana, 186

DiMasi, Salvatore, 61, 70

District of Columbia, 26

divorce, 9,126

domestic partnerships, 8, 13, 32, 34, 35, 40, 45, 67, 73, 97, 98, 103, 137, 165, 182, 185; adequacy of, 160, 164;

in California, 73;

circumstances for adoption of, 176;

proscriptions of, 177;

taxation of benefits of, 163;

see also civil unions reciprocal benefits

Doug and Brian, 163

Duberman, Martin, 30

Dufty, Bevan, 181, 191

Dunlap, Victoria, 1–5, 9, 16, 19

Dunn, Steve, 124

Dupuis, Martin, 22

elections, of 2000, 18

Empire State Pride Agenda, 146, 151

empirical methods, 195

empiricism, 172

“the engaged” in New Mexico, 13

Ephesians, 158

Episcopal Church, 154

equal benefits ordinance, 73

equal protection, 22, 28, 44, 67, 76, 87, 108, 116, 183

equality, 18, 23, 24, 35, 65, 79, 92, 96, 165, 168, 187, 189; see also separate and unequal

Equality California, 79, 88

Equality Federation, 28

Eskridge, William N., Jr., 22

Eugene, Oregon, 116, 124, 125

evangelical Christians, 16, 128, 145, 158, 180; see also fundamentalist Christians

Evangelical Presbyterian Church, 157

exit polls, 18

Family Research Council, 31

Faubus, Orville, 113

Federal Bureau of Investigation, 170

Federal Marriage Amendment, 32, 76, 108, 144, 161, 178;

2004 congressional vote on, 20;

practical effect of, 178;

and public opinion, 179;

ratification of, 178

Feinstein, Diane, 73, 78, 94, 179

Finneran, Thomas, 40, 53–5, 70

First Amendment, 170, 178

flag burning, 178

floral tributes to couples, 14, 85–6

Florida, 86, 87, 155

“Flowers from the Heartland,” 14, 85–6

Flynn, David, 65

Focus on the Family, 31

Foley, Dan, 25–7

food banks, 123

Ford Motor Company, 162

Fortune 500, 162

foster parenting, 152, 157

framing, see issue framing

France, 87, 155

Free and Equal Clause, 44

free speech, 103, 170, 178

Freedom to Marry, 106, 148

Freedom to Marry Day, 96

Fresno, California, 90, 99

fundamentalist Christians, 16, 58, 100; see also evangelical Christians

Gallup Organization, 178; see also public opinion

Garrow, David J., 23

gay agenda, 133, 135

gay relationships, duration of, 133

Gay Shame, 189

Gay & Lesbian Advocates & Defenders (GLAD), 24, 31, 35, 41–3, 77, 186

Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Expo, 148

gender, compared with LGBT rights, 113; see also sex discrimination

General Accounting Office, 151

General Court, 35, 39, 45, 46, 52, 62, 69, 71, 98;

preserving its own authority, 37; see also Massachusetts Legislature

General Electric, 162

General Motors, 162

Genesis, 158

Georgia, 84, 102, 176, 177

Germany, 87

Gerstmann, Evan, 102

“God Bless America,” 48

Goldberg, Jackie, 73

Goldstein, Michael S., 150

Gonzalez, Matt, 74, 78

Good Morning America, 161, 182

Goodridge v. Department of Public Health, 18, 19, 31, 32, 34, 40–5, 47, 58, 70, 105, 159, 175, 176, 182, 183, 186, 187;

commencement of, 35;

excerpt from, 159;

impact at the grassroots of, 187;

impact on elites of, 186;

and increased expectations, 184, 185, 188, 192;

inspirational effect of, 191, 192;

and LGBT political involvement, 190–2, 193;

negative effects of, 175–82;

positive effects of, 46, 182–5, 187, 190, 192;

ranking importance of, 185–90; see also activist judges, judicial impact

Gordon and Jeff, 12–16

Gospels, 158

gravity, definition of, 158

Greaney, John, 43

Green Party, 74, 143, 145, 147

Greg and Craig, 5–9, 184–5

Harvard Law School, 23

hate crimes, 166, 169;

