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The Cambridge Companion to the Jesuits
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The Cambridge Companion to the Jesuits

Cambridge University Press
9780521857314 - The Cambridge Companion to the Jesuits - Edited by Thomas Worcester
Index


Index

Abbot, George, 126

abused women, Jesuit shelters for, 75–6

accommodation

   biblical principle of, 249–51

   of indigenous cultures. See inculturation of Christian message

Acosta, José de, 204

Acquaviva, Claudio

   China and, 209–10

   England, Scotland, and Ireland, Jesuits in, 89, 92, 93, 98, 101

   France, Jesuits in, 107

   on Poles and Poland, 145

   Rome and Italy, Jesuits in, 79, 82

   Spiritual Exercises and, 32

   Ward, Mary, reaction to, 64

adaptation to different cultures. See inculturation of Christian message

Adrian VI (pope), 22

Adrián, Diego de, 226

Africa, 205, 304–5, 322–3. See also specific countries, e.g. Cameroon

Aiguillon, Marie, Duchess of, 192

Albanel, Charles, 187

Albuquerque, Af(f)onso de, 153, 206

Aleni, Giulio, 181, 182

Alexander VI (pope), 23, 153

Alexander VII (pope), 210

Algonquins, 187, 190

Allen, William, 89

Allouez, Claude, 187, 188, 190, 195

Almeida, Luís d’, 157

alumbrados, 24, 25, 62, 199, 211

Amaladoss, Michael, 309, 310–11, 313

American Indians. See Native Americans

Americas. See Latin America, and specific countries, e.g. Canada, El Salvador

Amiot, Jean-Joseph-Marie, 183

Anchieta, José de, 230

Angela of Foligno, 18

Anne of Austria (Queen Regent of France), 112–15

Annotations in Spiritual Exercises, 55, 57

AOTA (Ecumenical Association of African Theologians), 304

Apostolicum Ministerium (Regulae Observandae in Anglicanis Missionibus), 96

appellants, 91

Aquinas. See Thomism

Arai Hakuseki, 163

Araldo, Giovanni Francesco, 77

Araoz, Antonio, 201–2

Arce, José Francisco de, 236

Archer, James, 97

architecture

   in France, 111

   in French Canada, 191

   in Japan, 157

   in Rome, 72

architecture in colonial Latin America, 7, 217–39

   Arequipa Compañía (Church of Santiago), Peru, 223–6

   Chiquitos Reductions, Bolivia, 236–8

   Cuzco Compañía (Church and College of the Transfiguration), Peru, 219–23

   cuzqueño Baroque, 217, 219, 223, 227, 234

   earthquakes, opportunities posed by, 218, 219, 224, 226

   Igreja de Jesus, Salvador, Brazil, 226–30

   martyrs, iconography of, 230, 241

   Mestizo style, 217, 223–4, 226, 234

   Native Americans

      arts training for, 218

      Chiquitos Reductions, Bolivia, 236

      incorporation of dance, music, and theater into religious life of, 236, 238

      Mestizo style architecture and, 217, 226

      Paraguay Reductions and, 234–6

   in New Spain (Mexico), 217

   Paraguay Reductions, 233–6

   in Portuguese Brazil, 218, 226–30

   Rococo style, 230

   San Ignacio, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 231–3

   significance of Jesuit contribution to, 217

   in Spanish South America, 218

Arequipa Compañía (Church of Santiago), Peru, 223–6

Argentina, church of San Ignacio, Buenos Aires, 231–3

Argentini, Giovanni, 145

Arima Harunobu (Dom Protásio), 158, 161

Aristotelianism

   China, attempts of Jesuits to introduce into, 179

   Copernicanism, speculation as to Aristotle’s probable views on, 252–3

   Jesuit backing of, 244, 245–7, 250

   probability arguments and, 248

   suppression of Jesuits and, 264

   theological aim of Jesuit use of, 245

Arnauld, Antoine, 113, 267

Arrupe, Pedro, 299–301, 305, 320, 323

arts and sciences. See also architecture; scientific revolution; theater, Jesuit sense of

   importance to Jesuits, 7

   modern Jesuit involvement in arts, 321

Ashikaga Yoshiteru, 157

Ashworth, William B., Jr., 254

Asia, 6. See also specific countries, e.g. Japan

assassinations, political. See regicide, Jesuits associated with

Augustine of Hippo, 113, 258, 267

Aulneau, Jean-Pierre, 187

Austria, 146, 272, 273. See also Poland and eastern Europe

Autobiography of Ignatius of Loyola, 33, 36, 45


Bailey, Gauvin Alexander, x, 7, 217

Balthasar, Hans Urs von, 299

Baltimore, George Calvert, Lord, 94, 99

Bancroft, George, 187

Barnes, Michael, 308–9

Baroque architecture, cuzqueño, 217, 219, 223, 227, 234

Barthes, Roland, 140

beata, 19

Bellarmino, Roberto (Robert Bellarmine), 74, 107, 210

Benedict XIII (pope), 14

Benedict XIV (pope), 96, 121, 128

Benedict XVI (pope). See Ratzinger, Joseph

Berrigan, Daniel, 325

Berthier, Guillaume-François, 263

Bianchi, Andrea, 233

Biard, Pierre, 186, 195

biblical interpretation, 249–51

Binet, Etienne, 109–11, 115

Bireley, Robert, 142

Bishop, William, 94, 95

bishops. See episcopal authority and Jesuits

Bitti, Bernardo, 206, 218, 220, 226

Black African Theology, 304–5

Blessed Virgin Mary

   Immaculate Conception of, 13

   Marian congregations or sodalities. See confraternities

   Spain, local incarnations in, 21

Blessed Virgin Mary, Sodality of, 76, 77

Bobadilla, Nicholas, 34, 78

Bogudzka, Maria, 145

Bolivia, Chiquitos reductions of, 236–8

Bollandists, 41

Boniface VIII (pope), 121

Borja (or Borgia), Francis (Francisco de Borja), 36, 38, 122, 200, 202, 227

Borromeo, Carlo, 80

Bošković, Ruder, 256

Boston College (Massachusetts), 280, 281, 284, 288, 299, 321

Bourdaloue, Louis, 112

Bouvet, Joachim, 183

Boxer, Charles, 164

Brahe, Tycho, 244, 250

Bramane, Pero Luís, 208

Brancati, Francesco, 176

Brazil, Jesuit architecture of, 218, 226–30

Brébeuf, Jean de, 186, 187–9, 190, 193, 194

Brera, College of (Milan), 80

Bressani, Francesco-Giuseppe, 190, 192

Britain. See England; Ireland; Maryland, English mission to; Scotland

Broët, Paschase, 88

Bucko, Ray, 306

Buddhism

   in China

      monks, Jesuits originally dressing as, 172

      organization of Christian Church and, 176, 177

      rejection by Jesuits of, 173

   in Japan

      confusion of Christianity with, 156

      resistance to Christianity of, 157

Buglio, Lodovico, 181

Burel, Gilbert, 186

Burghardt, Walter, 313

Bystroń, Stanislaw, 140, 141


Cabral, Francisco, 158–9, 160

calendar reform

   in China, 178

   Gregorian Calendar, 74, 172

Calvert, Cecil, 99

Calvert, George, Lord Baltimore, 94, 99

Calvez, Jean-Yves, 305

Calvinism, Jansenism associated with, 267

Câmara, Gonçalves da, 34, 35, 39, 40

Cameroon, 301

Campbell, Thomas J., 287

Campion, Edmund, 89, 90

Campomanes, Pedro de, 270

Canada. See also French Canada

   North America, Jesuits working with Hispanic and Native American communities in, 305, 306–7

   Upper Canada (modern English Canadian province), 323

Canisius, Peter, 6, 42, 51, 138

Cano, Melchor, 41

canonization. See also saints

   Henry of Navarre and, 111, 118

   of Ignatius of Loyola, 3

   Palafox y Mendoza, Juan, Jesuit opposition to canonization of, 269

   uncanonized martyrs, iconography of, 230, 241

   Wendat mission martyrs, 189

Carafa, Vincenzo, 79

Caravaggio, Michelangelo da, 321–2

Caribbean, 268, 323

Carneiro, Melchior, 155

Carney, James (Guadalupe), 301

Carroll, John, 100, 274

Caruana, Louis, x, 7, 243

Carvajal, Luisa de, 123

Carvalho, Valentim, 162

Carvalho e Mello, Sebastião José de, Marquis of Pombal, 265–6

Casot, Jean-Joseph, 196

Castiglione, Giuseppe, 173

Castro, Mateus de, 208

Catherine II the Great (Russian empress), 141, 146–7

Catherine of Siena, 18

Caussin, Nicolas, 112–15

Cazalla, María de, 25

Cecil, Robert, Earl of Salisbury, 92

celestial incorruptibility, 259

Cerqueira, Luís, 155

Certeau, Michel de, 309

Chabanel, Noël, 189

Champlain, Samuel de, 186

Chantal, Jane Frances de, 130

Charity Sisters (Daughters of Charity), 130, 132

Charles I (King of England), 94–5

Charles II (King of England), 95

Charles I and V (King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor), 22, 122

