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Evolution of the Insects
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Details

  • 265 b/w illus. 400 colour illus.
  • Page extent: 772 pages
  • Size: 279 x 215 mm
  • Weight: 2.92 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 595.7/138
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: QL468.7 .G75 2005
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Insects--Evolution

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521821490 | ISBN-10: 0521821495)

Unavailable - out of print June 2014

$127.00



INDEX




12S rDNA, 32, 228, 269

16S rDNA, 32, 60, 237, 249, 269

18S rDNA, 32, 60, 61, 158, 228, 274, 275, 285, 304, 307, 335, 360, 366, 369, 395, 399, 402, 468, 475

28S rDNA, 32, 158, 278, 402, 468, 475, 522, 526

A

aardvark, 638

abdomen: function, 131; structure, 131–136

Abies, 410

Abrocomophagidae, 274

Acacia, 283

acalyptrate Diptera: ecological diversity, 540; taxonomy, 540

Acanthocnemidae, 391

Acari, 99, 105–107: diversity, 101, fossils, 53, 105–107; in-Cretaceous amber, 105, 106

Aceraceae, 413

Acerentomoidea, 113

Acherontia atropos, 585

Achias rothschildi, 541

Acontiinae, 590

Acontistoptera, 538, 539

Acrididae, 127, 205, 210

Acridoidea, 210

Acroceridae, 516, 521

Acrolophidae, 575

Acrolophus, 575

Acromis, 394

Acromyrmex, 446

Acropyga: fossil, 302, 303

acrotergite, 121

Actias, 582

Aculeata, 415, 427, 429–463: defined, 429; phylogeny, 431; sting, 429–431

Adamsiana, 349

Adela, 557

Adelgidae, 293, 295, 302

Adelpha, 601

Ademosynidae, 361, 363

Adephaga, 630, 361, 363, 366–70: defining features, 366; hind coxae, 366

Aderidae, 390, 391: Cretaceous, 390

Adicophasma, 226

Adicophasma spinosa, 226

Adiheterothripidae, 284

Adventathrips inquilinus, 283

aedeagus, 134

Aedes, 503, 504

Aenetus, 557

Aenigmatiinae, 536

Aenne, 489

Aeolothripidae, 284, 285, 286

Aeshnoidea, 187

African rock crawlers (see Mantophasmatodea)

Afroclinocera, 630

Agaonidae, 573, 616: fossil, 423

Agaoninae, 423

Agassiz, Alexander, 26

Agathiphaga, 560

Agathiphagidae, 561, 562, 567, 630

Agathis, 76

Agelaia, 439

ages, using fossils, 37–39; using DNA, 38–40

Ageniellini, 435

Aglaspidida, 99

Aglia, 582

Agrias, 600

Agrilus (Staphylinidae), 14

Agromyzidae, 540, 623

Agrotis, 590

Aix-en-Provence, France (Oligocene), 89

Albertus Universität, 88

Alcides, 585

alderflies (see Megaloptera, Sialidae)

Aleochara, 374

Aleocharinae, 374

Alepidophora peali, 525

Aleuropteryginae, 352

Alexander, Charles P., 498

Aleyrodidae, 290

Aleyrodoidea, 290–292, 295: in Cretaeous amber, 292; structure, 291

Alleculidae, 389

allopatry, 26

Alloraphidiidae, 336, 338

Alsophila pometaria, 587

Alticinae, 394

Amauris, 603

amber, 55–61, 76, 86, 166, 270, 303, 387, 476: 14C dating, 55, 57; ages, 55; amino acids, 61; ancient DNA ultrastructural preservation in, 58, 60; behaviors captured in, 57, 58; botanical origins, 55; Cenozoic deposits, 53, 55; chemistry/composition, 55; copal, 55, 57; Cretaceous deposits, 53, 54, 77–82; dating, 55; deposits, 55; destructive sampling, 61; Dominican, 59, 91; general, 57; inclusions, 57; menageries in, 56; Mexican, 55; parasitism in, 57; preservation in, 58; resinite, 55; sub-fossil resin, 57; symbioses in, 303; taphonomy, 57

Ambermantis wozniaki, 259

Amblycera, 274, 278

Amblyoponini, 446, 490

Amblypygida, 99, 104, 105: in amber, 104

Amborella trichopoda, 613, 620

Ameghinoia, 450, 632

Ameletopsidae, 628

American Museum of Natural History, 26, 87, 91

Amesiginae, 630

ametaboly, 331

amino acids: racemization, 61

ammonites, 63, 642

Amorphoscelidae, 254, 257

Amphientomidae, 270

Amphiesmenoptera, 147, 468: defining features, 548; general, 548; stem-group, 548, 549

Amphizoidae, 367

Ampulicidae, 451

Amydria, 557

Anabrus simplex, 209

Anacanthotermes, 244

Anactinothrips gustaviae, 283

Anagyrinus, 367

anal veins, 129

analogy (in characters), 28

anamorphosis, 108, 131

Anania, 578

Anaplectidae, 231

Anareolatae, 213

Anartioptera, 147

Anaximander, 16

Anaxyelidae, 409, 412: Cretaceous, 413

ancestry, 29

Anchineuridae, 172

ancient DNA, 60–61

Ancistropsyllidae, 480

Ancopteridae, 172

Ancylocheira, 382

Ancyluris inca, 598

Andersen, Nils Møller, 317

Andesianidae, 572

Andrenelia, 419

Andreneliidae, 419

Andrenidae, 455

Andricus vectensis, 422

Anelosimus, 467

Aneuretellus, 446

Aneuretinae, 446

Aneuretopsyche, 472

Aneuretopsychidae, 472

Angaragabus, 367

Angarixyela vitimica, 410

Angarogyrus, 367

Angarosphecidae, 452, 453

Angarosphex magnus, 453

angiosperms, 607: ANITA group, 613; compression fossils, 609; Cretaceous flowers, 609; Cretaceous fossils, 609–10; diversity, 607; DNA phylogeny, 609; earliest fossil, 609; early growth forms, 610; evolution, 609; evolution as trees, 611; fusainized flowers and fruits, 609; fusainized remains, 609; molecular clock estimates, 38, 609; most basal species, 611; phylogenetics, 609; phylogeny, 612, 613; pollen record, 610; radiations, 5, 76, 330, 302, 607, 610; relationships to other seed plants, 607

angiosperm radiations, significance to insects: Coleoptera, 363, 393–5, 399; Diptera, 512–3, 523; Hemiptera, 290, 298, 302–3; Thysanoptera, 287

Aniferella, 302

Anisembiidae, 198

Anisopodidae, 494, 498, 507, 513, 517: Cretaceous, 514

Anisopodinae, 513

Anisoptera, 180, 184, 185–187: Cretaceous, 187; defining features, 185

Anisozygoptera (see Anisoptera)

anlage (see imaginal discs)

Annelida, 93

Annulipalpia, 550, 551

Anobiidae, 386, 431

Anomalopsychidae, 554

Anopheles gambiae complex, 11

Anophelinae, 506

Anoplura, 274–5

Anostostomatidae, 208

Ansorgius, 501

ant crickets (see Myrmecophilidae)

ant mimics (see myrmecomorphs)

Antarctoperlaria, 194, 195: defining features, 195–96

anteaters and tamanduas, 638

anteaters, as host, 272, 274

antecostal suture, 121

antenna: development, 123; structure, 123

Antero Formations, Colorado (Oligocene), 88

Antheraea: assamensis, 584; mylytta, 584; pernyi, 584

Anthicidae, 391

Anthoboscinae, 434

Anthocoridae, 326, 329

Anthonomus grandis, 397

Anthophila (bees), 50, 454–563, 467, 618, 619, 638: cleptoparasitism, 458; corbicula, 461; Cretaceous, 462; cuckoo bees, 458; defining features, 454; eusocial, 461; fossil, 458, 461; fossil nests, 50, 51; phylogeny, 460, 461

anthophily, 454, 521, 540: earliest specialized, 523; fossil pollinators, 619; generalized, 620, 621; in Brachycera, 618, 619; in Diptera, 616, 618; longest proboscis, 521; venation and hovering, 521

Anthrax, 521

Anthrenus, 387

Anthribidae, 396

antlions (see Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae)

Antliophora, 147, 468–70: defined, 468; phylogeny, 469

ants (see Formicidae)

Apachyidae, 220

apatite, 42

Aphelopinae, 433

Aphelopus, 433

Aphididae, 89, 293, 294, 295, 301, 302: features, 294

Aphidocallis caudatus, 295

Aphidoidea, 290–295, 467, 642: Buchnera bacteria symbionts, 293; classification, 292; cornicles, 293; fossils, 54, 89, 293, 295; galls, 293; heteroecy, 293; oviparae, 293; reproduction, 292; siphunculi, 293; sociality, 293; stem-group, 293; viviparae, 293

aphids (see Aphidoidea)

Aphis maidiradicis, 301

Aphodiinae, 378

Aphodius holderei (Scarbaeidae), 61, 642

Aphrophoridae, 308

Aphroteniinae, 627

Apicotermitinae, 248

Apidae, 442, 454–458: extinct, 466

Apiformes (see Anthophila)