definition of, 170

Hawaii, 25–9, 31, 95, 161, 162, 176;

popular vote on same-sex marriage, 27

Hawaii Constitution, 25

Hawaii Legislature, 27

Hawaii Supreme Court, 25–7, 32, 33

health care proxy, 154, 162

health insurance, 35, 39, 162;

for domestic partners, 12, 163;

imputation of value as income, 163

Heller, Ehrman, White and McAuliffe, 144

“a helper who fits him,” 158, 170

Hennepin County, Minnesota, 22

heterosexual privilege, 167, 168

heterosexuality, presumption of, 132, 167, 168

Hillygus, D. Sunshine, 180

Hilton hotel, 138

Hispanics, 9

Hollow Hope, The, 33

homeless shelter, and LGBT seniors, 163

homosexuality, as disease, 171

Honolulu, 25

hospital visitation, 7, 134, 141, 151, 162

Human Rights Campaign, 31, 148, 164

human subjects, research on, regulation of, 5

IBM, 162

Ileana and Chris, 154–5, 162

Imagine Weddings and Events International, 148

immigration, see same-sex marriage, immigration

income tax, 163

individual autonomy, 18

initiatives, see citizen initiatives

Institutional Review Board, 5

interest groups, 21, 22, 24, 27, 31, 35, 41, 116, 175, 182, 189, 195;

declaring policy war, 112;

financial contributions to, 190;

influenced by events, 76–7, 107;

organizing of, 27;

and policy making, 98, 103;

political strategy of, 24–9, 89–90, 95–6, 99–100, 105–10; see also specific groups

Internal Revenue Service, 163

Internet, 9, 50, 85, 196

interracial marriage, 15, 64, 73;

and popular votes, 173;

public opinion about, 169;

revulsion to, 169;

striking prohibition of, 187

interviews conducted for the book, 195–7

invisibility of gay men and lesbians, 18, 172, 195

Iraq war, 100, 179

Ireland, Roderick, 44

Isaacson, Arline, 34, 37–9, 163

issue framing, 28, 34, 46

Italians, 61, 68

Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, 148

Jason and Mark, 152–4

Jeff and Gordon, 12–16

Jesus Christ, 158

Jim and Simon, 81–5

Johnson, Gary, 2

Jones, Nelson, 139

Jones v. Hallahan, 22

Joyce, Brian, 64

judicial activism, see activist judges

judicial impact, 8, 30, 31, 33, 175; see also courts Goodridge v. Department of Public Health

Kaiser, Sherri Sokeland, 81, 87, 91, 174, 180, 181, 185

KATU, 123

Katz, Leslie, 73

Kawa, Steve, 75, 76

Kendell, Kate, 76, 78, 79, 90, 93, 94, 97, 106, 107, 164, 167–9, 173, 176, 183, 184, 193

Kennedy, John F., 76

Kentucky, 22, 102, 176–8

Kerry, John, 148, 191

Klein, Ethel, 180

Knight, Pete, 95

Knight Initiative, 95

Kramer, Richard, 23, 92

Ku Klux Klan, 67, 174

Kulongoski, Ted, 142

Kuykendall, Mae, 33

Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund, 24–6, 31, 106, 107, 146

Lane County, Oregon, 116

Las Vegas, Nevada, 13

Latinos for Marriage Equality, 100

Latinos/as, 52

Lawrence v. Texas, 42, 105, 185

Lees, Brian, 56, 64, 71

legal mobilization, 31

legislature, role of the, 47, 60, 62, 63, 66, 67, 98, 109, 112, 117, 159, 172, 173