Charles III (King of Spain), 264, 269–70

Charpentier, Marc Antoine, 112

Charton, François, 186

Chastellain, Pierre, 192

Châtel, Jean, 106, 108, 267

Chauchetière, Claude, 189

Chaumonot, Joseph-Marie, 188

Chávez, Ñuflo de, 236

Chiara, Giuseppe, 163

Chihwatenha, Joseph and Marie Aonetta, 188, 189

Chile, 324

China, 6, 169–84

   Buddhism in

      monks, Jesuits originally dressing as, 172

      organization of Christian Church and, 176, 177

      rejection by Jesuits of, 173

   calendar reform, 178

   Chinese language, proposed celebration of Catholic rites in, 181

   class issues in, 169, 172, 175

   corporate culture of Jesuits in, 172–5

   education in

      Aristotelian philosophy, attempts to introduce, 179

      European science and technology, Jesuit introduction of, 173, 174, 178–80

      Jesuit inability to co-opt system of, 175

      literati and court officials, association of Jesuits with, 172, 174, 210

   expulsions of Jesuits by Chinese, 169, 170

   French vs. “Portuguese” Jesuits in, 170–1, 179

   historical review of Jesuit mission to, 169–71

   hui resembling confraternities, 175

   inculturation of Christian message in

      Buddhist monks, Jesuits originally dressing as, 172

      Chinese culture as shaping, 174–5

      Chinese values, openness to and tolerance of, 173

      Confucianism, Jesuit adaptation of, 172, 173, 174, 176

      as Jesuit policy, 172

      organizational structure of Church, 175–7

      Rites Controversy, 170, 171, 173, 183

      suppression blamed on, 264

   literati and court officials, association of Jesuits with, 169, 172, 174, 175, 210

   neo-Confucianism, 173, 174

   number of Jesuits in, 171–2

   persecution of Christians in, 169, 170, 210, 211

   printing and publishing in, 177–84

      books intended for Europe, 182–3

      devotional and theological writing, 180–2

      foundations of, 178

      scientific writing, 178–80

   racial and ethnic minorities as Jesuits, 170, 171, 181, 208–11

   suppression and restoration in, 171, 211

   Taoism and organization of Christian Church in, 176, 177

Chiquitos, 236

church architecture. See architecture

Cibot, Pierre-Martial, 183

Cinnamo, Leonardus, 259

Circa Pastoralis, 121

Ciruelo, Pedro, 16

Cisneros, Francisco Jiménez de, 17–19, 23

Ciszek, Walter, 324

Civil War

   in England, 95, 98, 100

   in Spain, 324

class issues

   in Chinese mission, 169, 172, 175

   confraternities and, 76

   French Marian Congregations, 130

   Neapolitan Revolt of 1585, 78

   in Poland and Eastern Europe, 140, 145–6

Clavius, Christopher, 74, 172, 192

Clement VIII (pope), 246

Clement XI (pope), 128

Clement XIII (pope), 84, 271

Clement XIV (pope), 7, 84, 146, 196, 271–2

Clément, Jacques, 105

clerical colleges in Rome, Jesuit involvement in, 74

Climacus, John, 18

Clitherow, Margaret, 123

Clooney, Francis X., 308, 309

Clorivière, Pierre-Joseph de, 273

Coelho, Gaspar, 160

Cohen, Thomas, x, 7, 199

colleges. See education, and specific colleges and college locations, e.g. Brera, College of; Padua

Collins, Dominic, 98

colloquy in Spiritual Exercises, 55, 56

colonialism. See liberation theology, and specific formerly colonial countries, e.g. India

Columbus, Christopher, 156

commedia dell’arte traditions of southern Italy, 79

communion, frequent, Jesuit encouragement of

   France, Jansenists vs. Jesuits in, 113

   Italian confraternities, 77

Complutensian Polyglot Bible, 17

Concordism, 250

confession

   frequent confession, Jesuit encouragement of

      France, Jansenists vs. Jesuits in, 113

      Italian confraternities, 77

   manuals for confessors in Spain of Ignatius’ youth, 15–17

confraternities

   at American universities, 281

   Chinese hui and, 175

   French Marian Congregations and women religious, 130

   orphans, Ignatius’ organization of confraternity to assist, 35

   in Rome and Italy, 75–7

Confucianism in China, Jesuit adaptation of, 172, 173, 174, 176

Congar, Yves, 299

Congregation of Jesus. See Ward, Mary

consolation and desolation in Spiritual Exercises, 61

Constitutions, 4–5

   academic/scientific constraints of, 245

   “jesuitical” character discerned in, 42, 44

   personae of Ignatius and, 36, 41, 44–6

   scholasticism of, 45

   women religious and, 126, 129, 131

Contarini, Gasparo, 81

“Contemplation to Attain Love” in Spiritual Exercises, 61

Contemptus Mundi, 18, 182

conversos (Jewish converts or New Christians)

   as alumbrados, 211

   as Jesuits, 199–205

   Spanish Inquisition and, 23–4

Copernicus, Nicolaus, and Copernicanism, 243

   accumulation of data without theoretical synthesis regarding, 253–5

   ancient authorities’ probable views on, 252–3

   probability arguments regarding, 248–52

   prohibitions on, 243, 244–8

Coquart, Godefroy, 187

Cornaeus, Melchior, 251, 252–3

Correia, João, 230

Coton, Pierre, 106–8, 109, 113, 115

Coudret, Annibal, 73

Counter-Reformation

   French Canada and, 190

   Ignatius viewed as leader of, 40, 42–4

Coupeau, J. Carlos, x, 3

Couplet, Philippe, 181, 183

Covarrubias, Pedro de, 16

Creighton University, 287

cultural accommodations. See inculturation of Christian message

Cuzco Compañía (Church and College of the Transfiguration), Peru, 219–23

cuzqueño Baroque architecture, 217, 219, 223, 227, 234


Daka, Lawrence, 322

Damiens, Roger, 266

Daniel, Antoine, 189

Daniélou, Jean, 299

Darnley, Henry Stuart, Lord, 88

Daughters of Charity, 130, 132

Dear, Peter, 254

Dechales, Claude Miliet, 251

Deck, Alan Figueroa, 306

desolation and consolation in Spiritual Exercises, 61

Dezza, Paolo, 305

Diderot, Denis, 263

Dirckinck, Joannes, 41

domestic missions in Rome and Italy, 78–84

Dominus ac Redemptor, 85, 263

Drouillettes, Gabriel, 187

Du Halde, Jean-Baptiste, 183

Du Plessis, Armand-Jean (Cardinal Richelieu), 94, 111, 112, 186, 192

Duffy, Eamon, 7

Dulles, Avery, 298

Dupuis, Jacques, 307–8, 310

Dyckman, Katherine, 312


earthquakes

   architectural opportunities in Latin America posed by, 218, 219, 224, 226

   Lisbon quake of 1755 blamed on Jesuits, 265

eastern Europe. See Poland and eastern Europe

EATWOT (Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians), 304

ecclesiology of Spiritual Exercises, 62

eclecticism in scientific method, 254

Ecumenical Association of African Theologians (AOTA), 304

Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians (EATWOT), 304

ecumenism, 307–9

   Amaladoss, Michael, 309, 310–11

   Barnes, Michael, 308–9

   Clooney, Francis X., 308, 309

   Dupuis, Jacques, 307–8

   GC (General Congregation) 34 and, 306

   in India, 307–8, 309–11

   Pieris, Aloysius, 309–10

   in Sri Lanka, 309–10

education, 4. See also specific schools, colleges, and locations, e.g. Gregorian University; Padua

   arts and sciences, Jesuit commitment to, 7

   clerical colleges in Rome, Jesuit involvement in, 74

   confraternities

      at American universities, 281

      charitable educational work of, 77

      student involvement in, 75, 76

   of Ignatius of Loyola, 32–3, 104

   Ignatius’ dedication to, 38, 43

   modern Jesuit involvement in, 321–2

   Nativity schools, 326

   Ordinatio pro Studiis Superioribus (1651), 247, 249

   Ratio Studiorum, 73, 192, 245–6

   social justice and, 301

   treatises on Jesuit methodology, 73

Egidiano, Juan Bautista (Jean-Baptiste Gilles), 220

Eguía, Fr., 39

El Salvador, 301, 302–3, 324

Eliot, Charles, 283

Elizabeth I (Queen of England), 88, 89–92

Ellacuría, Ignacio, 301, 302–4

Emerson, Ralph, 89

Empereur, James, 306

enclosure requirements for female religious, 120, 121

Endean, Philip, x, 3, 310

England, 5, 100–1. See also Ireland; Maryland, English mission to; Scotland

   intermittent contact in early 16th century, 88–9

   permanent mission established in late 16th century, 89–92

   in 17th and 18th centuries, 92–7

   anti-Catholic fears in, 90, 91, 92, 95, 96, 100–1

   Civil War, 95, 98, 100

   ecclesiastical structure in, 91–2, 94, 96

   Glorious Revolution/Orange Rebellion, 96, 98, 99, 100

   Gunpowder Plot, 92, 124

   Ignatius’ visit to, 88

   Jacobite uprisings (1715 and 1745), 96, 99

   meetings of Jesuits in, 93

   Popish Plot, 94, 96

   Spanish Armada, 90

   suppression and restoration in, 97, 273

   women recusants, 123

English College (Rome)

   clerical colleges in Rome, Jesuit involvement in, 74

   ecclesiastical structure in England, tensions over control of, 91

   entrustment of administration to Jesuits, 89

   Parsons as rector of, 92

   removal of Jesuits from control of, 97

“English Ladies.” See Ward, Mary

Enlightenment and suppression of Jesuits, 263–4

episcopal authority and Jesuits, 5

   in England, 94, 96

   in Scotland, 99

Erasmus, Desiderius, 24, 136, 141, 148

Esquilache, Marquis of, 270

ethnic minorities as Jesuits. See racial and ethnic minorities as Jesuits

Europe, 3–6. See also specific countries and regions, e.g. Poland and eastern Europe

