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It Still Takes A Candidate
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Details

  • 13 b/w illus. 34 tables
  • Page extent: 256 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.5 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 320.082
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: HQ1236.5.U6 L38 2010
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Women--Political activity--United States
    • Political participation--United States
    • Women political candidates--United States
    • Women--United States--Attitudes
    • Sex role--United States

Library of Congress Record

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It Still Takes A Candidate
Cambridge University Press
9780521762526 - It Still Takes A Candidate - Why Women Don't Run for Office - By Jennifer L. Lawless and Richard L. Fox
Index

Index

ABC World News 11

Aberbach, Joel D. 95

Abzug, Bella 63

Ahern, David W. 30, 46, 76

Aldrich, John H. 95

Alejano-Steele, AnnJanette 74

Alexander, Deborah 6

Alford, John 65

Almond, Gabriel Abraham 65

Ambition

See Political Ambition

America's Best Colleges 177

American Civil Liberties Union 143

Amick, Carol 64–65

Amundsen, Kirsten 171

Andersen, Kristi 6

Andolina, Molly W. 65

Anthony, Susan B. 69

Apter, Teri 71

Aristotle 9

Astaire, Fred 126

Asthana, Anushka 165

Astin, Helen S. 57

Atkeson, Lonna Rae 7

Attorneys

See Candidate Eligibility Pool

Babcock, Linda 12, 115

Bachmann, Michelle 89

Bachrach, Peter 171

Banerji, Shilpa 32

Barakso, Maryann 92

Barone, Michael 30

Bavetta, A. G. 115

Baxter, Sandra 49

Bayh, Evan 64

Beck, Paul Allen 65

Beckwith, Jon 65, 67

Begich, Mark 64

Belkin, Lisa 7, 173

Beloff, H. 115

Bendavid, Naftali 89

Benfield, Stephanie Stuckey 77

Benko, Cathy 173

Bennett, Bob 64

Bergmann, Barbara 49

Berkman, Michael B. 6

Bernstein, Robert 95

Beyer, S. 115

Bias

See Gender Bias

Biden, Joe 61

Black, Gordon S. 33, 35, 149

Blair, Diane D. 6, 123

Bledsoe, Timothy 57, 173

Blumstein, Philip 71

Bolton, John 18

Bond, James T. 71

Borelli, Maryanne 11

Bowden, E. M. 115

Bowles, Hannah R. 12, 115

Boxer, Barbara 4, 24

Brady, Henry E. 49, 65, 76

Bratton, Kathleen 6

Brooks, David 11

Brown, Clifford W. 11

Brown, Jerry 90

Brownlow, Sheila 115

Brunell, Thomas L. 165


Bullock, Charles S. 29, 57

Burns, Nancy 11, 48, 65, 71, 155

Burrell, Barbara 3, 5, 7, 11

Burton, Sala 90

Burt-Way, Barbara J. 77

Bush, George W. 56, 64

Business people

See Candidate Eligibility Pool

Bylsma, W. H. 115

Cain, Bruce E. 45

Callahan-Levy, C. 115

Campaigns 27

eligible candidates’ attitudes toward 138–145, 146, 149, 161

entrepreneurial candidacies 14, 170

fundraising 25, 141, 171

loss of privacy 137, 141–143

women's performance in 124

Campbell, Angus 46

Campbell, David E. 7

Candidate Eligibility Pool 4, 30, 33, 37, 46–56, 57, 64, 65, 66, 73–74, 77, 85, 94, 105–106, 111, 114, 146, 166, 172, 174, 177