Apinae, 467: nests, 457, 458

Apini, 457, 466

Apioceridae, 521, 630

Apiomerini, 323

Apionidae, 396

Apis (honey bees), 9–12, 429, 454, 456, 461, 466, 541: armbrusteri, 461; cerana, 9; dorsata, 9, 457; cerana nuluensis, 11; florea, 10, 458; henshawi, 461, 463; koschevnikovi, 10, 11; mellifera, 9, 10, 54; mellifera capensis, 10; nigrocincta, 11; relationships, 10; species concepts, 9–12

Apocephalus, 533

Apocrita, 333, 409, 414, 415, 417, 463: mesosoma, 414; metasoma, 414; ovipositor, 430; parasitoid, 420; phylogeny, 415; propodeum, 414

apodemes, 120

Apoditrysia, 560, 577

Apoglaesoconis ackermani, 353

Apoica, 438

Apoidea, 430, 451–463: Cretaceous, 453; defined, 451

apomorphy, 27

apophysis, 120

aposematism, 202, 385, 390, 603: in Lepidoptera, 603

Appalachian - Asian disjunction, 237

Appalachian mountains, 235

Apteropanorpa, 476

Apteropanorpidae, 469, 476

Apterostigma, 278

Apterygota, 148, 150

aquatic insects: as ancestral habit, 159; in Coleoptera, 360, 366–71, 381, 397; in Diptera, 499, 502–8; in Hemiptera, 317, 319, 321; in Mecoptera, 478; in paleopterans, 160–66, 178–87; in Polyneoptera, 193, 194–6; in Trichoptera, 548–555

Arabic teachings, 17

Arachnida, 99, 101–7

Arachnocampa, 511

Arachnocoris, 323

Arachnomorpha, 93, 98–107: defined, 98

Aradidae: Cretaceous, 326, 328, 329

Aradus, 329

Araneae, 102, 103

Araneomorphae, 102

Araripogon axelrodi, 522

Araucaria, as hosts, 302, 393, 627

Araucariaceae, 76, 396, 625, 627, 628: as hosts, 630; distributions, 627

Araucarioxylon arizonicum, 71

Araucarius, 630

Archaefructus sinensis, 611

Archaemiopteridae

Archaeochlus, 504

Archaeocynipidae, 422

Archaeognatha, 12, 148–150, 628: classification, 148; defining features, 148; diversity, 148; fossils, 148, 154; mating behavior, 148

Archaeolepis mane, 556–60

Archaeopteryx, 160, 277

Archaeopteryx lithographica, 74

Archaeoscoliinae, 437

Archaeostephanus corae, 416

Archaeprepona, 596

Archearadus burmensis, 328

Archecoleoptera, 361, 362, 365

archedictyon, 129

Archegocimicidae, 319

Archeorhinotermes rossi, 247, 249

Archescytinidae, 288

Archescytinopsis, 295

archetypes, 28

Archexyela, 410

Archexyelinae, 410

Archicnephia ornithoraptor, 506

Archiconiopteryx, 352

Archidermaptera, 218, 220

Archiglossata, 417

Archihymenoptera, 410

Archimylacridia bertrandi, 233

Archimylacrididae, 229, 233

Archiphora, 632: patagonica, 633; pria, 633; robusta, 633

Archips, 578

Archipsyllidae, 269

Archisargidae, 637

Architarbus rotundatus, 101

Archithemistidae, 187

Architiphia rasnitsyni, 434

Archizelmiridae, 509, 511, 637

Archizygoptera: defined, 183

Archodonata, 170

Archoglossopteridae, 332

Archostemata, 358, 360–365: features, 362; fossil record, 361, 362; relationships among families, 363, 364

Archotermopsis, 247

Arctiidae: caterpillar, 589; toxic host plants, 589; tymbal organs, 589

Arctoperlaria: 194, defining features, 195

Arctotypus sinuatus, 176

area apicalis, 213

Arega, 557

Areolatae, 213

Areomerus, 220

Argasidae, 106

Argidae, 409, 410

Argyrotaenia, 578

arista, 167, 511: convergent origins, 167, 511

Aristolochiaceae: as hosts, 604

Aristotle, 16

Arixeniidae, 220, 490

Arkansas amber (Eocene), 55

armadillos, as hosts, 272

Armania robusta, 449

Armaniidae, 448, 449

Arms, Jennie M., 137

army ants, 447

Artematopodidae, 363

arthrodial membranes, 128

Arthropleona, 115

Arthropleurida, 109

Arthropoda, 93–118: classification, 99; defined, 97 ; invasion of land, 109–11; major groups, 98–118; monophyly, 98; relationships, 93, 107–8

Articulata, 93

artiodactyls, 482

Arverineura, 260

Ascalaphidae, 336, 342, 346–7: in amber, 348; larva, 347, 348; roosting, 346

Ascencio Formation, Uruguay (K/T), 92

Ascodipteron, 334, 485, 544

Ascothoracida, 99

Asilidae, 492, 521, 522

Asiloidea, 521, 523

Asindulum, 511

Asiocoleidae, 362

Asiopteridae, 187

Asopinae, 327, 329

Aspidohymenidae, 172

Aspidothoracidae, 172

Aspidytidae, 367

Atelestidae, 526: Cretaceous, 529

Atelestites senectus, 529

Atelocerata, 93, 98, 99, 107, 108: defined, 107

Ateluridae, 151

Atemeles, 377

Athericidae, 492, 522

Atheta, 374

Atopetalura, 628

Atractocerus, 387

Atrichopogon, 504, 621

Atta, 278, 443: symbiotic fungus, 445

Attacus, 584

Attercopus fimbriunguis, 102

Atteva, 557

Attini, 277, 444: cospeciation with host fungus, 277; ectosymbionts of, 377; fossil, 446

Auchenorrhyncha, 288, 303–12, 338: antenna, 304; arista, 304; clypeus, 304; defining features, 304; earliest fossil, 307; infraorders, 304; monophyly, 303, 307; paraphyly, 288; relationships, 304–7; tymbal aoustic system, 304

Augochlora leptoloba, 461

Augustine Saint, 16

Aulacidae, 417

Aulacidea succinea, 422

Aulaciformes, 419

Aulacita, 578

Aulacothrips dictyotus, 283

Auplopus, 435

austral arthropods, 628–631

austral disjunction, 41, 247, 284, 312, 313, 478, 485, 625

austral distributions in insects: in Antliophora, 485, 537, 478; in Coleoptera, 363, 396; in Hymenoptera, 416, 431, 458; in Neuroptera, 341, 342, 345, 356; in Peloridiidae, 312–3; in Polyneoptera, 195, 209, 211, 244, 247; in Thysanoptera, 284

Austral Region, 396, 625: defined, 625; depauperate African fauna, 628

Australembiidae, 198

Australimyzidae, 542

Australoplatypus incompertus, 397

Austrobaileya, 613, 621

Austrobaileyaceae, 613

Austrochlus, 504

Austroconops, 504, 507, 508, 509, 630, 632: Cretaceous, 509; fossilis, 509; macmillani, 508

Austrocynipidae, 422

Austrogoniodes, 277

Austromerope poultoni, 476

Austroniidae, 421

Austroperlidae, 628

Austrophasmatidae, 226

autapomorphy, 27

axillary sclerites, 129

Axymyiidae, 508

Aysheaia, 94

Azar, Dany, 80

Azteca, 302, 443, 451

B

Baeonotus, 505

Baetidae, 167

bag worms, 575

Baisomyia incognita, 506

Baissa, Siberia (Cretaceous), 79, 80, 234, 247, 275, 380, 398, 472, 506

Baissidae, 419

Baissoferidae, 551

Baissoptera brasiliensis, 339

Baissopteridae, 336, 338, 339

Baltic amber (Eocene), 87–88, 215, 226, 235, 244, 271, 275, 285, 295, 302, 386, 391, 393, 402, 403, 404, 406, 462, 463, 466, 476, 485, 498, 504, 505, 520, 524, 536, 539, 547, 550, 559, 572, 577, 581, 632, 633, 642

Bardohymenidae, 172

bark beetles: 396–8; trace fossils, 398

bark lice (see Psocoptera)

Baronia brevicornis, 597

Baroniinae, 597

Barstow Formation, California (Miocene), 45, 46

Bartonella quintana, 272

basalare, 128

bat, 257, 260, 272, 274, 326, 482, 583, 589, 615, 638–639, 640: and insect ears, 639; as hosts, 482; as pollinators, 615 ; avoidance behavior, 583; echolocation, 639; ectoparasites, 641; flies, 544; fossil, 640; origins of, 639

bats, insect ectoparasites of: 640–1; in Cimicidae, 326; in Dermaptera, 220; in Diptera, 543–45; in Phthiraptera (lack of ), 272–4; in Siphonaptera, 482–490

Batesia hypochlora, 601

Bathyergidae, 465

Batkeniidae, 183

Batrachedridae, 577

Batrachomyia, 540

Battus philenor, 605

bauplan, 93, 119

Bavaria, Germany (Triassic), 71

beaded lacewings (see Berothidae)

Beamys, 220

bed bug, 326

Beecher’s trilobite beds, New York (Ordovician), 49

bees (see Anthophila)

beetles (see Coleoptera)

Belidae, 396, 398

Bellicositermes, 241

Belmont, Australia (Permian), 69

Belmontidae, 469, 472

Belostomatidae, 71, 268, 319, 321, 325: Cretacous, 325; fossils, 47, 319; Triassic, 325