   China, writings intended for Europe from, 182–3

   national suppressions in, 265–71

   US Jesuit schools, European origins and style of, 278–9, 282, 284, 291

Evers, George, 313

Exponi Nobis, 205

Exposcit Debitum, 41

expulsions

   from China, 169, 170

   in Europe. See suppression and restoration

   from Japan, 160, 162


Farnese, Alessandro, 14

Fathers of the Faith, 273

Favre, Pierre, 34, 52–3, 75

Ferdinand (King of Aragón), 13, 18, 19, 21–3, 29

Fernández, Edwardo C., 306

Fernández, Juan, 156

Ferreira, Christóvão, 162

Ferrer, Vincent, 29

First Vatican Council, 299

Fischer von Erlach, Johann Bernhard, 233

Fitzgerald Revolt (Ireland), 88

Fléché, Jessé, 186

Fordham University (formerly St. John’s College), 100, 278, 281, 282, 283, 287, 292, 321

foreign missions. See missions

former Jesuits’ continuing association with order, 322

Formula Vitae, 35, 41

Fox, A. C., 289

France, 5, 104–15

   in 16th and early 17th centuries, 104–11

   in 17th and 18th centuries, 111–15

   China, French vs. “Portuguese” Jesuits in, 170–1, 179

   colleges in, 104, 106

   Fronde, 114

   Gallicanism, 267, 268

   hostility to Jesuits in, 104

   Ignatius at University of Paris, 104

   Jansenism, 112–15, 264, 267–8

   printing and publishing in, 104, 112, 115

   Protestants and Protestantism in, 105, 106

   regicide, Jesuits associated with, 104–11, 113, 267

   suppression and restoration in, 106, 108, 115, 266–9, 273

   Tridentine decrees, promulgation of, 129

   Wars of Religion, 104, 106

   West Indies losses, liability of Jesuits for, 268

   women’s institutes inspired by Jesuits in, 129–31

François I (King of France), 22, 129

Franzelin, John Baptist, 314

Frederick II the Great (King of Prussia), 142, 146

French Canada, 6, 186–96

   beaver fur profits in, 112

   Counter-Reformation spirituality of, 190

   crown, Jesuits as agents of, 195

   diseases brought to, 188

   education in, 187, 191–3

   establishment of Jesuits in, 186–7

   exploration of, 187, 194

   Henry of Navarre and, 109

   modern Jesuits in, 323

   Native American missions

      Algonquins, 187, 190

      attitude of Jesuits towards Native peoples, 193

      crown, Jesuits as agents between Native peoples and, 195

      educational efforts, 192

      Iroquois, 188–9

      Mi’kmaq, 186

      Montagnais, 187, 190

      non-Europeans as clergy, 205

      Wendat, 187–9, 190

   persecution of Christians in, 188–9, 190

   Relations, 191–3, 194, 323

   suppression and restoration, 196, 273

   women religious in, 192

   writings and observations of Jesuits in, 194

French Revolution, 273

frequent confession and communion, Jesuit encouragement of

   France, Jansenists vs. Jesuits in, 113

   Italian confraternities, 77

Fróis, Luís, 157

Fronde, 114

Fulton, Robert, 281

Funkenstein, Amos, 249

Furtado, Francisco, 179


Galileo, 244, 247, 249, 250, 251, 253

Gallicanism, 267, 268

Gama, Vasco da, 153

Ganganelli, Lorenzo, 271–2. See also Clement XIV

Gante, Pedro de, 218

Garin, Eugenio, 141

Garnier, Charles, 189

Garvin, Mary, 312

Gaubil, Antoine, 183

Georgetown University (Washington, DC), 100, 278, 281, 283, 321

Gerard, John, 125, 133

Germany. See also Poland and eastern Europe

   architecture of Southern Latin American Jesuit churches influenced by, 231–3

   Austria, 146, 272, 273

   Nazis, Jesuit resistance to, 324

   Prussia, 137, 142, 146, 273

Gerson, Jean, 18

Gilles, Jean-Baptiste (Juan Bautista Egidiano), 220

Gilmour, Richard, 284

Gleason, Philip, 278

Glorious Revolution (Orange Rebellion), 96, 98, 99, 100

Gnecchi-Soldo, Organtino, 157

Goa (Portuguese India), 6, 153–7, 206–8, 264

Gomes, António, 155, 207

Good, William, 88, 89

“good death” literature, 110

Gothein, Eberhard, 42

Gouda, Nicolas da, 88

Goupil, René, 189

governance of Jesuits, 4, 36–9

grace, Jesuits vs. Jansenists on, 112–13

Granada, Luís de, 182

Grand Remonstrance (1641), 95

Grande, Rutilio, 301

Grässel, Lorenz, 100

Great Britain. See England; Ireland; Maryland, English mission to; Scotland

Great Schism, 19

Gregorian Calendar, 74, 172

Gregorian University (Roman College), 74, 243, 299, 321

Gregory XI (pope), 19

Gregory XIII (pope), 74, 160, 203

Gregory XV (pope), 3, 94

Griffiths, Bede, 310

Grimaldi moon maps, 255

Grimau, José, 234

Gruber, Gabriel, 147

Guaraní, 144, 234–6, 265

Gunpowder Plot, 92, 124

Gutiérrez, Gustavo, 301


Haight, Roger, 313

Haiti, 323

Hasegawa Fujihiro Sahyōe, 162

Hatcher, John, 306

heavenly incorruptibility, 259

heliocentrism. See Copernicus, Nicolaus, and Copernicanism

Hellyer, Marcus, 249

Hennelly, Alfred T., 302

Henry VIII (King of England), 88, 136

Henry III (King of France), 105

Henry of Navarre (Henry IV, King of France), 106, 113, 267

hermeneutical circle, 302

Hernández, Francisca, 25

Hernández Hidalgo, Diego, 224

“hidden Christians” in Japan, 164, 165

Hideyoshi, 160–1

Hill, Walter P., 283

Hincza, Marcin, 146

Hinsdale, Mary Ann, x, 3, 8, 298, 324

Hirudayam, Ignatius, 310

Holy Cross, College of the (Massachusetts), 291, 321

Holy Faith (Santa Fé), College of (College of St. Paul), India, 155, 206–8

Homza, Lu Ann, xi, 1, 13

Hopkins, Gerard Manley, 7

Hosius, Stanislaw, 136, 137, 139

hospitals, Jesuit charitable work in, 76, 130, 157

House of St. Catherine, 35

Hurtado, Alberto, 324


IBVM (Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary). See Ward, Mary

Ignatius of Loyola, 1–3

   canonization of, 3

   Constitutions and personae of, 36, 41, 44–6

   conversion experience, 33

   as Counter-Reformation leader, 40, 42–4

   death of, 34

   education and early life, 32–3, 104

   in England, 88

   family of, 14, 26

   as founder of order, 40

   health problems of, 34

   Inquisition, questioning by, 41, 199

   Jerusalem, proposed pilgrimage to, 1, 3, 8, 29, 32–3, 35

   in Latin American Jesuit sculpture, 227, 230

   Loreto shrine, devotion to, 83

   on non-Europeans as clergy, 206, 209

   personae of, 32

   as pilgrim, 32–4, 45

   priestly ministry of, 35

   purity of blood (limpieza de sangre) regulations against New Christians, resistance to, 199–202

   relationship with fellow Jesuits, 34–5

   Rome, importance of, 71

   as saint, 39–41, 45

   Spanish religious environment of, 13–26

      alumbrados, 24, 25, 62, 199, 211

      centralization of authority, efforts at, 13, 21–3

      clerical shortcomings in, 14–15, 16, 21–3

      conversos (Jewish converts or New Christians), 23–4

      creativity and vitality of devotional practice in, 25–6

      income and privileges derived from church office, 13, 21–3

      Inquisition, 23–5

      laity, lived religious experience of, 13, 19–21

      local practice, importance of, 13, 21, 23

      printing and publishing boom. See under printing and publishing

      sacramental life, 21

      saints, intercession of, 20–1

      seven deadly sins, 15, 17, 27

      spiritual advisors, lay persons acting as, 25

      surveys of Philip II, 20, 21

      Ten Commandments, 15, 17, 28

      women. See under women

   Spiritual Exercises of. See Spiritual Exercises

   as spiritual father and master, 34–5, 45

   as Superior General of Jesuit Order, 36–9, 45

   at University of Paris, 104

   women and, 120–2, 126

Igreja de Jesus, Salvador, Brazil, 226–30

Imitatio Christi (Thomas à Kempis), 18, 182

Immaculate Conception, 13

incorruptibility of heavens, 259

inculturation of Christian message

   in China. See under China

   colonial Latin America, incorporation of dance, music, and theater into religious life of Native peoples of, 236, 238