business people 58, 91–94, 99, 151, 179

conception/definition of 38

demographics of 38, 54, 103, 155

educators 59, 99, 177, 179

lawyers 37, 53, 58, 99, 179

pipeline explanation 30–31

pipeline professions 22, 30–32, 166, 173

political activists 53, 58, 70, 91, 97–101, 149, 174, 178, 179

reputational approach

Candidate Emergence Process

See Political Ambition

Candidate Recruitment

See Recruitment

Capella, Joseph N. 140

Caprio, Frank 19

Carey, Mary 113

Carli, Linda L. 10

Carlson, Tucker 27

Carrillo, Nancy 7

Carroll, Susan J. 6, 29, 57, 73, 76, 95–96, 122, 163

Carter, Jimmy 66

Casey, Bob 64

Cattagni, Anne 178

CBS Evening News 11

Cegelis, Christine 90

Center for American Women and Politics (CAWP) 30, 46, 91

Children

See Traditional Family Role Orientations

Chris Matthews Show 27

Citizen Political Ambition Panel Study 4, 14, 20, 36–38, 42, 164, 172, 177

candidate eligibility approach 41–42

changes between two waves 49, 50–56, 63, 79, 86, 124

description 37

first wave of 49, 97, 145, 149, 180

pilot study 4–5

reputational approach 41

sample design and data collection 36, 146, 149, 177

second wave 4, 5, 16, 38, 41, 43, 46, 79, 110, 114, 131, 138, 146, 159, 161, 164, 179