Leno, Mark, 98

Lesbian Rights Project, 24

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Caucus, 22

“Let the people vote!,” 15, 36, 47, 57, 63, 75; see also civil rights

Levi, Ross, 151

Leviticus, 169, 170

Lewis, Gregory, 179

Li v. State, 142

liberals and political organizing, 147

Liberty Council, 31, 41

Linsky, David Paul, 44, 45, 48, 61, 71

Little Rock, Arkansas, 66, 113

living wills, 13, 162

Lockyer, Bill, 80

Lockyer v. City and County of San Francisco, 74

Los Angeles, California, 6

Louisiana, 102, 176–8, 181

Loving v. Virginia, 15, 73, 169, 187

Lyon, Phyllis, 74

Mabon, Lon, 103, 131, 133

Madrid, Patricia, 10, 16

Maine, 87

Malia, Liz, 40, 46, 51, 58, 60, 62, 69, 70

Mapes, Jeff, 109

March on Washington: of 1963, 68;

of 1994, 6

Marianne and Christine, 188

Mark and Jason, 152–4

Marotta, Toby, 30

marriage: benefits from, 29, 35, 39, 134, 151, 152, 162, 164, 165, 187;

biblical understanding of, 158;

civil vs. religious, 8, 97, 151;

definition of, 17, 22, 29, 39, 41, 56, 65, 74, 75, 108, 112, 116, 125–6, 158, 161;

as exclusive gateway for benefits, 151, 162;

as a rite of passage, 136;

vows, effect on same-sex couples of, 15, 83; see also Defense of Marriage Act; same-sex marriage

Marriage Equality California, 31, 79, 86, 96, 99

Marshall, Margaret, 43, 44

Martin, Del, 74

Martin Luther King holiday, 15

Mary and Susan, 163

Maryland, 15, 170

Massachusetts, 8, 19, 20, 24, 31–72, 76, 77, 94, 98, 107, 110, 114, 119, 124, 128, 149, 156, 163, 165, 171, 175–7, 182, 183, 185–91, 195, 196;

2004 elections in, 68, 70;

number of same-sex couples married in, 192;

public opinion on same-sex marriage in, 182; see also specific cities

Massachusetts Bar Association, 42

Massachusetts Catholic Conference, 39, 42

Massachusetts Citizens for Life, 52

Massachusetts Constitution, 18, 36, 44–6, 106, 184; amendment of, 35

Massachusetts Family Institute, 31, 35, 36, 39, 41, 42, 52, 53, 55, 62, 69, 72, 157, 166, 169

Massachusetts Gay and Lesbian Political Caucus, 34, 37, 38, 163

Massachusetts Legislature, 20, 21, 34, 40;

lesbian and gay members of, 40;

shift in composition of, 182; see also General Court

Massachusetts Superior Court, 41

Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (SJC), 18, 31, 42, 45, 47, 65, 76, 105, 159, 175, 183, 184, 192, 193

MassEquality, 47, 50, 69, 71, 182, 192;

lobbying strategy of, 50;

money raised by, 182

Mathews, David, 2

McCann, Michael, 31

McConnell, J. Michael, 22

McDevitt, Troy, 149

McKay, Molly, 79, 86, 88, 95, 96, 99

McLaughlin, Spencer, 143

Measure 8, 103

Measure 9:

of 1992, 103;

of 2000, 104

Measure 13, 104

Measure 36, 113, 114, 117, 118–26, 131, 134, 138, 140, 175, 181;

and children, 126;

and churches, 114, 120, 121, 170;

and civil unions, 140;

and gay male supporters of, 124;

and growth of undecided voters, 181;

inevitability of the success of, 131–4;

language of, 110;

and polling, 130;

signature gathering for, 120

Measure 36 Campaign, 123–9, 131;

and churches, 128;

funding of, 131;

and homophobia, 127

Medicaid, 164, 165

Medicaid Empoverishment Spousal Waiver, 164

Medicare, 165

Mendocino County, California, 90

Merrick v. Board of Higher Education, 103

Michigan, 102, 176, 177, 181

Migden, Carole, 73

Milford, Massachusetts, 68

Milk, Harvey, 192

Mill, John Stuart, 102

Mineau, Kris, 72

Minneapolis, Minnesota, 85

Minnesota, 22

Minnesota Supreme Court, 22

Mississippi, 87, 102, 176–8

Missouri, 102, 176, 177, 181

Missouri Supreme Court, 91

Moats, David, 33

Monson, J. Quin, 180

Montana, 102, 176, 177

“Month of Marriages,” 19, 74, 84, 86; see also “Winter of Love”