Bembridge Marls, Isle of Wight, UK (Eocene-Oligocene), 48, 89, 244, 590

Bennettitales, 607

Beorn leggi, 97

Bergamo, Italy (Triassic), 71

Bering Land Bridge, 90

Bermuda, 647

Bernaea neocomica, 290

Berothidae, 336, 348, 353, 356, 633

Berothinae, 356

Bethylidae, 432

Bethylonymidae, 430

Betulaceae, 413

Bibiocephala, 501

Bibionidae, 86, 493, 508

Bibionomorpha, 496, 507–514: Cretaceous, 511; families, 508; fossil, 509, 510, 512–14; larvae, 508, 511; parasitic, 512; phytophagous, 512; sister group, 513; sister group to Brachycera, 507

Bicellonycha, 385

biogeography, 40: ecological, 40; historical, 40; vicariance, 41

bioluminescence, 383–386, 512: in beetles, 383; in Diptera, 512; mechanism, 383; occurrence, 383

biostratinomy, 43

biphasic allometry, 379, 443

birds, 4, 36, 160: dinosaur relatives, 36; fossils, 42, 74, 81, 85; as hosts of insect ectoparasites: 266, 272–80, 326, 543, 482–90, 506, 540, 543–4

Bishop Ussher, 23

Bittacidae, 469, 475: nuptial feeding, 475, 476; pretarsus, 475

Bittacomorpha, 499

Bittacus, 475

Blaberidae, 231

Blasticotomidae, 409, 410

Blatella germanica, 231

Blattabacterium, 237, 241, 242

Blattaria, 47, 147, 199, 227, 229, 230–238: Cretaceous oothecae, 231; classification, 231; fossil record, 43, 47, 231; tegmina, 233; phylogeny, 229

Blattellidae, 231, 235

Blattidae, 231, 235

Blattodea, 12, 43, 47, 147, 207, 227

Blattogryllidae, 223, 224

Blattogryllus karatavicus, 224

Blattoptera, 227

Blattotermes, 244

Bledius, 374

Blephariceridae, 493, 501

Blephariceromorpha, 496, 501

blood feeders, 489491, 502, 504, 540: in Diptera, 499507, 519, 522, 523, 540, 542, 543, 545; evolution of, 489; homeothermic vertebrate hosts, 489; in Hemiptera, 323, 326; mouthparts, 489; mycetomes, 489; occurrence in insects, 489; in Phthiraptera, 27080; in Siphonaptera, 48090; Tertiary origins, 523

Bluewater Creek Formation of New Mexico, 72

body plan (Bauplan), 28

Bohartilla kinzelbachi, 405, 406

Bohartillidae, 405, 406

Bojophlebiidae, 163, 164

Bolbomyia, 522

Bolitophilidae, 511

boll weevil, 397

bombardier beetles, 369

Bombini, 466

Bombus: proavus, 461; vetustus, 461

Bombycoidea, 583, 584

Bombyliidae, 492, 516, 517, 521, 523, 525, 618, 619: fossil, 525; in amber, 525; larva, 521

Bombylius, 521

Bombyx mori, 584: cultural significance, 584; physiology, 584; silk industry, 584

Bon-Tsagan, Mongolia (Cretaceous), 80

book lice (see Liposcelidae)

Boopiidae, 274

Boreallodape, 461

Boreidae, 426, 468, 469, 475, 478–480, 488, 630: features, 478; fossil, 479; habits, 478; Jurassic, 480; recent diversity, 478; relationship to fleas, 478, 479

Boreoscytidae, 295

Boreus, 478, 479

borings, 54

Börner, Karl, 137

Borrelia recurrentis, 272

Bostrichiformia, 386–7

Bostrychoidea: Cretaceous, 386

Bothrideridae, 389

Boudreaux, H. Bruce, 144

Brachinini, 369

Brachycentridae, 555

Brachycera, 514–547, 618: antenna, 516; anthophily, 522; arista, 516; coxae and flight, 515; defining features, 514–516; evolution of adult diets, 519; flower feeding, 515, 519; honeydew and, 515, 523; infraorders, 516; Jurassic, 516, 518; labellum, 515, 517; larval head capsule, 514; larval predators, 516; maxillary palps, 515; monophyly, 514; origin of, 547; parasitoid, 516, 540; phylogeny, 519; predatory, 515, 523, 526, 529; pseudotracheae, 515; putative Triassic, 516; venation, 516

Brachycistidinae, 434

Brachypanorpa, 475

Brachypsectridae: larva, 384

Braconidae, 420, 427: Cretaceous, 429; larvae, 428

Bradynobaenidae, 437

Bradypodicola, 581

Bradypophila, 490, 581

bradytely, 97

Brahmaea, 582

Branchiopoda, 97, 99

Branchitergalia, 162

Branchiura, 99

Braula coeca, 544

Braulidae, 541, 542, 544

Brentidae, 396, 398

bristletails (see Archaeognatha)

Brodie, P. B., 137

Brodiidae, 172

Brodiopteridae, 172

Brongniart, Charles, 137

Brongniartiellidae, 336, 348

brown lacewings (see Hemerobiidae)

Brownimecia clavata, 446, 450

Brues, Charles T., 140

Brundin, Lars, 627–31

Buckland, William, 23

Buffon, Comte de, 23

bumble bees (see Bombus)

Buprestidae, 358, 359, 381, 382, 415, 417: larva, 381; fossil, 381

Burmapygia resinata, 221

Burmazelmira aristica, 509, 510

Burmese amber (Cretaceous), 81, 201, 234, 247, 251, 269, 270, 290, 295, 317, 329, 387, 398, 390, 391, 403, 500, 506, 526

Burmitembia, 199

bursa copulatrix, 132

bush crickets (see Orthoptera, Tettigonioidea)

butterflies (see Papilionoidea and Rhopalocera)

Byrrhidae, 381

Byrrhoidea, 381

C

caddisflies (see Trichoptera)

Caelifera, 202, 203, 205, 210–211: classification, 210; defining features, 203; fossil history, 210; in amber, 210; phylogeny, 210

Caenocholax fenyesi, 402, 406

Calcitro, 50

Caligo, 600

Callipappus, 297

Calliphoridae, 489, 490, 492, 542, 543, 640

Callirhipidae, 381

Calomantispinae, as hosts, 353

Caloneurodea, 147, 191, 193, 217, 636

Calonymphidae, 240

Calopterygidae, 167, 184

Calyptrata, 542–545; defining features, 542; species diversity, 542

Cambrian Explosion, 93

camel crickets, 209

Campodea, 116

Campodeidae, 117: in Miocene amber, 118

Campodeomorpha, 116

Camponotus, 440, 443, 451

Canadaphididae, 295, 302

Canadian amber (Cretaceous), 295, 302, 329, 403, 506, 516, 520

Canapone dentata, 446

Cantharidae, 358, 359, 383, 384, 386

cantharidin, 390

Cantharoidea, 383, 384: bioluminescence, 384–86; fossils, 386; photic organs, 384

Canthyloscelidae, 500

capitulum, 213

Car, 398

Carabidae, 63, 358–59, 366, 368–70, 627, 631, 643: ecological diversity, 368–9; fossil, 369, 370; in amber, 370; monography, 369; pygidial glands, 369; subfamilies, 369; Triassic, 369; relationships, 369

Carapacea, 162, 163

Carayonemidae, 297

Carboniferous, 40, 67–68: continental configurations, 68; insect fossil deposits, 67

Carbonopteridae, 172

Carbotriplura kukalovae, 152

Carcinothrips, 283

cardo, 124

Caridae: Cretaceous, 398

carina, 120

Carinametra burmensis, 319, 324

Carinatermes nascimbeni, 246

Carios jerseyi, 106

Cariridris bipetiolata, 449

Carnidae, 489, 540

Carnus, 489, 490, 540

Carpenter, Frank M., 69, 143

Carpopodus difficilis, 311

carrion beetles (see Silphidae)

Caryedes brasiliensis, 394

Cascade Mountains, 72, 235

Cascadilar eocenicus, 353

Cassidini, 394

Castniidae, 579

Casuarina, 283

Cataglyphis, 443

Catiniidae, 363

Catocala, 582

Catopidius, 373, 490

Catotricha mesozoica, 512

Catotrichinae, 513

Caulopteridae, 172

Caurinus, 478

cave crickets, 209

caviomorph rodents, 274

Cecidomyiidae, 57, 426, 505, 511, 512, 623: basal subfamilies, 513; Cretaceous, 512; fossil, 512; hosts, 512; in amber, 512

Cecidosidae, 572

Cecropia, and ants, 302, 443

Cedar Lake, Manitoba (Cretaceous), 81

Celliforma (Halictidae), 51

cellular/ultrastructural preservation, in fossils, 58, 60

cellulose, 238

Cenozoic, 84–85: continental configurations, 84; fossil insect deposits, 85–92; significance of, 84

centipedes (see Chilopoda)

Central Park (New York City), 11

Centruroides, 101

Cephalocarida, 99

Cephalorhyncha, 94

Cephoidea, 412

Cerambycidae, 359, 361, 392, 393, 415, 417, 440, 622, 637: diversity, 393; fossil, 393; habits, 393