two waves 17, 37, 41, 57

Clark, Janet 25, 28, 30

Clarke, E. 6

Clinton, Bill 35

Clinton, Hillary Rodham 4, 20, 25, 27, 56, 122, 165, 169, 174

Cohen, Jeff 140

Cohen, Richard E. 30, 72

Coleman, Gary 113

Collins, Susan 64

Coltrane, Scott 71

Conover, Pamela Johnston 8

Considering Running for Office

See Political Ambition

Converse, Philip E. 46

Conway, M. Margaret 30, 46, 49, 76

Cook, Elizabeth Adell 25, 139

Corbetta, Renato 5

Coreyell, George 142

Costantini, Edmond 57

Couric, Katie 11

Curran, Barbara A. 31

D’Alesandro, Thomas 64

Darcy, Robert 25, 28, 30

Davis, Gray 112–113

Davis, Rebecca Howard 14

Dawson, Dick 134

Dean, Norma G. 93


Decision to Run for Office

See Political Ambition

Deckman, Melissa 4, 57

Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee 107, 137, 165

Democratic National Committee 35

Diamond, Irene 96

Discrimination

See also Gender Bias

Dittmar, Kelly 122

Djupe, Paul A. 49

Dodd, Chris 64

Dodson, Debra L. 6

Dolan, Julie 25, 30, 123

Dolan, Kathleen 7, 25

Dolbeare, Cushing N. 49

Double Bind

See Traditional Family Role Orientations

Douglas, Susan J. 92

Dowd, Maureen 11

DuBois, Ellen Carol 70

Duckworth, Tammy 89–90

Duerst-Lahti, Georgia 6, 11, 12, 27, 28, 30, 80

Dun and Bradstreet Million Dollar Directory 177

DuPont 32

Durbin, Dick 89–90

Eagly, Alice 6, 10

Eccles, J. S. 115

Educators

See Candidate Eligibility Pool

Elazar, Daniel J. 155

Elective Office Preferences

career-ladder politics 15, 42, 57, 82

gender gap in 15, 57–59

high-level office 8, 15, 18, 20, 25, 58, 161

local level offices 49, 117, 137, 142

Electoral System 2

candidate centered aspects 14

electoral competition in 13–14

negative perceptions of 138–145, 174

proportional party list system 14

women's electoral performance 2

Eligibility Pool

See Candidate Eligibility Pool

Elshtain, Jean Bethke 8

Emanuel, Rahm 89–90, 165

Emerge America 105

EMILY’s List 105, 170

Enloe, Cynthia 10–11, 12

Equal Rights Amendment 169

Eulau, Heinz 33

Evans, Sara M. 70

Falk, Erika 27

Falkenheim, Jacquelina C. 32

Faludi, Susan 92

Family

See Traditional Family Role Orientations

Feeley, Courtney 4, 22, 37, 65

Feigener, Mark K. 32

Feinstein, Dianne 141

Feminine Mystique 70

Feminism 92

Ferguson, Mike 62

Ferraro, Geraldine 165

Fiber, Pamela 27

Fiorina, Morris P. 30, 34

Flammang, Janet 5, 6

Flanigan, William H. 64

Ford, Lynne E. 30

Fortini, Amanda 169

Fortune 500 32

Fouhy, Beth 112

Fowler, Linda L. 3, 28, 37, 93, 119, 136–137

Fowlkes, Diane L. 95

Fox, Barbara A. 6

Fox, Richard L. 4, 6, 25, 27, 28, 37, 54, 55, 57, 59, 65, 67, 77, 140, 155

Frederick, Brian 6

Freedman, Estelle 9, 70

Freedom House 22

Freeman, Jo 95

Friedan, Betty 70

Friedman, Thomas 11

Fulton, Sarah A. 4, 57, 96

Fundraising

See Campaigns

Funk, Carolyn L. 65

Furnham, A. 115

Gaddie, Ronald Keith 29

Gagnon, D. 115

Galinsky, Ellen 10, 71

Gallup Poll 138

Gartner, Scott Sigmund 139

Gatekeepers

See Recruitment


Gender Bias 19, 24, 96–111

against women candidates 2, 11, 22, 25, 28, 162

discriminatory attitudes toward women 33

in the political/electoral arena 17, 122–124

Gender Differences 6, 12, 15, 37, 38, 103

attitudes toward 115

bill sponsorship 5

campaign activities 3–4, 46, 114, 134

considering a candidacy 50–55, 68, 77, 82, 113–122, 148

electoral outcomes 50, 174–175

family roles and responsibilities 63, 71–76, 77–80, 84, 87, 199