   Italy, domestic missions in, 79

   in Japan, 156, 158, 159

   liberation theology

      in Africa, 304–5

      concept of liberation, 301

      historical character of Christian faith, 302

   in modern world, 319, 326

   Sarmatism in Poland and eastern Europe, 143–6

   suppression attributed to, 264

   at US Jesuit schools (1814–1970s), 283

   after Vatican II. See under theological discourse of Jesuits after Vatican II

   Vatican II’s encouragement of, 144, 299

Index of Forbidden Books, 30, 244

India

   Goa (Portuguese India), 6, 153–7, 206–8, 264

   modern Jesuits in, 307–8, 309–11, 319, 323

Indians, American. See Native Americans

Indonesia, 6, 323

Innocent III (pope), 16

Innocent VIII (pope), 22

Innocent XI (pope), 210

Inoue Chikugo no kami Masashige, 163

Inquisition

   effect of pronouncements of, 247–8

   Ignatius questioned before, 41, 199

   in Spain, 23–5

   Ward, Mary, imprisonment of, 127–8

Inscrutabili, 128

Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary (IBVM). See Ward, Mary

Inter Caetera, 153

interreligious dialogue. See ecumenism

Intorcetta, Prospero, 210, 211

Ireland, 5, 100–1

   colleges, 98

   Fitzgerald Revolt, 88

   Henry VIII of England, rebellion against, 88

   Loreto Sisters, 128

   O’Neill revolt, 97

   Orange Revolt, 98

   Paul V’s Jesuit mission to, 88

   penal laws, 98

   schools founded by Jesuits in, 88, 98

   in 17th and 18th centuries, 97–8

   suppression and restoration, 98

Isabel de la Cruz, 24, 25

Isabella (Queen of Castile), 21–3

Isabelle (sister to Saint Louis), 112

Ishida Mitsunari, 161

Islam

   Ignatius’ proposed pilgrimage to Jerusalem, 1, 3, 8, 29, 32–3, 35

   Loreto and, 83

   “persons of Saracen stock” excluded as Jesuits, 204

   Spanish religious sensibilities of Ignatius’ youth and, 19

Italy. See Rome and Italy


Jacobite uprisings (1715 and 1745), 96, 99

Jacquinot, Barthélémy, 191

Jamaica, 323

James I and VI (King of England and Scotland), 88, 92–4, 99

James, Duke of York (later James II, King of England), 95, 99

Jan III Sobieski (King of Poland), 139

Jansen, Cornelius, and Jansenism, 112–15, 264, 267–8

Janssens, Jean Baptiste, 300

Japan, 6, 153–65

   apostasy of Christians in, 162–3

   Buddhism

      confusion of Christianity with, 156

      resistance to Christianity of, 157

   dōjuku, kambo, and komono (lay assistants), 158, 166

   “donation” of ports to Jesuits in, 159

   education in, 159

   expansion of mission in 16th and early 17th centuries, 157–61

   expulsion of Jesuits by Japanese, 160, 162

   first bishops of, 155

   “hidden Christians” of, 164, 165

   inculturation of Christian message in, 156, 158, 159

   India and Xavier’s initial mission to, 153–7

   kambo and komono, 166

   persecution of Christians and end of mission in, 161–5

   Portuguese in, 156

   printing and publishing in, 160

   racial and ethnic minorities as Jesuits, 157

   Sekigahara, battle of, 161

   Shimabara Rebellion, 163

Jerusalem, Ignatius’ proposed pilgrimage to, 1, 3, 8, 29, 32–3, 35

Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS), 322

“jesuitical” character

   England, anti-Catholic fears in, 90, 91, 92, 95, 96, 100–1

   historical development of concept of, 42, 44

   Machiavellianism, Jesuits associated with, 143

   Poland and eastern Europe, negative views of Jesuits in, 137–8, 143

   suppression, contribution of stereotype to, 263–5

Jesuits, 1–8

   in arts and sciences, 7. See also architecture in Latin America; scientific revolution

   brothers, 4

   Constitutions, 4–5

   educational role of, 4. See also education

   episcopal authority and, 5

   in Europe, 3–6. See also Europe

   founding of, 3, 35, 40

   governance of, 4, 36–9

   Ignatius and, 1–3. See also Ignatius of Loyola

   missions, 6–7. See also missions

   in modern world, 7–8. See also modern Jesuits

   novitiate, 4

   papacy, relationship with. See papacy, Jesuit relationship with

   Protestantism, interaction with, 6. See also Protestants and Protestantism

   provinces and provincials, 4

   regents, 4

   scholastics, 4

   Spiritual Exercises, 3. See also Spiritual Exercises

   spirituality. See spirituality of Jesuits

   suppression and restoration of, 7. See also suppression and restoration

   tertianship, 4

   Vatican II and. See theological discourse of Jesuits after Vatican II

   women as, 5

Jewish origin, persons of (conversos or New Christians)

   as alumbrados, 211

   as Jesuits, 199–205

   Spanish Inquisition and, 23–4

Jogues, Isaac, 189, 190, 195

John XXIII (pope), 298

John Paul II (pope), 305

John III (King of Portugal), 6, 48, 153, 155

John III (King of Sweden), 139

John Carroll University (Cleveland), 284, 287

Jolliet, Louis, 192

Joseph I (King of Portugal), 265, 266

Joyce, James, 66

JRS (Jesuit Refugee Service), 322

Juana de la Cruz, 19, 29

Juana of Austria, 122

Julius III (pope), 37, 81

justice, modern Jesuit concern for, 324–5. See also under theological discourse of Jesuits after Vatican II

   education and social justice, 301

   Latin American liberation theology, 301–4

   martyrdom and persecution resulting from, 301, 324–5


Kalm, Peter, 191

Kateri Tekakwitha, 189

King, Thomas, 89

Kircher, Athanasius, 74, 254

Kleutgen, Joseph, 314

Knowles, David, 44

Kochański, Adam Adamandy, 139

Kolvenbach, Peter-Hans, 300, 305, 306–7, 310, 311, 320

Konishi Yukinaga, 161

Kostka, Stanisław, 139

Kraus, Johann, 231

Küng, Hans, 299


La Lande, Jean de, 189

Laínez, Diego

   Ignatius and, 34, 36, 38

   as New Christian, 200–2

   Poland and eastern Europe, 137

   Rome and Italy, 78, 81

laity

   in confraternities, 75

   Japanese dōjuku, kambo, and komono (lay assistants), 158, 166

   modern Jesuit partnership with, 311–12

   pious associations with perpetual vows for, 121

   in Spain of Ignatius’ youth

      lived religious experience in, 13, 19–21

      as spiritual advisors, 25

   US Jesuit schools, faculty and administration at, 288, 290–1

   Vatican II’s affirmation of role in church affairs, 291

   women avoiding enclosure requirements by maintaining lay status, 121, 130

Lakatos, Imre, 243, 244

Lalemant, Charles, 186, 189, 195

Lalemant, Gabriel, 189, 190

Lalemant, Jérôme, 187, 189

Lancilotto, Nicolò, 207–8

Lassalle-Klein, Robert, 303

Lateran Council, 246

Latin America. See also specific countries, e.g. Peru

   architecture in. See architecture in colonial Latin America

   Guaraní Republic, 144

   incorporation of dance, music, and theater into religious life of Native peoples, 236, 238

   liberation theology arising out of, 301–4

   Madrid, Treaty of (1750), 265

   non-Europeans as clergy, 205, 213

   North American Jesuit theologians working with immigrants from, 305, 306–7

   suppression and restoration in, 271

Lauzon, Jean de, 192

Laval University, 191–3

Lavallete, Antoine, 268

Le Comte, Louis, 182

Le Moyne, Simon, 189, 190, 195

Le Rond d’Alembert, Jean, 264

Ledochowski, Wlodimir, 289

Lee, Roger, 125

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, 139, 183

LeJeune, Paul, 190–3, 195

Leo X (pope), 24, 129, 205

Leo XIII (pope), 121

Lessius, Leonardus, 125

Leunis, Jean de, 76

Lévinas, Emmanuel, 309

Leyburn, John, 96

Li Zhizao, Leo, 172, 178, 179

liberation theology

   in Africa, 304–5

   concept of liberation, 301

   historical character of Christian faith, 302

   in Latin America, 301–4

   “option for the poor,” 303

Liebert, Elizabeth, 312

Liégeois, Jean, 191

limpieza de sangre (purity of blood) regulations, 199–205

Lippomani, Andrea, 81

Lisbon earthquake (1755), 265

literati and court officials, association of Jesuits in China with, 169, 172, 174, 175, 210