Moore, Richard T., 54, 59

Multnomah County, Oregon, 19, 20, 103, 105–17, 125, 132, 133, 135, 138, 139, 141, 142, 163, 176, 190, 196

Multnomah County commissioners, 106, 184, 193

MUNI, 192

Nanuet, New York, 151

Nashif, Tim, 107, 114, 118, 123, 131, 157, 161, 162, 166–8, 170–2, 175, 176, 181

Natick, Massachusetts, 44

National Black Justice Coalition, 100

National Center for Lesbian Rights, 24, 31, 76, 78, 90, 94, 106, 164, 167

National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, 31, 32

National Gay Rights Advocates, 24

National Public Radio, 124

Native Americans, 1

natural law, 17, 65, 102, 158

Netherlands, 87, 92

Nevada, 192

New Jersey, 19, 161, 176

New Mexico, 1–17, 19, 140, 144, 156, 184, 195, 196;see also specific cities and counties

New Paltz, New York, 19, 140, 143–8, 178, 195

New York, 19, 20, 119, 137, 143–56, 195; see also specific cities and counties

New York City, 5, 31, 143, 146, 148, 151

New York Senate Democratic Conference, 147

New York State, Department of Health, 144

New York Times, 90, 93, 170, 178

Newsom, Gavin, 19, 20, 32, 73–82, 84, 86, 88, 90, 94, 144, 183, 184, 186, 187, 190, 193;

as rogue actor, 186

“No on 22” campaign, 95

no-fault divorce, 126

North Dakota, 102, 176–8

nursing home care, and Medicaid, 164

Nyack, New York, 146

Oakland, California, 14

O’Flaherty, Eugene, 66

Ohio, 17, 102, 176, 177, 180, 181, 192

Oklahoma, 11, 102, 176–8

Opinions of the Justices to the Senate, 19, 43, 175, 183, 184

Oregon, 19, 20, 102–42, 156, 171, 175, 177, 181, 190, 191, 195; see also specific cities and counties

Oregon Citizens Alliance, 103, 104, 131, 133

Oregon Constitution, 106, 108, 111, 112, 116, 184

Oregon Court of Appeals, 103, 117

Oregon Family Council, 31, 107–9, 120, 157, 161, 166, 176, 181

Oregon Legislature, 108, 117;

and passage of civil unions bill, 140, 142

Oregon State University, 115

Oregon Supreme Court, 109–11, 117, 119, 142

The Oregonian, 109, 134, 139

Ottenheimer, Martin, 166

Owen, David, 191

Parente, Marie, 68

Paris, France, 155

Parks, Rosa, 78

party identification, impact on 2004 presidential election of, 179; see also Democratic Party; Republican Party

Pataki, George, 146

Peg and Spence, 9–12

Peisch, Alica Hanlon, 39, 44, 47, 56, 57, 59, 60

Pelosi, Nancy, 74

pension benefits, 124; see also Social Security

Perez v. Sharp, 73, 187

Peskin, Aaron, 86, 184, 191

Placer County, California, 90

Plessy v. Ferguson, 187

policy initiative, sources of, 32

political science, 21, 30, 173, 175

polygamy, 125

Portland, Oregon, 19, 103, 107, 109, 123, 134, 135, 139, 178, 189, 190, 192, 193, 196

power of attorney, 7, 154, 162

presidential election of 2004, impact of same-sex marriage on, 93, 128, 179

Presidents’ Day, 86

privacy, 42

privileges and immunities, 117

Proposal 2, 177

Proposition 22, 95, 98

ProtectMarriage.com, 98

Provincetown, Massachusetts, 52

public education, 28, 29, 96, 97, 99, 120, 124, 130, 131, 151–5

public meetings law, 111, 115

public opinion, 28;

and acceptance of same-sex marriage, 96, 98, 145, 182;

and constitutional amendments, 178;

fluctuation in, 183;