Cerambycomima, 393

Ceraphronoidea, 412, 415, 417, 421, 426–27

Ceratocombidae, 318

Ceratocombus, 318

Ceratophyllidae, 480, 481

Ceratophyllus gallinae, 482

Ceratopogonidae, 38, 45, 489, 490, 504, 506, 508, 509, 621, 630: in Cretaceous ambers, 506, 509; stratigraphic cladistic rank correlation, 506

cerci, 131, 161

Cercopidae, 305, 308, 310, 540

Cercopionidae, 308

Cercopoidea, 308

Cerophytidae, 391

Cetacea, 482; hosts, 272

Ceuthophilus, 209

Chaeteessa, 254, 259, 260

Chaeteessidae, 257, 259

Chaeteessites, 259

Chagas’s disease, 323

Chalcididae: 418, 423, fossil, 424

Chalcidoidea, 415, 423, 424: antennal sensilla, 424; defining features, 424

Chalcoela, 581

Chalicodomopsis (see Megachile)

Chamaemyiidae, 426, 540

Chaoboridae, 504

character polarity: ontogenetic criterion, 28; outgroup comparison, 28

charcoalified (fusainization), 49

Charente-Maritime (France) amber (Cretaceous), 79

Chathamiidae, 548

Chauliodinae, 341

Cheirolepidiaceae, 76

Cheiromeles, 220

Chelicerata, 98, 99, 100–107: defined, 100

Cheliceriformes, 99, 100

Chiapas amber (Mexico) (Oligocene), 90

Chilicola, 461

Chilopoda, 99, 108: Devonian, 109

Chimaeromyrma, 446

Chimaeropsyllidae, 480

Chimeromyia, 40, 533, 536

Chionea, 498

Chironomidae, 57, 489, 490, 493, 502, 504, 505, 506, 507, 627: amber fossils, 505; austral, 629; earliest fossils, 504, 505; in Cretaceous ambers, 506, 507

Chironomus, 491

Chiroptera (see bat)

Chiropteromyza, 490

chitin, 43–4: composition, 43

Chloranthaceae, 613, 621

Chlorion, 453

Chlorippe wilmattae, 594

Chloropidae, 426, 540

Choristidae, 469, 476

Choristotanyderus, 497

Chresmoda aquatica, 74, 193

Chresmodidae, 193, 637

Chresmododea, 193

Chrysididae, 432, 630

Chrysidoidea, 430–433

Chrysiridia, 582, 585

Chrysolina, 394

Chrysomelidae, 359, 361, 392, 393–5, 622, 637, 642: and toxins, 394; classifications, 393; fossil records, 394; trace fossil, 394

Chrysopa, 301, 350, 351

Chrysoperla plorabunda, 350

Chrysopidae, 336, 348, 349–351, 352, 426: in amber, 352; larval, 352

Chrysopilus, 522

cibarium, 124, 288

Cicadaprosbolidae, 308

cicadas (see Cicadoidea)

Cicadellidae, 57, 305, 308, 311, 312: Cretaceous, 311

Cicadelloidea, 307, 308–12

Cicadidae, 305, 307, 308, 310: acoustic system, 308; Cretaceous, 307; periodical, 308; tymbals, 308; tympana, 308

Cicadoidea: nymphs, 307, 308

Cicadomorpha, 304–8: defining features, 304

Cicindelinae, 368, 369, 370

Ciidae, 391

Cimbicidae, 409, 410, 411

Cimex lectularius, 326: phallus, 328

Cimicidae, 326, 328, 329, 490, 640

Cimicoidea, 326, 329

Cimicomorpha, 319, 321, 323, 328, 330, 622, 637: in Cretaceous amber, 328, 330

Citheronia, 584

Cixiidae, 268, 304, 312

cladistic biogeography (see vicariance biogeography)

cladistics: congruence (character), history, 27, 28

Cladochaeta, 14, 135, 136

Cladochoristidae, 469, 548

cladograms, 31, 37: general, 35; polytomies, 37

Cladothrips, 465

Claiborne Formation, Arkansas (Eocene), 86

Clambidae, 381

Clarkia, Idaho (Miocene), 60

classification, 34

Clastopteridae, 308

Clatrotitan andersoni, 216

Cleistogaster, 417

cleptoparasitism, 277, 283, 284, 377, 540

Cleradinae, 327, 490

Cleridae, 358, 359, 391

Cleroidea, 387

click beetles (see Elateroidea)

Clitemnestra, 453

Clothodidae, 197

Clothonopsis miocenica, 198

clypeus, 122

Clystopsenella, 630

Cnemidolestodea, 189

Cnesia, 505

Cobboldia, 62

Coccidae, 296, 297, 299, 300, 426: feeding stylets, 297

Coccinellidae, 388: chemical defenses, 388; in amber, 388; larva, 388

Coccoidea, 295–301, 494: archaeococcoids, 297; classifications, 297; commercial uses, 297; features, 298; fossils, 299–300; hamulohalteres, 297; in Cretaceous amber, 299, 300; labium structure, 297; male eye reduction, 298; Mesozoic, 299; neococcoids, 298; parthenogenesis, 297; paternal genome elimination (PGE), 298; phylogeny, 298; stem-group, 300

cochineal dye, 297

Cockerell, Theodore D. A., 140

coelacanth, 226

Coelolepida, 560, 567

Coelophoridae, 576, 577

Coenagrionidae, 184

coevolution, 277, 624

Coleoptera, 12, 54, 60, 147, 357–399, 467, 630, 642: ant inquilines, 372, 374, 377, 387; aquatic, 360, 366–371, 381, 397; bioluminescence, 383–86; Cretaceous, 363; cryptonephridic excretory system, 386; defining features, 357; diversification with angiosperms, 399; diversity, 357; dung beetles, 378, 397; early fossils, 360; ectoparasites, 372, 373, 380; edaphic, 371; elytra, 357; features of social insect inquilines, 377; fossil borings, 54, 398; hind wing folding, 357; horn growth, 379; Jurassic, 363; largest size, 378; larvae, 359, 364, 365, 367, 368, 378, 384, 391, 399, 400, 402, 406; male horns, 379; minute size, 373; mycangia, 388, 397; oldest stem- group, 360; parental behavior, 373, 389, 394; parthenogenesis, 374; Permian, 360, 362; phylogeny, 361; phytophagy, 393–96, 399; plastron, 370; prothorax, articulation, 357; relationships among suborders, 361; semi-aquatic, 360, 370, 371, 381; social insect inquilines, 372; sociality, 397; stridulation, 367, 378; suborders (reviewed), 360; Triassic, 363; urogomphi, 372

Coleorrhyncha, 288, 312–14: as sister group to Heteroptera, 313; austral disjunctions, 313; defining features, 312; distribution, 312, 313; fossils, 313; relationships, 313

Collembola, 12, 111, 113–116, 154, 628: classification, 114–16; defined, 113; spring mechanism, 113, 114; fossil record, 116

colleterial glands, 230

Colletidae, 454, 455

Collocalliinae, 278

collophore, 113

Coloburiscidae, 628

Colydiidae, 391

Colymbothetidae, 367

Commentry, France (Carboniferous), 137, 168, 172, 227

communal behavior, 464: in Embiodea, 191, 197; in Hymenoptera, 435, 466; in Thysanoptera, 283

comparative method, 119

compression fossils, 43–44, 63

Comstock-Needham system, 128

concretions, 44–45

condyle, 124

Condylognatha, 147, 262

Coniopterygidae, 336, 348, 351–352, 426: Cretaceous, 352, 353

Conoderinae, 395

Conopidae, 492, 540, 541

continental drift: Gondwana, 627; Pangaea, 627; sea floor spreading, 627

convergence, 31, 32

cooloola monster (see Cooloolinae)

Cooloolinae, 207

Coope, Russell, 61

Copelatus, 369

Copepoda, 99

Coprinisphaera, 50, 380

Coptoclava longipoda, 368

Coptoclavidae, 367, 368

Coptopsyllidae, 480

copulation, 134, 135: in Cimicidae, 323; in Dictyoptera, 256; in Odonata, 179, 182; in Phasmatodea, 212; and nuptial feeding, 476

corbiculate bees, 466

Cordaitales, 173

Cordulecerus, 346

Cordulegastroidea, 187

Corduliidae, 628

Coreidae, 327, 329

Coreoidea, 329

Corethrellidae, 489, 490, 504

Coriophagus, 401

Corixidae, 319, 321

Cornitermes, 247

Corydalidae, 336, 340

Corydalinae, 341

Corydaloididae, 172

Corydalus, 340

Coscinocera, 584

Cosmopterigidae, 576

cospeciation, 278, 277–80: of hosts and parasites, 278; of lice with hosts, 278

Cossidae, 579

Cossoidea, 579

Cossoninae, 630

costal vein, 129

Cow Branch Formation, Virginia (Triassic), 72

coxa, 125, 126

coxopodites, 131

Crabronidae, 451, 467

Crampton, Guy C., 140, 142

Cramptonomyia

Craneopsyllinae, 485

Cranothrips, 284

Cratomorphus, 385

Cratomyia macrorrhyncha, 83, 523, 617, 618

Cratosisyrops, 353

Creaphis theodora, 292, 293

Creede Formation, Colorado (Oligocene), 88

Crematogaster, 302, 443

Cretaceogaster pygmaeus, 516

Cretaceometra brasiliensis, 319

Cretaceous, 76–84, 448, 449, 607–37: angiosperm radiations, 302, 330, 607–613; continental configurations, 83; drift, 627; fossil insect deposits, 77–84; Gondwana fragmentation, 627; K/T extinctions, 76, 635–7; modern families of insects, 607