fundraising 174–175

leadership styles 6

party affiliation 90–95, 99

perceptions of electoral environment 41, 173, 206

personal sources of support 82, 146–154, 161

policy preferences 5, 65, 94

policy priorities 6

political ambition 37, 38, 57, 67, 138

political participation 46, 49, 97, 114, 134

recruitment 96, 97–103, 109, 158, 160

self-perceived qualifications 113, 114, 121, 148–154

Gender Socialization

See Traditional Gender Socialization

Gendered Division of Labor

See Traditional Family Role Orientations

Gendered Psyche 12–13, 17, 34, 41, 75, 114, 122, 135, 146, 159–160, 166–168

Gerrity, Jessica C. 5

Gertzog, Irwin N. 165

Gilbert, Christopher P. 49

Gillibrand, Kirsten 25

Gist, M. E. 115

Githens, Marianne 24, 173

Gneezy, Uri 115

Golden, Catherine 137

Goodliffe, Jay 33

Gore, Al 64

Goulden, Marc 32

Graber, Doris A. 140

Gray, Virginia 8

Grey, Lawrence 137

Gronke, Paul 139

Hadley, Charles D. 14

Hagan, Kay 64

Hansen, Susan B. 155

Hardball 27

Harman, Jane 66, 77

Hart, Daniel 65

Hendersen, Keith 65

Herring, Mary 57, 173

Hess, F. 57, 65

Hibbing, John R. 65, 67

Hill, David 154

Hirshman, Linda 10

Hochschild, Arlie 71

Hochul, Kathleen Courtney 134

Hoyt, Crystal L. 92

Huddy, Leonie 93

Hunt, Jim 64

Hunter, David 122

Hunter, Kathleen 139

Hymowitz, Kay S. 92

Incumbency Advantage 22, 29, 172

Initial Decision to Run

See Political Ambition

Inter-Parliamentary Union 21–22

Interview Questionnaire 4, 38, 202

Issues

See Policy Issues

It Takes A Candidate 3–4, 5, 16, 59, 97, 103, 113, 164

Jacob Wetterling Foundation 89

Jacobs, Sonji 71

Jacobson, Gary 13

Jamieson, Kathleen Hall 7, 10, 71, 140

Jenkins, Carol 123

Jenkins, Krista 29

Jennings, M. Kent 65, 92

Jeopardy 115

Jewell, Malcolm E. 3, 30, 33, 95, 96

Johnson, Blair T. 6

Johnson, Cathy Marie 6

Johnson, Janet B. 179

Johnson, Nancy 24

Jones, Jeffrey M. 138

Joslyn, Richard A. 179


Kahn, Kim Fridkin 28, 119

Kamber, Victor 139

Kaplan Test Prep and Admissions 169

Kathlene, Lyn 6, 7

Kazee, Thomas A. 33, 41, 149, 164

Keele, Luke 139

Kelly, Rita Mae 12, 77

Kellybrew, James 149

Kennedy, Mark 89

Kerber, Linda 9

King, David 86

Kirkpatrick, Jeanne J. 4, 24, 163

Kirksey, Jason F. 14

Kline, John 136

Kling, Kristen C. 115

Knowledge Networks 65, 66–67, 73, 138

Koch, Jeffrey W. 28

Kornblut, Anne E. 169

Kousser, Thad 29

Kraft Foods 32

Kraushaar, Josh 25

Krauthammer, Charles 11

Krook, Mona Lena 14

Krugman, Paul 11

Kunin, Madeline May 4

Kurtzman, Laura 112

Landrieu, Mary 64

Landrieu, Moon 64

Lane, Robert Edwards 3, 46

Lansing, Marjorie 49

Lascher, Edward L. 3

Lasswell, Harold 34

Lawless, Jennifer L. 4, 7, 25, 27, 28, 37, 45, 54, 55, 57, 65, 77, 93, 155

Lawrence, Jill 136

Lawyers

See Candidate Eligibility Pool

Layton, Lyndsey 63, 72

Leaming, Sara 138

Leeper, Mark 93

Leighton, M. Voorhees 25

Leland, Carole 57

Lerner, Gerda 8

Lifetime Networks 28

Limbaugh, Rush 72

Livio, Susan 62

Lynch, Patrick 19

MacDonald, Mary 142

Maestas, Cherie D. 33, 95, 139, 149

Maisel, L. Sandy 33, 36, 37, 41–42, 95, 149, 164

Major, B. 115

Malbin, Michael J. 57

Mandel, Ruth B. 6

Mann, Thomas E. 45, 57

Mansbridge, Jane 8, 14

Margolies-Mezvinsky, Marjorie 27

Margolin, Josh 62

Mark, David 139

Markus, Gregory B. 65

Martin, Janet 11

Martindale-Hubble Law Directory 177

Masculinized Ethos 146, 166