Llanos, Antonio de, 224

local cultures, adaptation to. See inculturation of Christian message

Lonergan, Bernard, 299

Longobardo, Niccolò, 178, 209

Loreto (shrine and town, Italy), 83–4

Loreto Sisters, 128

Louis IX (Saint Louis, King of France), 109, 112

Louis XIII (King of France), 106, 111–12, 114

Louis XIV (King of France), 112–15, 130, 170, 192, 195

Louis XV (King of France), 115, 264, 266, 269

Lowney, Chris, 322

Loyola College (Baltimore), 286

Loyola family, 14, 26

   Ignatius. See Ignatius of Loyola

   Martín García (brother), 14

Lubac, Henri de, 299

Ludolf of Saxony (Ludolphus de Saxonia), 18, 182

Luo Wenzao, 211

Luther, Martin, and Lutheranism

   Ignatius compared, 63

   Spanish Inquisition’s reaction to, 24


Machiavelli, Niccolò, and Machiavellianism

   in France, 109, 110

   Jesuits associated with, 143

Madrid, Treaty of (1750), 265

Malagrida, Gabriel, 266

Manaerts, Olivier, 83

Manrique, Alonso (bishop), 15

Mansoni, Ludovico, 97

Manuel I (King of Portugal), 205

Manuel, Luis, 230

maps and mapping

   in China, 173, 174, 178–80

   French Canada, 187, 194

   moon maps, 255

Marcellus II (pope), 37

María de Santo Domingo, 19

Maria Theresa of Austria (empress), 272

Marian congregations or sodalities. See confraternities

Mariana, Juan de, 107

Marie de l’Incarnation, 192

Marie de’ Medici (Queen Regent of France), 106–8, 195

Marillac, Louise de, 130

Marques, Pedro, 163

Marquette, Jacques, 187

Marquette University (Milwaukee, Wisconsin), 288, 289, 322

Martín García de Loyola, 14

Martínez de Oviedo, 220

Martini, Martino de, 182

Martins, Pedro, 155

martyrdom and persecution

   in China, 169, 170, 210, 211

   in French Canada, 188–9, 190

   in Japan, 161–5

   Latin American architecture, representation in, 230, 241

   of modern Jesuits, 301, 302–4, 324–5

Mary, mother of God

   Immaculate Conception of, 13

   Marian congregations or sodalities. See confraternities

   Spain, local incarnations in, 21

Mary, Queen of Scots, 88, 90

Mary Tudor (Queen of England), 88, 122

Maryland, English mission to, 5, 99–100

   establishment of, 94

   schools in, 100

   slavery in, 99

   suppression and restoration in, 100

   US mission, establishment of, 100

Massé, Ennemond, 186, 195

Matos, Eusebio de, 230

Matsukura Katsuie, 163

Matsuura Takanobu, 156

Maupas, Henry de, 130–1

Maurenbrecher, Wilhelm, 42

Mazarin, Jules, 114

McCoog, Thomas M., xi, 5, 88

McKevitt, Gerald, xi, 8, 278

Médaille, Jean-Pierre, 130–1

Medici, Marie de’ (Queen Regent of France), 106–8, 195

meditation or reflection in Spiritual Exercises, 55–6

Mello, Anthony de, 323

Membertou, 186

Mendes, Afonso, 208

Mercurian, Everard

   England, Scotland, and Ireland, Jesuits in, 89, 100, 101

   Japan, Jesuits in, 158, 159

   racial and ethnic minorities as Jesuits and, 203–4, 208

Mesquita, Diogo de, 160

Messina, Jesuit college at, 72–3

Mestizo style architecture, 217, 223–4, 226, 234

Metz, Johann Baptist, 299

Mexico

   Jesuit architecture in New Spain, 217

   persecution and martyrdom of Jesuits in, 324

Michelangelo, 227

Mi’kmaq, 186

Milan, 80

miscegenation, 206, 208

missions, domestic, in Rome and Italy, 78–84

missions (foreign), 6–7. See also China; French Canada; India; Japan; racial and ethnic minorities as Jesuits

   modern Jesuits, 322–3

   Portugal and Spain, influence of, 6, 153

   Vita Ignacii Loyolae (Ribadeneira) on, 36

modern Jesuits, 7–8, 319–26. See also theological discourse of Jesuits after Vatican II

   adaptation to modern world, 319, 326

   education, involvement with, 321–2

   former Jesuits’ continuing association with order, 322

   justice, concern for, 324–5

   martyrdom and persecution of, 301, 302–4, 324–5

   missionary work of, 322–3

   numbers of, 8, 319, 322

   post-Vatican II change in religious culture and, 319, 322

   printing and publishing, 323–4

   racial and ethnic minorities as, 211

   Rome’s continued centrality for, 321

   science as practiced by, 256

   spirituality of, 325–6

   women and

      educational institutions, women attending, 321

      partnership and solidarity, theology of, 312–13

      spiritual collaboration with women, 325

Modras, Ronald, 299

Moltmann, Jürgen, 303

Monet, Jacques, xi, 7, 186

Moñino, José, 270, 272

Montagnais, 187, 190

Montesino, Ambrosio, 18

Montesquieu, Charles de, 183

Monumenta Historica Societatis Iesu, 43

moon, Jesuit mapping of, 255

Morais, Sebastião, 155

Morales, Francisco de, 218

Mōri Motonari, 157

Mosquera, José, 220

Mothers of the Society of Jesus. See Ward, Mary

Murphy, Paul V., xi, 3, 71–85

museums attached to Jesuit educational institutions, 321

Muslims. See Islam

Mveng, Engelbert, 301, 304–5


Nadal, Jerónimo

   Chinese devotional writings and, 182

   on education, 73

   Ignatius and, 35, 40, 41, 43, 51

Naitō Tokuan, 162

Naples

   College of, 78

   confraternities in, 77

   domestic mission to, 78–9

   Revolt of 1585, 78

   suppression and restoration in, 84, 271

nationalism

   Gallicanism, 267, 268

   General Congregation discussion of impact on Jesuit life of, 93

   suppression of Jesuit Order and, 264, 267

Native Americans. See also specific tribes

   architecture and. See under architecture in colonial Latin America

   in French Canada. See under French Canada

   in Latin America. See Latin America

   non-Europeans as clergy, 205, 213

   North American Jesuit theologians working with, 305, 306–7

Nazis, Jesuit resistance to, 324

Neale, Leonard, 100

von Nell-Breuning, Oswald, 10

Nelson, Eric, 106

neo-Confucianism, 173, 174

Neuner, J., 307

New Christians (persons of Jewish origin)

   as alumbrados, 211

   as Jesuits, 199–205

   Spanish Inquisition and, 23–4

New France. See French Canada

New Spain (Mexico), Jesuit architecture in, 217

Newman, John Henry, 263

Newtonian science, 256

Nobili, Roberto de, 304, 308

Nóbrega, Manoel de, 219

non-Europeans as Jesuits. See racial and ethnic minorities as Jesuits

Noonan, Herbert C., 287

novitiate, 4


Oates, Titus, 96

Obirek, Stanisław, xi, 6, 136

O’Connell, Daniel M., 289

Oda Nobunaga, 157

Ogilvie, John, 99

O’Keefe, Vincent, 305

Olandia, Francisco de, 161

Oliva, Giovanni Paolo, 210

O’Malley, John, 7, 43, 140

Ōmura Sumitada, 158, 159

O’Neill, Hugh, Earl of Tyrone, 97

“option for the poor,” 303

Orange Rebellion (Glorious Revolution), 96, 98, 99, 100

Ordinatio pro studiis superioribus (1651), 247, 249

Ordóñez, Teresa, 219

orphans, Ignatius’ organization of confraternity to assist, 35

Ōtomo Yoshishige, 156, 157, 158, 159

Ōuchi Yoshinaga, 157

Ōuchi Yoshitaka, 156


Paccanari, Niccolò, 273

Padua, 81–2

paganism

   Cuzco Compañía (Church and College of the Transfiguration), Peru, as triumph over, 220