Cretaceous ambers, 77–82, 323, 329, 391, 498: Agapa River (Siberia), 80; Alava (Spain), 76; Canadian, 295, 302, 329, 403, 506, 516, 520; Charente-Maritime (France), 79; Jordon, Kheta River(Siberia), 80; Lebanon, 80; Maimecha River(Siberia), 80; Myanmar (Burma), 80–81; New Jersey, 82, 166, 234, 235, 246, 259, 285, 287, 290, 295, 300, 302, 329, 339, 381, 383, 398, 632; Paris Basin (France), 79; Taimyr Peninsula (Siberia), 80

Cretamyzidae, 295

Cretaphormia fowleri, 545

Cretatermes carpenteri, 250

Cretatermitinae, 247

Cretephialtites kourios, 416

Cretevaniidae, 419

Cretocar luzzii, 398

Cretomyrma, 446

Cretomyzidae, 302

Cretoperipatus burmiticus, 94, 95

Cretophormia fowleri, 546

Cretothrips antiquus, 285, 286, 287

Cretotrigona prisca, 458, 461, 462, 466, 619

Cricetomys, 220

crickets, 201 (see also Orthoptera, Ensifera, Gryllidae)

criterion of continuation (homology), 29

criterion of position (homology), 29

criterion of special similarity (homology), 29

Crocinae, 342

Crosaphis, 514

crown group, 39

Crowsoniella relicta, 363

Crowsoniellidae, 363, 364

Crustacea, 45, 98, 99, 467

Crustaceomorpha, 93, 107: defined, 98; major groups, 99

cryptobiosis, 97

Cryptocephalinae, 51, 394: in amber, 393; larva, 393

Cryptocercidae, 231, 235–238

Cryptocercus, 228, 231, 235–238, 240, 241, 252, 378, 476, 630: allogrooming, 237; antenna, 237; behavior, 235–6; clevelandi, 236; cryptic species, 236; darwini, 236; distribution, 236, 237; garciai, 236; monogamy, 237; parental care, 237; primarius, 236; proctodeal trophallaxis, 236; punctulatus, 235, 236; relationships to other Dictyoptera, 237; relictus, 236; social behavior, 237; symbiotic bacteria in, 237; symbiotic protists in, 237, 241; wrighti, 236

Cryptochaetidae, 540

Cryptophagidae, 391

cryptopleuron, 203, 224

cryptorhynchine, 396

Cryptoses, 581

Cryptothelea, 576

Ctenocephalides felis, 482

Ctenophthalmidae, 481, 485

Ctenoplectrella viridiceps, 463

Cucujidae, 389, 391

Cucujiformia, 361, 387–99

Cucujoidea, 387–91: Cretaceous, 391; fossil, 391

Culex territans, 502

Culicidae, 490, 502, 504, 506: Cretaceous, 506; earliest, 506; fossil, 506, 507; larva, 503; most primitive, 506; oldest, 506; phylogeny, 506; proboscis, 504

Culicinae, 506

Culicoides, 504: Cretaceous, 506; yoosti, 509

Culicomorpha, 489, 496, 502–507: ambers, 506; blood feeding, 502; fossil record, 505; disease vectors, 502; in Cretaceous amber, 506, 507, 509; Jurassic, 505; malaria, 502; relationships, 504; Triassic, 505

Cuneocoridae, 317

Cupedidae, 363, 365: Cretaceous, 366; Triassic, 365

Curculionidae, 359, 361, 392, 396, 398, 422, 637: in amber, 399

Curculionoidea, 363, 393, 395–99, 622: Cretaceous, 398; Cretaceous galleries, 398; fossil record, 63, 397–99; Jurassic, 397, 398; larvae, 395; rostrum of, 395

Curetis regula, 597

Cuterebrinae, 543

Cuvier, Georges L. C. F. D., 23

Cycadothrips, 284, 285, 287

cycads, 284, 608

Cyclopes, 638

Cyclorrhapha, 514, 516, 528, 531–547: ancestral adult diet, 522; and angiosperm radiations, 515; anthophilous, 522; basal families, 532, 534; cardia, 516; circumversion of male terminalia, 532; Cretaceous stem-group, 533; development, 532; early, 536; fossil larvae, 533; fossil record, 523; muscle plaques, 529, 533; oldest, 533; origin of, 547; peritrophic membrane, 516; pseudotracheae, 515; puparium, 532; saprophagous larvae, 514; saprophagy, 514; stalk-eyed, 541; Tertiary radiation, 526, 547

Cyclotornidae, 580

Cydia deshaisiana, 572

Cydnidae, 327, 329

Cylindrachetidae, 211, 628, 630

Cylindrotomidae, 498

Cynipidae, 422, 623

Cynipini, 422

Cynipoidea, 415, 418, 421–422: Cretaceous, 422

Cypselosomatidae, 547

Cyrenoberothinae, 356

Cytochrome b (Cytb) gene, 32

Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene, 32

Cytochrome Oxidase II (COII) gene, 32

D

Daceton, 445

Dacetonini, 444

Dactylopiidae, 301

Dactylopius, 297, 301

Daiopterix olgae, 562

Dakota Formation, Arizona (Cretaceous), 51, 52

Dakulosphaira vitifolii, 293

Dalceridae, 579, 580

damselflies (see Odonata, Zygoptera)

Danainae, 602, 604

Danaus plexippus, 601, 603

Dark Ages, 16

Darlington, Philip J., 630, 631

Darwin, Charles R., 24–25, 137, 643

Dasyleptidae, 148, 149, 150

Dasyleptus, 149: brongniarti, 150; sharovi, 150

Dasymutilla, 429

Dasypodidae, 638

Daviscardia, 557

DDT, 648–50

deathwatch beetles (see Anobiidae)

Declinidae, 381

Delitzschala bitterfeldensis, 170

Deltotrichonympha, 240

Dendroleon septemmontanus, 346

Dendrothripinae, 284

dengue, 502

Denmark Hill, Queensland (Triassic)

Dennyus, 278

Depressaria, 557, 576

Derbidae, 494

Dermaptera, 12, 147, 191, 217–222, 640, 648: cerci, 218; Cretaceous, 218; defining features, 217; fossils, 220–222; hind wings, 190, 217; in amber, 221, 222; Jurassic, 220; phylogeny, 221

Dermapteridae, 218

Dermatobia hominis, 543

Dermestes, 387

Dermestidae: Cretaceous, 386, 387

Dermodermaptera, 220

Dermoptera, as hosts, 274, 275, 482

desert locust (see Schistocerca gregaria)

Deuterophlebiidae, 501

Devescovinidae, 240

Devonian, 66: insect deposits, 66–67; significance of, 66, 152–4

Devonohexapodus bocksbergensis, 99, 111, 112

Diadocidiidae, 511

diagenesis, 43

Diamminae, 434

diapause, 335

Diaphanopterodea, 147, 160, 169, 172–73

Diapriidae, 418, 420, 421, 630

Diaspididae, 296, 297, 299, 300, 301

Diathemidae, 169, 171

Diathemoptera, 170

Dichenotomidae, 269

Dicliptera, 147, 169, 170–71

Dicondylia, 147, 150

dicondylic mandibles, 150, 153

Dictyoptera, 12, 147, 188, 191, 207, 227–260: claval furrow in forewing, 228; ootheca, 230, 231; ovipositor, 230, 233; phylogeny, 229; proventriculus, 228, 229; relationships, 228; stem-group, 227, 228, 231; stem-group roachoids, 233; tegmina, 190

Dicymdomia julianalis, 581

digger wasps (see Apoidea)

Dignatha, 99, 108

Dilar septentrionalis, 353

dilarid clade, 353

Dilaridae, 336, 348, 353

Dilarinae, 353

Dinmore Formation, Queensland (Eocene), 92

Dinmore, Queensland (Triassic)

Diopsidae, 29, 30, 88, 492, 541, 632: fossil, 543

Dioptinae, 587

Diploglossata, 220

Diplolepidini, 422

Diplopoda, 99

Diploptera punctata, 231

Diplura, 12, 111, 116–18, 154, 628: development, 116; fossil record, 117–18; relationships, 116–17

Diprionidae, 409, 410

Dipsocoromorpha: 317, 318, 321

Diptera, 12, 147, 491–547, 640, 642: anthophilous, 516, 521, 523, 529, 537; antlered, 541; aquatic, 505; arista, 511, 515; as disease vectors, 491; blood feeding, 496, 502, 522, 540, 542; carrion breeding, 542; cephalopharyngeal skeleton, 514; cleptoparasitic, 540; crop, 516; dung breeding, 542; earliest, 497; ecological diversity, 491; ectoparasites, 543; evolution of larval breeding sites, 541; extreme sexual dimorphisms, 541; filtering larvae, 502; genetics, 491; halteres, 494; in experimental biology, 491; infraorders, 497; labellum, 495, 515, 517; land crab commensals, 541; largest, 516; larvae, 493; larval head capsule/evolution of, 514, 515; larval predators, 537, 540; leaf miners, 540; major evolutionary episodes, 547; major works, 491; malaria, 502; microbial grazers, 516; molecular dating, 547; mouthparts, 495; Nematocera paraphyly, 496–497; neotenic, 505; parasites, 540; parasitoids, 516, 517, 537, 540, 543; Permian stem-groups, 497; planidium, 517, 543; primitive venation, 497; torrenticolous, 501; Triassic, 497; see also Brachycera, Cyclorrhapha