in the candidate emergence process 34, 106, 158–160

definition of 10, 71

“male culture” of Congress 27

in perceived qualifications 135

in political institutions 10–11, 168

in recruitment 91, 96, 110

Mason, Mary Ann 32

Matland, Richard E. 14

Matthews, Chris 27

Matthews, Donald R. 164

Matthews, Douglas 95

Matthews, Glenna 4, 24

Mayhew, David 3

McCain, John 48, 122

McClure, Robert 3, 119, 137

McDermott, Monika L. 28

McDonagh, Eileen 14

McFarlin, D. B. 115

McFeatters, Ann 84

McGinn, Kathleen L. 12, 115

McGlen, Nancy E. 71

McIntosh, Hugh 65

McKenzie, Lisa 72

Media 18

coverage of women's campaigns 27, 122

talk radio's anti-feminist sentiment 72

Meese, L. A. 115

Meet the Press 18

Men's Issues 92

Mendez, Jeanette Morehouse 5, 95

Mezey, Susan Gluck 11

Mikulski, Barbara 164, 165

Miller, Carol T. 92

Miller, Laura 62

Miller, Warren E. 46


Mishler, William 7, 10

Molinari, Susan 77

Moncrief, Gary F. 3, 29, 30, 33, 96

Morehouse, Sarah M. 95

Morris, Corey A. 65

MSNBC 27

Murkowski, Lisa 64

Myers, Dee Dee 6

Myrdal, Alva 65

Naff, Katherine C. 123

Napolitano, Grace 13

NARAL Pro-Choice America 170

National Association for Law Placement Foundation 30

National Conference of State Legislators 29, 45

National Journal 11

National Women's Political Caucus 145, 170

Neal, Terry 13, 24

Nechemias, Carol 155

Nesi, Ted 19

New York Times Magazine 7, 10

Niederle, Muriel 115

Niemi, Richard G. 65

Niven, David 28, 96

Nixon, David L. 28

Noonan, Peggy 11

Norrander, Barbara 92

Norris, Pippa 14

Obama, Barack 48, 63, 90

O’Connor, Karen 11

O’Connor, Robert E. 6

O’Connor, Sandra Day 68

Okin, Susan Moller 6, 70

OpenSecrets.org 48

Opting Out

See Traditional Family Role Orientations

Ornstein, Norman J. 57

Osborn, Tracy 5

Owen, Diana Marie 65

Oxley, Zoe 59

Paget, Karen 4, 24

Pajares, Frank 115

Palin, Sarah 4, 20, 38, 61, 62, 122, 123, 174

Palmer, Barbara 27, 28, 155, 165

Paolino, Phillip 6

Party

See Political Party

Party Affiliation

of candidate eligibility pool 94

of elected officials 90, 91

Party Identification

See Party Affiliation

Pasek, Josh 66

Pateman, Carole 70

Pearson, Kathryn 27, 45

Pelosi, Nancy 4, 20, 37, 56, 64, 90, 174

Peoples, Steve 19

Perkins, Jerry 95

Peterson, Paul E. 30

Pew Research Center 28

Pintrich, P. R. 115

Pipeline Professions

See Candidate Eligibility Pool

Pitkin, Hanna F. 7, 171

Planned Parenthood Action Fund 170

Policy Issues 92

“women's issues” and “men's issues,” 5–6, 92–93

Political Activism

See Political Participation

Political Activists

See Candidate Eligibility Pool

Political Ambition 3–5, 13, 15–16, 17, 18–20, 33, 36, 37, 38–43, 54, 56, 57, 60, 63–64, 79–81, 87, 149, 161, 172–174, 178, 179

candidate emergence process 3–4, 15, 16, 17, 20, 34–36, 43, 49, 90, 91, 105, 138, 146–154, 155, 161, 164, 170–171, 172, 173

considering a candidacy 15, 34–35, 42, 50–53, 63, 106–110, 135, 138, 159, 161, 172, 195

deciding to run for office/enter the race 3, 5, 15, 35, 37, 43, 55, 136, 145, 161, 172–173

expressive ambition 34

future candidacies 17, 79, 81, 86, 157, 168–169

gender differences in 138, 158

motivating factors of 158

initial decision to run for office 2–4, 15, 35, 41–42, 50, 145, 149, 155–156, 164

definition of 3

discrete ambition 34, 149

evolution of 57

gender gap in 2, 8–9, 13, 15–16, 17, 36, 41, 45, 50–54, 56, 59–60, 77, 85–86, 105–106, 121, 134, 146, 164, 166–171, 172