   limpieza de sangre viewed as remnant of, 204, 205

Painted Life (of Mary Ward), 128

Palafox y Mendoza, Juan, 269

Pallu, François, 210

papacy, Jesuit relationship with. See also specific popes, e.g. Paul III

   under Ignatius as Superior General, 37

   initial establishment of, 35

   modern Jesuits, 305, 321

   non-Europeans as clergy, support for, 205, 205, 210

   restoration of order by papacy, 272–4

   suppression of order by papacy, 271–2

Paracattil, J., 211

Paraguay

   architecture of Jesuit Reductions, 233–6

   Madrid, Treaty of (1750), 265

Pardies, Ignace-Gaston, 180

Paris, Ignatius at University of, 104

Parma, Duke of, 271

Parma, Jesuits in, 271, 273

Parsons, Robert, 89, 90, 92, 98, 99, 101

Pascal, Blaise, 118, 267

Pastoralis Romani Pontificis, 128

Paul III (pope), 3, 35, 37, 72, 81, 153, 205

Paul IV (pope), 37, 136

Paul V (pope), 82, 125

Paul, Vincent de, 129, 130

Pedro II (King of Portugal), 210

Pedro Ruiz de Alcaraz, 24

Pedroche, Thomas, 41

Pelagianism, 113

Peltrie, Marie-Madeleine de la, 192

Periculoso, 121

persecution. See martyrdom and persecution

Peru

   Arequipa Compañía (Church of Santiago), 223–6

   Cuzco Compañía (Church and College of the Transfiguration), 219–23

Phan, Peter, 307

Philip II (King of Spain), 20, 21, 122

Phillippson, Martin, 42

philosophes, 42, 263

Pieris, Aloysius, 309–10, 313

Pierron, Jean, 189

Pierson, Philippe, 189

Pignatelli, Joseph, 273

Pires, Belquior, 227

Pius V (pope), 88, 121

Pius VII (pope), 7, 196

Pius XI (pope), 189

Pius XII (pope), 189

Plattner, Felix, 238

pluralism, religious. See ecumenism

Poczobut, Marcin, 137, 139, 142

Poetker, Albert H., 291

Polanco, Juan de

   Ignatius and, 35, 36, 38, 40, 41

   as New Christian, 202

Poland and eastern Europe, 6, 136–47

   Austria, 146, 272, 273

   class issues in, 140, 145–6

   education in, 140–2, 147

   first vs. second generations of Jesuits in, 138–40

   invitation of Jesuits to combat Protestantism in, 136–7

   negative views of Jesuits in, 137–8, 143

   Prussia, 137, 142, 146, 273

   religious toleration in, 136

   royal court, closeness of Jesuits to, 142–3

   Russia, 141, 146–7, 273

   Sarmatism and inculturation of Christian message in, 143–6

   social class of Jesuits in, 140

   suppression and restoration in, 141, 146–7

politics, Jesuit involvement in. See specific principalities, kingdoms, etc.

Polo, Marco, 156

Połock College, 141, 147

Pombal, Marquis of (Sebastião José de Carvalho e Mello), 265–6

Popish Plot, 94, 96

Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (Joyce), 66

Portugal

   China, French vs. “Portuguese” Jesuits in, 170–1, 179

   early Jesuit missions and, 6, 153

   in Japan, 156, 158

   Lisbon earthquake (1755), 265

   non-Europeans as clergy, support for, 205

   purity of blood (limpieza de sangre) regulations against New Christians, 199

   suppression and restoration in, 265–6

Portuguese Brazil, Jesuit architecture of, 218, 226–30

Portuguese India (Goa), 6, 153–7, 206–8, 264

Possevino, Antonio, 203–5, 209

Posta, Mattia della, 41

Potier, Pierre, 196

Pounde, Thomas, 90

Pozzo, Andrea, 72, 230

prayer in Spiritual Exercises, 54–6

Prima Primaria, 76, 77

Primoli, Giovanni Battista, 233, 234

printing and publishing

   in China. See under China

   in France, 104, 112, 115

   French Canada, writings and observations of Jesuits in, 194

   Index of Forbidden Books, 30, 244

   in Japan, 160

   modern Jesuits, 323–4

   in Portuguese India (Goa), 155

   in Spanish religious environment of Ignatius’ youth

      catechisms, 17, 19

      confessors’ manuals, 15–17

      devotional treatises encouraged by Cisneros, 17–19

      effects of, 13

      Index, lack of, 30

      literacy rates, 16

      reading aloud, practice of, 16

   Spiritual Exercises and changes in religious sensibility provoked by, 63

prisons, Jesuit charitable work in, 76, 77

probability arguments regarding Copernicanism, 248–52

prostitutes and children of prostitutes, Jesuit outreach to, 35, 75–6

Protestants and Protestantism, 6. See also England; Scotland

   alumbrados, 24, 25, 62, 199, 211

   Calvinism, Jansenism associated with, 267

   in France, 105, 106

   Ignatius compared to Luther, 63

   Loreto, shrine at, 83

   Poland and eastern Europe

      Jesuits invited to, 136–7

      religious toleration in, 136

   Spanish Inquisition’s reaction to Lutheranism, 24

   Spiritual Exercises and, 62, 63

provinces and provincials, 4

Prussia, 137, 142, 146, 273. See also Poland and eastern Europe

Ptolemaic science, 249, 250

Puente, Diego de la, 226

purity of blood (limpieza de sangre) regulations, 199–205


Quamvis Justo, 121, 128

Quebec. See French Canada

Quesnel, Pasquier, 267


racial and ethnic minorities as Jesuits, 7, 199–211

   in China, 170, 171, 181, 208–11

   Ignatius of Loyola on, 199–202, 206, 209

   in India, 206–8

   in Japan, 157

   miscegenation and, 206, 208

   missionary enterprise, debate over admission of New Christians linked to, 204, 205

   modern Jesuits, 211

   New Christians (of Jewish descent) and limpieza de sangre (purity of blood) regulations, 199–205

   non-Europeans generally, 205–11

   paganism, limpieza de sangre viewed as remnant of, 204, 205

   papal support for, 205, 210

   “Saracen stock,” exclusion of persons of, 204

   suppression and restoration, 211

Radziwill family, 137

Ragueneau, Paul, 192

Rahner, Karl, 57, 132, 144, 299, 303

Ranke, Leopold von, 42

Ratio Studiorum, 73, 192, 245–6

Ratzinger, Joseph (later Benedict XVI), 299

Ravaillac, François, 106, 107

Raymond of Capua, 18

reconciling the estranged, Jesuit practice of, 79

reflection or meditation in Spiritual Exercises, 55–6

regency, 4

regicide, Jesuits associated with

   England, anti-Catholic fears in, 90, 91, 92, 95, 96, 100–1

   in France, 104–11, 113, 267

   suppression and, 264, 266, 267, 270

Regimini Militantis Ecclesiae, 35

Regis College (Toronto), 299

Régis, Francis, 129

Relations, 191–3, 194, 197, 323

religious pluralism. See ecumenism

restoration of order. See suppression and restoration

rhetoric at Jesuit educational institutions, 280

Rhodes, Alexandre de, 192

Ribadeneira, Pedro de

   in England, 88

   Ignatius and, 35, 36, 41

   Jewish people, on Ignatius’ desire to be bound by blood to, 199

Ribeiro, Antônio Simões, 230

Ricci, Lorenzo, 84, 85, 269, 273

Ricci, Matteo

   in China, 169, 172, 178, 181, 182

   inculturation encouraged by, 304

   non-European clergy, encouragement of, 209

   Poland and eastern Europe, 144

   Rome and Italy, 79

Riccioli, Giovanni Battista, 247, 254, 255

Richards, Joseph Havens, 286

Richelieu (Armand-Jean Du Plessis), 94, 111, 112, 186, 192

Richeome, Louis, 108–9, 110, 115

Ricke, Jodoco, 218

Ricoeur, Paul, 309

Rococo style architecture in colonial Latin America, 230

Rodrigues, Domingo, 230

Rodrigues, Manuel, 203

Rodrigues, Simão, 34

Rogers, William Banks, 284, 290

Roman Inquisition. See Inquisition

Rome and Italy, 3, 71–85. See also English College; Naples

   centrality of Rome to Jesuit Order, 71–2, 321

   colleges in, 72–5

   confraternities, 75–7

   domestic missions in, 78–84

   Gregorian University (Roman College), 74, 243, 299, 321

   Ignatius and Rome, 71

   Loreto, 83–4

   Milan, 80

   number of Jesuits based in, 73, 84

   Padua, 81–2

   Parma, 271, 273

   Sicily

      Messina, Jesuit college at, 72–3

      suppression and restoration in, 271, 273

   suppression and restoration in, 82, 84–5

   Venice, 81–3

Roothaan, Johann Philip, 282

Roser, Isabel, 122, 124

Roth, Hans, 238

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 183

Rubens, Peter Paul, 230, 234

Rubino, Antonio, 163

Ruíz, Juan, 220

Russia, 141, 146–7, 273, 324. See also Poland and eastern Europe

Ryōsai, Lourenço, 157

Ryūzōji Takanobu, 159


Sá, Manuel de, 74

sacraments

   frequent confession and communion, Jesuit encouragement of

      France, Jansenists vs. Jesuits in, 113

      Italian confraternities, 77

   manuals for confessors in Spain of Ignatius’ youth, 15–17

   in Spanish religious environment of Ignatius’ youth, 21

St. John’s College (later Fordham University), 100, 278, 281, 282, 283, 287, 292, 321