Dipterocarpaceae, 55

Discolomidae:in amber, 391

Dismorphiinae, 597

Ditaxineuridae, 183

Ditomyidae, 511

Ditrysia 561, 565, 573–602, 637: defined, 573; tympanal organs, 583

divergence via host plants, 624: ecological significance, 636; host races, 624; major lineages/groups, 628

divine origins of life, 21

Dixidae, 504, 505

Dlusskyidris zherichini, 446

DNA lability, 60

DNA sequences, 29–32: alignment, 30; analysis, 30; codon structure, 30; commonly sequenced genes, 31, 32; deletions, 30; gaps, 30; insertions, 30; multiple substitutions ("hits"), 31; substitutions, 31

Doa, 582

Dobbertin, Germany (Jurassic), 560

Dobbertinia reticulata, 341

dobsonflies (see Megaloptera, Corydalidae)

Dobzhansky, Theodosius, 26

Doidae, 587

Dolichoderinae, 302, 443, 446, 467, 638

Dolichoderus, 302, 402, 443, 451

Dolichoformica helferi, 446, 449

Dolichopodidae, 492, 517, 526, 529, 530: Cretaceous ambers, 526; earliest, 529; Microphorinae, 526

domatia, 440

Dominibythus, 431

Dominican amber (Miocene), 90, 91–92, 249, 271, 302, 319, 351, 386, 387, 391, 393, 406, 463, 464, 485, 536, 575, 590

Donacia, 393

Dopa Decarboxylase (DDC) gene, 32

Dorset, England ( Jurassic), 556

Dorylinae, 238, 377, 446, 467, 638: ectosymbionts in, 377

Dorylus, 443

Dorythrips, 284

dragonflies (see Odonate, Epiprocta)

Drepanicinae, 353

Drepanidinae, 615

Drepanoidea, 583

Drepanosiphinae, 295

Drilidae, 384

dromaeosaurs, 36, 277

Dromopoda, 99

Drosophila, 7–8, 26, 280, 334, 335, 491, 541, 644: mauritiana, 7; melanogaster, 7; melanogaster complex, 7, 8; paulistorum, 8; sechellia, 7; simulans, 7; species concepts, 7–8; virilis, 541; willistoni species groups, 8

Drosophila melanogaster, 333, 491, 532, 540: metamorphosis, 532

Drosophilidae, 135, 136, 334, 442, 540, 541, 643: ecological diversity, 540; Hawaiian, 644; species diversity, 540

Dryinidae, 433, 537: fossil larva, 433; in Dominican amber, 433

Dryococelus australis, 647

Dryomyzidae, 540

Dryopidae, 381

Dunatothrips, 283

Dunbaria fascipennis, 170

Duncanovelia extensa, 317, 323

dung beetles, 378

Dunstaniidae, 308

dustywings (see Coniopterygidae)

Dynastinae, 379

Dyseriocrania, 557

Dytiscidae, 46, 62, 358, 359, 367: in amber, 369

E

earwigs (see Dermaptera)

Eberhard, Wiliam G., 135

Eccoptarthridae, 398

ecdysial cleavage line, 120

Ecdysozoa, 93, 94

echidna, 638

echinoderms, 642

Echinophthiridae, 272, 273, 275

Eciton, 443, 447

Ecitoninae, 238, 377, 446: ectosymbionts in, 377

Eckfeld, Germany (Eocene), 87

Ectognatha, 99, 111

ectoparasites (of vertebrates), 489, 543, 638: and mammal rediations, 488; ctenidia, 486; defined, 489; evolution of, 489; homeothermic vertebrate hosts, 489; Jurassic, 473; by Coleoptera, 372, 373; by Dermaptera, 220; by Diptera, 543–5; by mecopteroids (extinct), 473, 479; by mites, 106; by Phthiraptera, 270–80; by Siphonaptera, 480–89. See also: bats

ectosymbionts, 377, 533

edentates, 482

Eichstätt, Germany (Jurassic), 42, 74

Eickwortapis, 461

Elachistidae, 576

elaiosomes, 213

Elasmini, 427

Elateridae, 358, 359, 382, 383: bioluminescence, 383

Elateriformia, 361, 38086

Elateroidea, 380, 382, 38183: clicking

mechanism, 382; Cretaceous, 382; fossil

record, 382

Elcanidae, 208, 210, 637

Electrapis, 466

Electribius, 633

Electrinocelliinae, 338

Electrococcidae, 299

Electrococcus canadensis, 299

Electrolictus antiquus, 461

Electromyrmococcus, 303

Electrosania cretica, 537

Electrotomidae, 409, 411

Elektraphididae, 295, 302

Elenchidae, 406

elephantiasis, 502

Elias, Scott, 61

Elliidae, 508

Ellipsocidae, 270

Ellipura, 111, 112

elm (see Ulmaceae)

Elmidae, 381

Elmo, Kansas (Permian), 69, 175, 362

Elongation factor 1α (EF1α) gene, 32

Embiidae, 19899

Embiidina (see Embiodea)

Embiodea, 12, 147, 189191, 196199, 432: blood sinuses, 196; classification, 196; communal behavior, 197; defining

features, 19697; earliest fossil, 198; in

amber, 198

Embioptera (see Embiodea)

Embolemidae, 433

Emeraldellida, 99

Emesinae, 323

Empididae, 618: Cretaceous ambers, 530, 531

Empidoidea, 526, 621, 630: Cretaceous, 529, 530, 531; Jurassic, 526; sister group to

Cyclorrhapha, 526

Empis, 529

Empusidae, 257, 260

encephalatides, 502

endangered insects, 647, 650: and

endangered habitats, 648; and pesticides, 647; carrion-feeding, 648

Enderleinellidae, 275

Endopterygota (see Holometabola)

Engisopteridae, 172

Enicocephalidae, 268: Cretaceous, 315317

Enicocephalomorpha, 31517, 321

Enicocephalus, 317

Ennominae, 588

Ensifera, 202, 203205, 208210, 215: Cretaceous, 210; defining features, 203; fossil history, 208; ovipositor, 210; phylogeny, 208

Entognatha, 12, 99, 111118, 135: fertilization, 112; relationships, 112

entognathy, 111, 123

entomology, 1627, 137145

Eobelidae, 398

Eocene, 8588, 637, 640: insect deposits, 637; significance for insects, 640

Eodelopterum priscum, 333

Eodermaptera, 218

Eoditomyidae, 497, 511

Eoichneumonidae, 429

Eomacropis glaesaria, 461

Eomatsucoccus andrewi, 299; casei, 299; sukachevae, 299

Eomerope, 476

Eomeropidae, 469, 476

Eoprotoneura hyperstigma, 185

Eoptychopteridae: Cretaceous, 499, 500

Eosentomoidea, 113

Eotapinoma: E. macalpinei, 446, 449; E.

zherichinius, 446

Eotettigarcta, 308

Eotrechus, 317

Eoxenos laboulbeni, 401

Ephedra, 608

Ephemeridae, 161, 271

Ephemeropsis melanurus, 165, 166

Ephemeroptera, 12, 63, 147, 157, 1607, 628: arista, 167; Branchitergalia, 162; Carapacea, 162; classification, 162; costal

brace, 160, 164; Cretaceous, 165, 166; defining features, 160; fossils, 63, 163167; Furcatergalia, 162; naiad, 162, 166; Pannota, 162; phylogeny, 163; Pisciforma, 162; Schistonota, 162; Setisura, 162; stem-group, 163, 164; subimago, 162

Ephialtitoidea, 415, 416: Cretaceous, 416; Jurassic, 416

epidemic typhus, 272

Epidermaptera, 218, 221

Epides, 582

Epimartyia, 557

epimeron, 125

epimorphosis, 116

Epiophlebia: E. laidlawi, 185; E. superstes, 185

Epiophlebiidae, 185

Epiophlebioptera, 184

epipharynx, 124

Epiphile, 601

Epipompilus, 630

epiproct, 131

Epiprocta, 175, 180, 184187

Epipyropidae, 580

episternum, 125

epistomal sulcus, 120, 122, 224

Eptesicus, 639

Erasipteridae, 174

Erasipteroides valentini, 177

Erasmia, 578

Eremiaphilidae, 254, 257

Eremochaetidae, 637

Eremoneura, 526: earliest, 526; evolution of

adult diets, 528; evolution of larval diets, 528; Mesozoic, 527; phylogeny, 528

Erinaceidae, 638

Eriococcidae, 296, 299

Eriocraniidae, 568

Eristalis, 540

Erotylidae, 388

Erwin, Terry, 12

Erythrolychnia, 385

Escherich, Karl L., 140

Eteoanisoptera, 185

Euaculeata, 430

Eubleptidae, 172

Eubleptidodea, 172

Eubleptoptera, 169, 172

Euchauliodes, 341

Euchauliodidae, 336, 341

Eucheira socialis, 597

Euchelicerata, 99

Eucinetidae, 361, 381

Euclea, 578, 580

Eucnemidae: Cretaceous, 382, 383

Eucoilidae, 420

Eucrustacea, 99

Euephemeroptera, 164

Eugereonoptera, 170

Eugeronidae, 173

Eugeropteridae, 174

Eugeropteron, 174

Euglossa moronei, 461

Euglossini, 456, 461, 466

Euherbstiinae, 455

Euhoplopsyllus glacialis, 482

Euhymenoptera, 409, 413414, 463: defining

features, 413

Eulaema meriana, 456

Eulonchus, 521

Eulophidae, 427

Eumaeus godarti, 597

Eumalacostraca, 99

Eumastacidae: 205, in amber, 210

Eumastacoidea, 211

Eumegasecoptera, 169, 171, 172

Eumeninae, 435, 437

Eumetabola, 147, 188, 192

Euparagiinae, 437

Eupatorium, 614

Euphasmatodea: defining features, 213

Eupithecia, 586

Euplectoptera, 163, 164

Euptychia insolita, 601

Eurrhyperia, 578

Eurybia patrona, 600

Eurypterida, 99, 100

Euselasia, 598, 623

eusociality, 238, 252, 283, 463, 464467: in

thrips, 283

Eustheniidae, 196, 628

Euthemistidae, 187

eutherian mammals, as hosts, 275

Euthymenoptera, 413

Euzygentoma: defined, 151, 152

Evaniidae, 417, 418, 419

Evaniiformes, 419

Evanioidea, 415, 417419

Evergestis, 578

eversible vesicles, 117, 131, 132, 149

evolutionary stasis, 100

evolutionary success of insects (see species

diversity in insects)