and prejudice, 173

race, see African-Americans

interracial marriage;

same-sex marriage, compared with race relations

racism, and white privilege, 167

reciprocal benefits, 27, 33, 162;

adequacy of, 160, 164; see also civil unions;

domestic partnerships

Reed, Douglas S., 103

referenda, see citizen initiatives

Reinstein, Kathi-Anne, 61

Republican Party, 1–5, 16, 33, 44, 56, 93, 94, 113, 140, 146, 147, 180; see also Democratic Party

research methods, 195

Revere, Massachusetts, 61

Revere, Paul, 26

Rice, Georgene, 130

Riggle, Ellen, 18, 195

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 149

Ritz, Michael, 85

Roberts, Lonnie, 111

Roche, Maura, 106

Rockland County, New York, 151, 155;

Department of Social Services, 152

Rosenberg, Gerald N., 30, 33

Roundtable, 24–6

Rouse, Marty, 47, 50, 69, 71

rule of law, 113

Rye Brook, New York, 150

Salem, Oregon, 140

Salt Lake City, Utah, 1

same-sex couples: duration of relationships, 133;

number living together, 18;

raising children, 51, 152, 156

same-sex marriage: backlash to, 17, 19, 25, 27, 32, 33, 45, 93, 175, 176, 178–181;

benefits of, 125;

California referendum on, 99;

and children, 51, 150, 152, 157;

as a civil rights claim, 17, 46, 59, 60, 66, 68, 130;

compared with race relations, 113, 173, 181;

and constitutional dialogue, 113;

distinguished from marriage, 23;

early lawsuits regarding, 22;

economic impact of, 86, 91–2, 148–50;

and gender discrimination, 93;

generating emotion, 7, 12–14, 83–4, 136–40;

history of debate over, 24;

and immigration, 83, 155, 165;

and Jews, 65;

media coverage of, 19, 85, 87, 119, 183;

and most important event, 185–9;

motivating LGBT political action, 84, 192;

nullification of, 74, 80, 87–90, 142;

number of, 19, 87;

in other countries, 92;

and procreation, 126, 156, 157, 159, 160;

and public education, 28, 29, 96, 97, 99, 120, 124, 130, 131, 151–155;

and public opinion, 65, 145, 182;

public support of, 178, 179;

and religious beliefs, 8, 169, 170–1;

and seniors, 51;

and sex education, 132;

states likely to grant, 176; see also marriage

Same-Sex Wedding Expo, 148

sampling LGBT population, 195–7

San Diego, California, 90, 99

San Francisco, California, 13, 14, 19, 20, 23, 73, 74, 76–81, 83–5, 87, 92, 94, 107, 110, 118, 119, 138, 140, 144, 174, 178, 180, 183–7, 189–93, 195, 196;

Board of Supervisors, 73, 74, 77, 78, 184;

City Hall of, 14, 80, 81, 83–5, 87;

media attention to, 19, 85, 87, 183

San Francisco Gay Men’s Chorus, 83

Sandoval County, New Mexico, 1–17, 19, 20, 178, 195

Santa Fe, New Mexico, 9, 12

“Save Our Horses” campaign, 38

Scalia, Antonin, 105

Scheingold, Stuart A., 30

Schenectady, New York, 146

school prayer, 179

Schultz, David A., 31

Schwarzenegger, Arnold, 98

Sciortino, Carl, 70

scripture, 158, 159

Sears, 124

Sears, R. Bradley, 91

seniors, 51, 163

separate and unequal, 8, 67, 117, 140–1, 185

separation of church and state, 128, 145

sex discrimination, 25, 93

sex education, 124

sexual orientation, declaring, 161, 167, 168

sexual orientation discrimination, 34, 103;

prohibition of and relationship recognition, 176

Shaw, Terry, 148

Shepard, Matthew, 60

Sherborn, Massachusetts, 44

Sherrill, Kenneth, 180

Shields, John, 146

Shields, Todd, 180

Shorto, Russell, 170

signature gathering: and churches, 120, 122;

and coercion, 122;