St. Joseph, Sisters of, 130–1

St. Louis University (Missouri), 278, 280, 289, 293

Saint-Lusson, François de, 195

Saint-Martin, Jean de, 192

St. Paul, College of (College of Santa Fé or Holy Faith), India, 155, 206–8

Saint Petersburg (Russia), Collegium Nobilium, 147

St. Xavier College (New York), 281

saints. See also specific saints, e.g. Xavier, Francis

   conferral of status. See canonization

   Ignatius of Loyola’s persona as saint, 39–41, 45

   intercessory role in Spanish religious environment of Ignatius’ youth, 20–1

Saju, George, 323

Saldanha, Cardinal, 266

Sales, Francis de, 109, 129, 130

Salisbury, Robert Cecil, Earl of, 92

Salmerón, Alfonso, 77, 78, 88, 138

San Francisco, University of, 287

San Ignacio, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 231–3

Sánchez, Mateo, 122. See also Juana of Austria

Santa Clara College (California), 281, 282, 288

Santa Fé (Holy Faith), College of (College of St. Paul), India, 155, 206–8

Sarbiewski, Mateusz Kazimierz, 139

Sarpi, Paolo, 82

Schall von Bell, Johann Adam, 169, 170, 179

Schmid, Martin, 238

scholarship of modern Jesuits, 324. See also education; printing and publishing; scientific revolution

scholasticism, 45, 246, 290

scholastics (Jesuit students), 4

schools. See education, and also specific schools, colleges, and locations, e.g. Gregorian University; Padua

Schrader, Klemens, 314

scientific revolution, 7, 243–57. See also Aristotelianism; Copernicus, Nicolaus, and Copernicanism

   authorities

      ancient authorities’ probable views on Copernicus, 252–3

      superior authorities, yielding to, 251–2

   biblical interpretation and, 249–51

   celestial incorruptibility as Jesuit bugbear, 259

   Chinese mission, introduction of European science and technology by, 173, 174, 178–80

   eclecticism, 254

   French Canada, writings and observations of Jesuits in, 194

   Galileo crisis, 244, 247, 249, 250, 251, 253

   historical approaches to, 243–5

   Index of Forbidden Books, 30, 244

   maps and mapping

      in China, 173, 174, 178–80

      French Canada, 187, 194

      moon maps, 255

   modern Jesuits, science as practiced by, 256

   Newtonian science, 256

   observation and experimentation vs. theory, 254

   Ordinatio pro Studiis Superioribus (1651), 247, 249

   Ptolemaic science, 249, 250

   Ratio Studiorum, 73, 192, 245–6

   suppression of Jesuits and, 264

   Thomism and, 74, 246, 247, 249

Scotland, 5, 100–1

   colleges, 99

   ecclesiastical structure in, 99

   Jacobite uprisings (1715 and 1745), 96, 99

   Pius V’s Jesuit mission to, 88

   in 17th and 18th centuries, 98–9

   suppression and restoration, 99

Second Vatican Council. See Vatican II

Segundo, Juan Luis, 301–2

Sekigahara, battle of, 161

Sellinger, Joseph, 292

Semedo, Álvaro de, 182

seven deadly sins, 15, 17, 27

Shimabara Rebellion, 163

Shimazu Takahisa, 156

Shimazu Yoshihisa, 160

Sicily

   Messina, Jesuit college at, 72–3

   suppression and restoration in, 271, 273

Sidotti, Giovanni Battista, 163

Sigismund Augustus (King of Poland), 138

Silf, Margaret, 325

Siliceo, Juan Martínez de, 201, 202

Silva, Diego da, 219

Simmonds, Gemma, xi, 5, 120

Siqueira, Manuel de (Zheng Weixin), 210

sisters. See women religious

Sisters of St. Joseph, 130–1

Sixtus IV (pope), 23

Skarga, Piotr, 137, 139, 142, 143

slavery in Maryland, 99

Smith, Richard, 94, 95

Sobrino, Jon, 301

social class. See class issues

social justice. See justice, modern Jesuit concern for

Society of Jesus. See Jesuits

Society of the Fathers of the Heart of Jesus, 273

sodalities. See confraternities

South America. See Latin America

Southwell, Robert, 90

Souza, Tomé de, 218

Soviet Russia, 324

Spain. See also Naples

   Civil War, 324

   early Jesuit missions and, 6, 153

   Ignatius’ early religious environment in. See under Ignatius of Loyola

   non-Europeans as clergy, support for, 205

   purity of blood (limpieza de sangre) regulations against New Christians, 199

   suppression and restoration in, 269–71

Spanish Armada, 90

Spanish Inquisition, 23–5

Spanish South America. See Latin America

Spinelli, Pierantonio, 78

spiritual advisors

   lay persons in Spain acting as, 25

   women trained as advisors for other women by Jesuits, 120

Spiritual Diary, 33, 45

Spiritual Exercises, 3, 52–65

   Annotations, 55, 57

   colloquy, 55, 56

   “composition of place” or personalization of Bible story, 54

   confraternities and, 75

   consolation and desolation in, 61

   “Contemplation to Attain Love,” 61

   in domestic missions, 78

   ecclesiology of, 62

   election or decision arising from, 62

   First Week on relationship between divine goodness and creaturely sinfulness, 57, 58–9

   Fourth Week on resurrection of Christ, 60

   Gospel scenes recalled as “points” for prayer in, 54, 57, 58–9

   historical context, 63–5

   Jesuit life and spirituality, role in, 64–5

   “jesuitical” character and, 42

   as Jesuits’ characteristic ministry, 52

   as means of becoming Jesuit, 52

   modern use of, 325

   in novitiate, 4

   origins, influences, and parallels, 63–4

   as personal and particular process, 52, 53, 56, 61–2

   prayer in, 54–6

   as reference work rather than guidebook, 53, 56

   reflection or meditation in, 55–6

   Second Week on life of Christ, 59–60

   structure of, 56–7

   Third Week on passion of Christ, 60

   “weeks” of, 57–61

   women religious and, 120, 126, 131, 325

   women’s use generally, 120, 312, 325

spirituality of Jesuits

   confraternities spreading and supporting, 75, 77

   in French Canada, 190

   modern Jesuits, 325–6

   Spiritual Exercises and, 64–5. See also Spiritual Exercises

   theological discourse of Jesuits after Vatican II informed by, 298

   women’s response to

      modern Jesuits’ spiritual collaboration with women, 312, 325

      Spiritual Exercises, 120, 126, 131, 312, 325

      Ward, Mary, 126

Sri Lanka, 309–10

St. See entries at Saint

Stefan Batory (King of Poland), 142

Standaert, Nicolas, xi, 6, 169

Stanisław August (King of Poland), 142

Starkloff, Carl, 306, 307

Stonyhurst College (England), 273

Stuart, Henry, Lord Darnley, 88

Suárez, Francisco, 74, 125

Sublimis Deus, 205

superior authorities, academic arguments from, 251–2

Superior Generals. See also specific Superior Generals

   in governance of Jesuits, 4

   Ignatius of Loyola as, 36–9, 45

suppression and restoration, 7, 263–74

   in China, 171, 211

   Dominus ac Redemptor, 85, 263

   in England, 97, 273

   Enlightenment blamed for suppression, 263–4

   in France, 106, 108, 115, 266–9, 273

   in French Canada, 196, 273

   historical explanations for suppression, 263–5

   inculturation and, 264

   in Ireland, 98

   Jansenism and, 264, 267–8

   in Latin America, 271

   Maryland, English mission to, 100

   national suppressions in Europe, 265–71

   nationalism and, 264, 267

   papal restoration (1814), 272–4

   papal suppression (1773), 271–2

   in Poland and eastern Europe, 141, 146–7

   in Portugal, 265–6

   racial and ethnic minorities as Jesuits, 211

   regicide, Jesuits associated with, 264, 266, 267, 270

   in Rome and Italy, 82, 84–5, 271

   in Scotland, 99

   in Spain, 269–71

   survival of order during years of suppression, 272–3

   of Ward’s institute, 127–9

Szczytnicki (Polish provincial), 146


Takayama Ukon (Dom Justo), 157, 162

Takayama Zusho (Dom Dário), 157

Talavera, Hernando de, 16

Tanucci, Bernardo, 269

Taoism and organization of Christian Church in China, 176, 177

Tazbir, Janusz, 137, 138, 145

Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre, 7, 299

Ten Commandments, 15, 17, 28

tertianship, 4

tertiaries, 28, 121

Tertullian, 162

Tesauro, Emmanuele, 80

theater, Jesuit sense of

   commedia dell’arte traditions of southern Italy, use of, 79

   Latin America, incorporation of dance, music, and theater into religious life of Native peoples of, 236, 238