exite, 159

exoskeleton, 646

extensor muscles, 126

extinctions, 3637; modern, 647650

extinction rates, 6368, 647

extrinsic muscles, 126

eye structure, 124

F

Fabricius, J. C., 19, 21

Fagaceae, 237, 422, 610

Fagales, 422

Falkland Islands (Devonian), 67

Falsiformicidae, 437, 637

Fatjanopteridae, 338

Fauriellidae, 284

Fedtschenkiinae, 435

feeding damage, 52

Felsenstein Zone, 32

female genitalia, 136

femur, 125

Feniseca tarquinius, 598

Fergana Valley (Madygen Formation, Triassic), 71

Fergusoninidae, 540

Ficus, 283, 423

Fideliinae, 455

Fideliini, 630

Figitidae, 422

figs, 616: fig wasps (Agaonidae), 616

fire flies (see Lampyridae)

firebrat (see Petrobius)

Fisher, Sir Ronald, 26

fishflies (see Chauliodinae)

fleas (see Siphonaptera)

Fletcheriana triassica, 309

flexion lines, in wing, 131

flexor muscles, 126

flies (see Diptera)

flight, 155–157, 195: asynchronous flight muscles, 157; indirect flight muscles, 156; origins, 158–160, 195; synchronous flight muscles, 157

Florinemestrius, 523, 616

Florissant Formation, Colorado (Eocene- Oligocene), 86, 87, 139, 310, 339, 345, 386, 393, 525, 545, 546, 590, 593, 594, 642

flowers: fossils, 50

Folindusia kemaensis, 551, 554

folk taxonomy, 15

fontanelle, 247

Fontecilla, 349

Foraminitermitinae, 248

Forcipomyia, 504, 507

Foremost Formation, Canada (Cretaceous), 82

Forficulidae, 218, 222

Formica, 300, 443, 451

Formicidae, 18, 301, 437, 440, 467, 638: castes, 443; chemical communication, 443; cocoon, 441; Cretaceous, 448, 450, 452; eusociality, 447; fossil, 85, 303, 446, 448; and Hemiptera, 300–2; metapleural gland, 441; phylogeny, 447; proventriculus, 301; structure, 441

Formicinae, 302, 443, 446, 467, 638: Cretaceous, 451

fossil, 36–41, 63, 92, 523, 631: dating and ages, 62–65; defined, 62

fossil insect deposits, 65–92

fossil preservation, 43–63

fossilization, insect: amino acids, 61; calcium phosphate, 46; carbonates, 44; celestite, 45; cellular preservation, 48, 59, 60; charcoalification, 49–50; compressions/impressions, 43; concretions, 44; coprolites, 50; encapsulation, 49; frass, 50; frozen remains, 61; fusainization, 49; goethite, 46; gypsum, 46; ichnofossils (see trace fossils); marcasite, 49; mineralized replication, 45; of chitin, 61; of epicuticular waxes, 44; of protein, 44; of spores/pollen in guts, 44 ; Orsten preservation, 45; pack rat middens, 61; permineralization, 45; phosphatization, 46; Pleistocene beetles, 63; proteins, 44; pyrite, 49; pyritization, 49

fossorial forelegs, 29, 31

fossorial insects, 31

Franklinothrips, 284

frog hoppers (see Cercopoidea)

frogs, 489, 540, 502

fruit bats, 615

fruit flies (see Tephritidae, Drosophilidae, Drosophila)

Fulgoroidea: Cretaceous, 306, 311, 312

Fulgoromorpha, 304, 306, 312: defining features, 304

fungus gnats (see Sciaroidea)

Fur Formation, Denmark (Paleocene), 85, 590

Furcatergalia, 162, 163

furculum, 114

G

galea, 124

Galerucinae, 394

gall wasps (see Cynipidae)

Galleria, 581

Galloisiana, 222

galls, 54, 283, 289: fossil, 49, 53, 54

gall-making insects: in Diptera, 512–3, 540–1; in Hymenoptera, 422; in Lepidoptera, 572; in Sternorrhyncha, 289, 293; in Thysanoptera, 283–4

Gaspé Bay, Canada (Devonian), 66

Gasterophilinae, 543

Gasteruptiidae, 417, 418, 630

Gaston, Kevin, 13

Gastrotheus, 628

Gastrotricha, 93, 94

Geadephaga (see Carabidae)

Geijera, 283

Gelastocoridae, 319, 321

Gelechiidae, 576

Gelechioidea, 201–2: coumarins and, 576; diversity, 576; fossil, 577; larval predators, 577; toxic host plants, 576

Genaphis, 295

genes, 32

genitalic structure: 132–136, complexity in, 135–136

Geocoridae, 327

Geocorisae, 319

geographical extinctions, 339, 345, 355, 466, 501, 545, 632, 633, 634: and competitive exclusion, 634; and paleoclimatic change, 634; and vertebrates, 634; in amber, 632; in Baltic amber, 632; in Quaternary insects, 642

Geological Time Scale, 62, 64

Geolothrips, 284

Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale (GPTS), 65

Geometridae, 583, 585, 586: aptery, 587; fossil, 588; in amber, 568; larvae, 587

Geometroidea, 585–89

Geomydoecus, 277, 280

Geomyidae, as hosts, 278, 279

Geoscaphius, 237

Geotrupidae, 379

Geranomyia, 498

Geraridae, 216

Gerarus danielsi, 216

Germar, Ernst F., 137

Gerocynipidae, 422

Gerontoformica cretacica, 449

Geroptera: defining features, 147, 160, 174

Gerridae, 193, 268, 317, 324: fossil, 324

Gerromorpha, 193, 317–19: families of, 317; fossils, 324; monophyly, 317; pelagic, 317; phylogeny, 321; pretarsal structure, 317, 323

giant lacewings (see Polystoechotidae)

Giebel, Christoph G. A., 137

gigantism, 178

Gigantopteridaceae, 52

Gigasiricidae, 409, 413

Gilboa, New York (Devonian), 66

Gill Theory, 159

Glabellula brunnifrons, 525

Glaesoconis baliopteryx, 352

Glaucopsyche xerces, 649

glossa, 124

Glossata, 29, 562–564: basal families, 564; oldest, 566

Glosselytridae, 332

Glosselytrodea, 147, 158–60, 331–333, 337, 360, 636

Glossina oligocena, 544, 545

Glossinidae, 87, 326, 490, 492, 543, 544, 545, 632: and sleeping sickness, 5; fossil, 545

Glossophaginae, 615

Glossopteridae, 332

Glossopteris seed ferms, 52

Glossosomatidae, 549, 550

glow worms, 511

gnathal pouch, 112

gnathobase, 98

Gnetales, 607, 609: Cretaceous, 611; pollinating insects, 608

Gnetum, 608, 609

Goliathus, 378

Gomphidae, 182

Gomphoidea, 187

gonangulum, 134, 229

gonapophyses, 132, 177, 229

Gondwana, 41, 76, 627: continental configurations, 626; Cretaceous drift, 627

Goniodidae, 275

gonocoxae, 132, 135, 177, 229

gonoplac, 134, 229

gonoplacs, 229

gonopore, 133

gonostyli, 132, 135, 161

Gracillaria, 557

Gracillariidae, 52, 573, 575: Cretaceous leaf mine, 575; fossil mines, 575

Gracillarioidea, 14, 575–76

Gramineae, 412

Grammosmylidae, 336

graptolites, 63, 642

grasses, 247, 638

grasshoppers (see Orthoptera, Caelifera, Acridoidea)

grasshoppers, 201

Grassy Lake, Alberta, 82

Grauvogelia arzvilleriana, 497

Greeks (Ancient), 16

green lacewings (see Chrysopidae)

Green River Formation, U.S., 85, 590

Grès-à-Voltzia, France (Triassic), 71, 497

Greya, 573

griffenflies (see Protodonata)