and fraud, 38;

paid, 38, 121; see also citizen initiatives

Simon and Jim, 81–5

Singer v. Hara, 22

social reform, 31

Social Security, 29, 91, 151, 152, 165

sodomy, 42

Somerville, Massachusetts, 70

South Africa, 44

South Carolina, 173, 174

Spain, 92

Spence and Peg, 9–12

Spitzer, Elliott, 146

spousal waiver, and Medicaid, 164

Springfield, Massachusetts, 67

St. Fleur, Marie, 67

St. Paul, 158

St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, 149

standing to sue, 115, 116

Staszewski, Glen, 177

state constitutional amendments, 20, 27, 29, 97, 98, 109, 147, 175–7;

banning civil unions, 102, 177;

banning same-sex marriage, 35, 102;

in 2004 elections, 102; see also U.S. Constitution

state supreme courts, 20, 26, 192; see also specific states

State of the Union address, 13, 19, 105, 183, 184;

text of, 74–5

State University of New York, 143

Stewart, Therese, 87, 91, 100

Stonewall Democratic Club, 151

Stonewall Rebellion, 30

Sullivan, Andrew, 156, 160

Super Bowl, 16

SupportEquality.org, 70

surrogate parenting, 157

survivor benefits, 165; see also Social Security

Susan and Mary, 163

Swan, Benjamin, 67

Sweden, 169

Switzerland, 87

Tadlock, Barry, 18, 195

Tampa, Florida, 87

Target stores, 36

Tarr, Bruce, 64

tax penalty on same-sex couples, 163

temporary restraining orders, 80, 89, 115, 144

Teng, Mabel, 84, 87

terrorism, 5, 179

Texas, 178

Thailand, 87

“This Land Is Your Land,” 48

Thorpe, Roey, 105, 111, 119, 122, 127, 129, 135, 138, 141, 184, 193

Tomek, Dawn, 19

“Top 20” gay Bill of Rights, 134–5, 137

Travaglini, Robert, 42, 54, 56

Travaglini-Lees Amendment, 55, 56, 62, 64;

final vote on, 71, 182

Travis, Philip, 39, 43, 53, 55, 63, 64, 72

Treasury Building, 6

truth-squadding, 37, 38

Ukiah Daily Journal, 90

Ulster County, New York, 144;

District Attorney of, 144, 147

Unitarian Church, 6, 61

United Kingdom, 83, 87

U.S. Attorney, 2, 3

U.S. Census, 18, 151, 156

U.S. Conference of Mayors, 74

U.S. Constitution, 44, 46, 47, 75, 77, 110, 174;

interpretation of, 173;

and interracial marriage, 174; see also state constitutional amendments

U.S. Supreme Court, 15, 30, 42, 47, 73, 105, 169, 173, 178, 186

University of California, 81

University of Oregon, 116

Utah, 1, 95, 102, 176–8

Valentine’s Day, 86

Vermont, 28, 29, 31, 35, 39, 41, 43, 69, 70, 72, 95, 116, 117, 160, 161, 165, 176, 188, 193

Vermont Legislature, 29, 33

Vermont Supreme Court, 28, 29, 33, 43, 45

voter information pamphlets, 120

VoteYesMarriage.com, 98

voting: by mail, 130;

and prejudice, 181

Walsh, Steven, 68

Washington, D.C., 74

Webster’s New World Dictionary, 171

wedding cake toppers, 149

wedding planners, 148

wedding rings, 82, 86

Wellesley, Massachusetts, 39

Wellesley College, 196

West, Jason, 19, 32, 143–8, 186, 187

West Virginia, 87

Weston, Massachusetts, 39

Wilkerson, Dianne, 60, 66

Williams, Donald A., 144

wills, 7, 13, 124, 154, 155, 162

“Winter of Love,” 74, 80, 86; see also “Month of Marriages”

Wisconsin, 34

witnesses for marriages, 82

Wolfson, Evan, 18, 23–9, 106, 107, 156, 157, 160, 164, 186

Wyoming, 87

Yugo, 188



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