generational differences 65, 67, 84–87, 88, 169

progressive ambition 34, 57, 149

rational choice conception 30, 34

role of income 151

static ambition 34, 149

winnowing effect 56, 146

Political Attitudes 7

feminism 92

partisan affiliation 90

policy issues 94

political ideology 90–95, 158

Political Culture 14, 56, 154–155, 205

Political Ideology

See Political Attitudes

Political Interest 15, 33, 34, 45–60, 64–65, 93, 97, 108, 155, 173

Political Opportunity Structure 33–34, 155, 173

structural variables/circumstances 33–34, 56, 154–156

Political Participation 45–60, 65, 69, 76–78, 103

Political Parties

See Party Affiliation, Recruitment

Political Proximity 11, 15, 38, 41, 45–60, 103, 134

Political Recruitment

See Recruitment

Political Representation 7–8, 14, 171

barriers to women's representation 22, 28, 29, 80, 161

discrimination 22–28

gender parity 2, 22, 30, 37, 135, 164, 166–170

substantive representation 5, 6, 7, 111, 171

symbolic representation 5, 7, 171

women's underrepresentation 5, 15, 17, 20, 22, 30, 36, 43, 96, 161, 170, 172

Politicized Upbringing

See Traditional Family Role Orientation

Pollitt, Katha 10

Powell, Lynda W. 11

Prestage, Jewel L. 24

Prewitt, Kenneth 33, 95

Prinz, Timothy S. 33

Privacy in Political Campaigns

See Campaigns

Proportional Party List System 14, 170

See also Electoral System

Pryor, Mark 64

Purdum, Todd 123

Putnam, Robert D. 95

Questionnaire

See Interview Questionnaire

Race and Political Ambition 3, 54

Ramshaw, Emily 62, 137

Rational Choice Paradigm 33

Rausch, John D. 28

Rawles, R. 115

Recruitment 16, 38, 89, 110, 148

effect on self-perceptions 38

electoral gatekeepers 16, 24, 101, 110, 146, 161, 174

gender gap in 16, 91, 99, 101, 135

impact on political ambition 57, 174

political parties’ role 16, 91, 95, 106, 174

Reingold, Beth 6, 126

Renshon, Stanley A. 65, 123

Representation

See Political Representation

Republican National Committee 170

Reynolds, H. T. 179

Rice, Condoleezza 18–19

Richards, Ann 126

Roberts, Elizabeth 18–20

Roberts, T. 115

Rockman, Bert A. 95

Roe v. Wade 170

Rogers, Ginger 126

Rohde, David W. 33, 37, 149

Role Model Effects 7, 67, 171

Romano, Lois 165

Rosenthal, Cindy Simon 6

Rosenwasser, Shirley M. 93

Roskam, Peter 90

Ros-Lehtinen, Ileana 71

Roth, Louise Marie 32

Rowley, Coleen 136–137

Roy, Robin E. 92

Rozell, Mark 28

Rule, Wilma 14, 96, 155

Running for Office

See Political Ambition

Rupert, Janet M. 115


Russert, Tim 18–19

Rustichini, Aldo 115

Sabato, Larry J. 140, 165

Saint-Germain, Michelle A. 6

Sanbonmatsu, Kira 28, 96, 119, 163

Sanchez, Rick 123

Sapiro, Virginia 3, 57, 77, 93

Sawyer, Diane 11

Schaffner, Brian 92

Schaffer, Russell 169

Schenck, Tom 89

Schlaffly, Phyllis 72

Schleicher, David 45

Schlesinger, Joseph A. 33, 45

Schlessinger, Laura 72, 149

Schlozman, Kay Lehman 11, 48, 49, 65, 71, 76, 155

Schor, Elana 141

Schroeder, Pat 4, 62–63

Schuhmann, Robert 6, 67

Schwartz, Pepper 71

Schwarzenegger, Arnold 113

Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A. 5, 7, 10

Securities Industry Association 32

Segura, Gary M. 139

Seligman, Lester G. 95

Seltzer, R. A. 25

Sexism

See Gender Bias

Sexist Environment 122–126, 135

See also Gender Bias