   Milan, Jesuit support and use of theater in, 80

theological aim of Jesuit use of Aristotelianism, 245

theological discourse of Jesuits after Vatican II, 1, 8, 298–313. See also ecumenism; liberation theology

   conservatism of pre-Vatican II order, 8

   GC (General Congregation) 32, 300–1

   GC (General Congregation) 34, 305–6, 311–13

   inculturation

      in African theological discourse, 304–5

      GC 32 and, 301

      GC 34 and, 306

      historical character of Christian faith, 302

      liberation and, 301

      North America, Hispanic and Native American communities in, 305, 306–7

      Vatican II’s encouragement of, 299

   Jesuits at Vatican II, 298–300

   justice

      in African theological discourse, 304–5

      GC 32 and, 300–1

      liberation and, 301

      “option for the poor,” 303

      Vatican II’s encouragement of, 299

   laity, partnership with, 311–12

   spirituality of Jesuits informing, 298

   women, partnership with, 312–13

Thirty Years’ War, 95, 112

Thomas à Kempis, 18, 182

Thomism

   biblical interpretation, 249

   in China, 181

   Dominican vs. Jesuit, 257

   Jesuit allegiance to, 74, 246

   scientific revolution and, 246, 247, 249

Thorpe, John, 271

Three Kingdoms, Jesuits in. See England; Ireland; Maryland, English mission to; Scotland

Tivnan, Edward P., 285

Tokugawa Hidetada, 162

Tokugawa Iemitsu, 162

Tokugawa Ienobu, 163

Tokugawa Ieyasu, 161

Torano, Giovanni di, 41

Torres, Cosme de, 156, 157, 158

Trent, Council of

   France, promulgation of decrees in, 129

   on grace and justification by faith, 112

   Hosius, Stanisław, at, 136, 137

   Jesuits attending, 37, 137, 299

   Spanish religious localism and, 26

   women religious, reform of, 120, 121, 130

Trigault, Nicolas, 178, 182, 209–10

Trigueros, Domingo, 230

Trinidad, ruins of Paraguay Reduction at, 233–6

Turks. See Islam

Tyrone, Hugh O’Neill, Earl of, 97

Üçerler, M. Antoni J., xii, 6, 153


Uchanski, Jakob, 136

United Kingdom. See England; Ireland; Maryland, English mission to; Scotland

universities. See education, and specific universities and university locations, e.g. San Francisco, University of

Urban VI (pope), 19

Urban VIII (pope), 94, 127–8

Ursulines, 127, 130, 132, 192

USA

   Berrigan, Daniel, imprisonment of, 325

   bishops of first thirteen colonies, Jesuits as, 100

   establishment of mission in, 100

   North America, Jesuits working with Hispanic and Native American communities in, 305, 306–7

   survival of Jesuits during suppression period in, 273

USA, Jesuit schools in (before 1814)

   Georgetown University, 100

   Maryland, English mission to, 100

USA, Jesuit schools in (c. 1814–1970), 8, 278–93

   1814 to late 19th century, 278–84

   1890s to 1945, 283–90

   1945 to 1970s, 290–3

   accreditation, certification, and standardization, 285, 289

   adaptation to American culture, 283

   athletic programs, 287

   “Catholic Renaissance” of 1930s and, 290

   classical training, early emphasis on, 280, 282, 283, 285

   diversity of student body, economic and social, 281–2

   European origins and style, 278–9, 282, 284, 291

   faculty, 288, 291

   federal and state aid, eligibility for, 292

   fund-raising practices, 288

   graduate schools, establishment of, 287

   lay involvement in administration and teaching at, 288, 290–1

   modernization of curriculum, 285–7

   moral formation, insistence on, 280, 285, 292

   name changes, 287

   non-Catholic population, 282, 288

   percentage of students receiving diplomas, 282, 286

   quality of education, 283, 289–90, 291

   religious instruction at, 280, 286, 290

   secondary and tertiary education

      eventual separation of, 284

      initial integration of, 281

   secularization of, 288, 289, 290–3

   university status, conversion to, 287

   vocational training, resistance to, 283

   women at, 288, 292

USA, modern Jesuit Nativity schools in, 326


Vagnone, Alfonso, 179

Valignano, Alessandro, 158–60, 164, 169, 172, 204, 206

Van de Velde, James Oliver, 278

Vargas, Pedro de, 220

Vatican I, 299

Vatican II

   inculturation encouraged by, 144, 299

   Jesuits at, 299

   laity’s role in church affairs, affirmation of, 291

   on racial and ethnic minorities in Church, 211

   religious culture, Jesuit response to changes in, 319, 322. See also theological discourse of Jesuits after Vatican II

Vaux, Anne, 123

Vavasour, Dorothy, 123

Venice, 81–3

Verbiest, Ferdinand, 170, 179, 182

Vieira, Andrés, 163

Vieira, Sebastião, 162

Vilela, Gaspar, 157

Villanueva, Francisco de, 201

Virgin Mary

   Immaculate Conception of, 13

   Marian congregations or sodalities. See confraternities

   Spain, local incarnations in, 21

Visitation Sisters, 130

Vita Christi, Ludolf of Saxony (Ludolphus de Saxonia), 18, 41, 182

Vita Ignacii Loyolae (Ribadeneira), 36

Vitelleschi, Muzio (Mutius), 93, 98, 126

vocations, confraternities fostering, 77

Voltaire, 183, 263


Walpole, Henry, 90

Walsh, Michael P., 292

Wang Zheng, Philip, 172, 176

Ward, Mary, 5, 123–9

   apostolic vocation, discovery of, 123–5

   birth and early life, 123

   death of, 128

   equality of women, conviction of, 126

   imprisonment of, 127–8

   Jesuit spirituality as adopted by, 126, 129

   monastic career of, 123–4

   naming of Institute, 125, 128, 129

   Painted Life, 128

   papal approval sought by, 125, 126–7

   Quamvis Justo and, 121, 128

   reactions to, 125–7

   suppression and restoration of Institute, 127–9

Wars of Religion (France), 104, 106

Warszewicki, Stanisław, 139

“weeks” of Spiritual Exercises, 57–61

Weger, Peter, 233

Wendat, 187–9, 190

Weston, William, 90

William of Orange (later William III, King of England), 96, 98, 99

Wilmer, Wilhelm, 286

Wladysław IV (King of Poland), 139

Wolfe, David, 88, 89

Wolff, Johannes, 233

women

   abused women, Jesuit shelters for, 75–6

   enclosure requirements for female religious, 120, 121, 130

   Ignatius of Loyola and, 120–2

   modern Jesuits and

      educational institutions, women attending, 321

      partnership and solidarity, theology of, 312–13

      spiritual collaboration with women, 325

   prostitutes and children of prostitutes, Jesuit outreach to, 35, 75–6

   in Spanish religious environment of Ignatius’ youth

      Cisneros’ encouragement of, 19

      conversos (Jewish converts or New Christians), 24

      reading aloud to, 16

   Spiritual Exercises used by, 120, 312, 325

   spirituality of Jesuits and. See under spirituality of Jesuits

   at US Jesuit schools, 288, 292

women religious, 5, 120–32. See also Ward, Mary

   Constitutions, 126, 129, 131

   Daughters of Charity, 130, 132

   early Jesuit consideration of, 120–1

   enclosure requirements for, 120, 121, 130

   in French Canada, 192

   French women’s institutes, 129–31

   Ignatius and, 120–2, 126

   Juana of Austria, 122

   Roser, Isabel, 122, 124

   Sisters of St. Joseph, 130–1

   Spiritual Exercises, 120, 126, 131, 325

   Ursulines, 127, 130, 132

   Visitation Sisters, 130

Woodhouse, Thomas, 89

Woodstock College (New York), 278

Worcester, Thomas, x, 1, 5, 8, 104, 319

Wright, Jonathan, xii, 7, 263

Wujek, Jakub, 139


Xaintonge, Anne de, 130

Xavier, Francis, 6

   China and, 169

   Ignatius and, 34, 36

   in India, 153–6, 206–7

   in Japan, 153–6, 164

   in Latin American Jesuit sculpture, 227, 230

   non-Europeans as clergy/Jesuits, resistance to, 206–7

Xu Guangqi, Paul, 172, 178

Xubiri, Xavier, 303


Yajirō, 156

Yang Tingyun, Michael, 172, 176

York, James, Duke of (later James II, King of England), 95


Zabrzydowski, Mikołaj, 143

Zahorowski, Hieronim, 138

Załęski, Stanisław, 138

Zambia, 322

Zárate, Pedro de, 200

Zheng Weixin (Manuel de Siqueira), 210

Zimbabwe, 322

Zipoli, Domenico, 236

Zygmunt III (King of Poland), 139, 142


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