Sigel, Roberta S. 126

Simon, Dennis 27, 28, 65, 155, 165

Slaughter, Louise 136–137

Slevin, Peter 29, 90

Smith, Eric R.A.N. 25, 42

Socialization

See Traditional Gender Socialization

Sokhey, Anand E. 49

Sorenson, Liane 71

Squire, Peverill 3, 30, 33, 45, 96

Stanley, Jeanie R. 6

Staton/Hughes Research Group 145

Steiger, Thomas 140

Stephanopoulos, George 61

Steuernagel, Gertrude A. 30, 46, 76

Stevens, C. K. 115

Stokes, Donald E. 46

Stone, Anne J. 49

Stone, Pamela 10

Stone, Walter J. 33, 36, 37, 41–42, 95, 149, 164

Strimling, Wendy S. 73

Structural Variables

See Political Opportunity Structure

Substantive Representation

See Political Representation

Support for Political Candidacy

See Recruitment

Survey Instrument 180, 191

Swers, Michele L. 6, 93

Swint, Kerwin C. 139

Symbolic Representation

See Political Representation

Teixeira, Ruy A. 49

Temperance Movement 70

Terkildsen, Nayda 93

Term Limits 29, 30, 33, 155, 157–160

Theriault, Sean M. 29, 57

This Week with George Stephanopoulos 61, 62

Thomas, Clarence 169

Thomas, Sue 6, 11, 30, 71, 171

Time 136

Tolleson Rinehart, Sue 6, 95

Toner, Robin 165

Traditional Family Role Orientations 9, 34, 63, 64, 74, 132, 146, 166–168

balancing act 10, 72

children/child care 9, 71–82, 84, 87, 154, 158, 160, 168, 173

double bind 71, 88, 172

generational differences 15–16

household division of labor 8–9, 10, 71, 74–75, 77, 84, 154

impediment to political ambition 73, 76–80, 160

opting out 10, 72, 165, 173

public/private sphere 7, 10, 69–71, 88

politicized upbringing 15, 68, 87, 151

Traditional Gender Socialization 8–9, 13, 15, 17, 20, 34, 35, 36, 37, 41, 60, 67, 76, 135, 146–154, 158–161, 166–170, 173–175

Traditional Sex-Role Socialization

See Traditional Gender Socialization

Tunney, John 66

Udall, Mark 64


Underrepresentation of Women

See Political Representation

United Nations 9, 18

U.S. Department of Education 178

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 32

U.S. News and World Report 177

United States v. Thornton 29

Vanity Fair 123

Van Sickel, Robert 140

Variable Coding 207

Verba, Sidney 11, 48, 49, 65, 71, 155

Vesterlund, Lise 115

Washington Post 63

Weddington, Sarah 170

Weibust, Kristin S. 92

Weikart, Lynne A. 6

Weisberg, Anne C. 173

Welch, Susan 6, 25, 28, 30, 96

Westat, Elizabeth Farris 178

Wetterling, Patty 89, 90

Whitaker, Lois Duke 92

White House Project 105

Whitener, Rebecca 115

Wigfield, A. 115

Wilcox, Clyde 11, 92

Wilkie, Dana 66, 77, 90

Will, George 11

Williams, Shirley 3

Wilson, Harry L. 28

Wilson, Marie C. 6

Winnowing Effect

See Political Ambition

Wish List 170

Witt, Linda 4, 24

Wolbrecht, Christina 7

Wolfinger, Nicholas H. 76

Wolfinger, Raymond E. 76

Women's Campaign Forum 105

Women's Health Initiative 6

Women's Issues 6, 178

Women's Legislative Network of the National Conference of State Legislatures 71

Women's Media Center 27

Women's Movement 9, 92, 169

Women Officeholders 22, 57, 96

international comparison 21–22

in U.S. institutions 20

Women's Organizations 16, 18, 41, 91, 103–111, 159–160, 170

Women's Suffrage 70

Woods, Harriet 24

“Year of the Woman,” 1440 165

Youniss, James 65

Zingale, Nancy H. 64




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