Grimmen, Germany ( Jurassic), 74, 560

Grimmenaphis, 295

Gripopterygoidea, 195

Gromphadorhina portentosa, 231

Grube Messel, 44, 406

Gryllacrididae, 205, 208, 209

Gryllacridinae, 208

Gryllida, 190

Gryllidae, 204, 205, 209, 643: Cretaceous, 204, 209; foretibial tympanum, 204; mirror in wing, 204; wing, 204

Grylloblatta: 222, 223, washoa, 225

Grylloblattella, 222

Grylloblattidae, 44

Grylloblattina, 222

Grylloblattodea, 12, 147, 188, 191, 222–224, 225, 630: defining features, 222; fossils, 223; stem-group, 224

Grylloidea, 209

Gryllotalpidae, 205, 208, 209, 628

gula, 123

gypsy moth, 589

Gyrinidae, 358, 367

Gyropidae, 274

H

Haeckel, Ernst, 137, 138

Haematobia, 489

Haematomyzus, 273, 274: elephantis, 274: hopkinsi, 274: porci, 274

Haematopinidae, 273, 275

Haetera macleannania, 600

Hagen-Vorhalle, Germany, 67, 177

Haglidae, 208

Hagloidea, 208, 209

Haidomyrmex cerberus, 446, 449, 452

Haldane, J. B. S., 26

Halictidae, 453, 461, 463, 465, 614

Halictinae, 2, 455, 467

Halictophagidae, 401

Halictus savenyei, 461, 465

Halimococcidae, 297 Haliplidae, 367

Hallucigenia, 94

Halobates ruffoi, 319

Halobates, 317

halteres, 494: convergent origins, 494; function, 494

Halteria, 402

Hamadryas, 602

Hamamelis, 237

Hamophthiriidae, 274, 275

hamuli, 408

Handlirsch, Anton, 137, 139

Hanidae, 172

haplodiploidy, 397

Haplogleniinae, 346

Haploridiidae, 313

Haptopoda, 99

Harpalinae, 368

Hartigiini, 412

Harvestmen (see Opilliones)

Hawaiian Islands, 643–44, 647: conveyor belt biogeography, 645; endemism, 643

head segmentation: criteria, 123

head structure, 121–124

Hebridae, 317, 321

hedgehogs, 638

Hedylidae, 583, 590, 591: relationships, 590

Heer, Oswald, 89

Heidea cretacica, 290

Helenodora, 94

Heleomyzidae, 542

Heliconiinae, 277, 600, 604

Heliconius, 277, 602, 605, 624: cydno, 601; erato, 605; numata, 605; mimicry rings, 605; polymorphism, 605

Helicopsychidae, 550

Heliozela, 557

hellgrammites (see Megaloptera, Corydalidae)

Helodidae, 381

Heloridae, 418, 421

hematophagy (see blood feeders)

Hemerobiidae, 336, 348, 351, 426

Hemerobiiformia, 336, 342, 348–356: defined, 348

Hemeroplanes, 586

Hemimeridae, 220, 490

Hemimerina, 220 Hemimerus, 220

hemimetaboly, 331, 332

Hemiphlebioidea, 632

Hemiptera, 12, 147, 193, 287–330, 622, 630, 642: alimentary filter system, 288; feeding, 288; honeydew, 288; mouthparts, 264, 288; Permian origins, 288; suborders, 288

Hennig, Willi, 26, 27, 80, 143, 144, 145

Hennigmatidae, 499 Hepialoidea, 569 Heptageniidae, 161 Heptapsogasteridae, 273, 275, 277 herbivory: see phytophagous insects Hermatobatidae, 317 Hesperiidae, 591, 592, 595 Hesperoboreus, 478 Heterobathmiidae, 560, 561, 562 Heterocephalus glaber, 465 Heteroceridae, 381 Heterodoxus longitarsus, 275 Heterogynaidae, 451 Heterojapyx, 116 Heteroneura, 560 Heterophlebiidae, 187 Heteroptera, 48, 288, 314–30, 622, 640: blood-feeding in, 323, 326; defining features, 314, 315; earliest fossils, 315; fossils, 315, 318, 320, 325–30; infraorders, 315, 321; myrmecomorphy, 323; parental care, 319, 323; phylogeny, 321; phytophagy, 326, 330; relationships, 315; scent gland, 314; spider-web cleptoparasites, 328; traumatic insemination in, 326; wings, 268

Heterosarus eickworti, 461 Heterothripidae, 284, 285 Hexagenia, 162

Hexapoda, 87–88, 98, 99, 111: defined, 111; early fossils, 111; hierarchical classification, 111

higher termites, 247 high-resolution CT scanning, 47, 259 Hilara, 529 Hilarimorphidae: Cretaceous, 525 Hilarimorphites yeatsi, 525 Hinton, Howard E., 142 Hippeococcus, 301 Hippoboscidae, 272, 492, 543 Hispinae, 394 Histeridae, 372 Hodotermes, 244 Hodotermitidae, 240, 242, 244, 246, 249, 250, 251: alates, 250; diet, 244; fossils, 244, 246 Hodotermopsis, 247 Holcorobeus nigrimontanus, 380 Holcorobeus, 380 Holcorpa, 475, 476 Holodonata, 147, 174–75, 180 Holometabola, 12, 147, 188, 333–35: adaptationist, 334; defined, 331; genitalic discs, 333; imaginal discs, 331; larva, 331; larva control of development, 335; origin of, 333–335; pairs, 333; pronymph, 333; similarities between, 334

Holoptilinae, 326 Homalocnemis, 526, 630 Homiopteridae, 173 homology, 28–31: behavioral, 30; criteria, 29, 30; molecular, 29; primary, 29; secondary, 29; topological, 29 homoplasy (defined), 31 Homoptera, 287 honey bees (see Apis) honeycreepers, 615 honeydew, 288, 289, 290, 293, 297, 300–2, 327 honeyeaters, 615 Hooker, Sir Joseph, 626 Hoplocarida, 99 Hoplopleuridae, 273, 275 Hoploridium, 313 Hormaphididae, 467 Hormaphidinae, 293, 465 hornets (see Vespidae) horntails (see Siricidae) host races: and cryptic species, 624; conditions for, 624; examples, 624 hover wasps (see Stenogastrinae) hovering: ecological significance, 618 human bot, 543 humans, as hosts, 274 humeral plate, 129, 130 hummingbirds, 615 Hyatt, Alpheus, 137 Hybophthiridae, 274, 275 hybrids, 8 Hydradephaga, 361, 363, 366–68, 357–407: Mesozoic, 368 Hydraenidae, 371, 372 Hydrobiosidae, 550 Hydrometridae, 317, 319, 321, 324: Cretaceous, 324 Hydrophilidae, 363, 372 Hydrophiloidea, 372 Hydropsychoidea, 549, 551 Hydroptilidae, 549, 551 Hydroscaphiidae, 370

Hygrobiidae, 367

Hymenaea (Leguminosae), 55, 91

Hymenoepimecis argyraphaga, 427

Hymenopodidae, 256, 257, 260

Hymenoptera, 12, 147, 407–409, 413, 463, 623, 630, 642: cenchri, 408; defined, 408; diversity, 407; ectoparasitoids, 408; endoparasitoids, 408; hamuli, 408, 409; haplodiploid, 408; hyperparasitoid, 408; parasitoidism, 409, 413; parasitoids, 408; phylogeny, 409; superparasitism, 426; Triassic, 410

Hymenopterida, 147

Hymenopus coronatus, 255

hyperparasitoids, 408

Hypoclinea cuspidatus, 301

Hypodermatinae, 543

hypognathy, 121

Hypoperlida, 44

hypopharynx, 124

hypoproct, 132

hypotheses, 93

Hyracoidea, 482

Hystricopsyllidae

Ibaliidae, 422

Icaronycteris index (Chiroptera), 85

ice crawlers (see Grylloblattodea)

Ichneumonidae, 418, 427, 630: larva, 428

Ichneumonoidea, 415, 418, 423, 427: fossils, 428, 429; symbiotic viruses, 427

ichnofossils (see trace fossils)

Idea, 601

Idiogastra, 413

Idolothripinae, 283

Illacme plenipes, 109

imaginal discs, 331, 333–334, 379

impression fossils, 43

inchworms (see Geometridae)

Incurvaria, 557

Incurvarioidea, 371–99, 572

Indriidae, as hosts, 275

Inka minuta, 299

Inkaidae, 299

Inocelliidae, 336, 338

inquilines, 326

insect, 119, 144: classification, 147; defined, 137; ecological significance, 4–6; flight, 67; orders, 137; ordinal relationships, 146; species diversity, 11–15, 650

insect diversification: end-Permian extinctions, 636; families over time, 636; rates of first and last appearances, 636; significance of Cretaceous, 636; taxic analyses, 636

insect fossilization, 42: cuticle, 43; epicuticular waxes, 44; gut, 44; of chitin, 43; of protein, 44; of spores and pollen, 44; Pleistocene elytra, 63

insect morphology, 119–137

insect phylogeny, 30, 31, 40, 146, 154: Aculeata, 431; Anthophila, 460, 461; Antliophora, 461; Apocrita, 415; Blattaria, 231; Brachycera, 519; Caelifera, 210; Coccoidea, 298; Coleoptera, 361; Culicidae, 506; Dermaptera, 221; Dictyoptera, 229; Ensifera, 208; Ephemeroptera, 163; Eremoneura, 528; Formicidae, 447; Heteroptera, 321; Hymenoptera, 409; spindle phylogenies, 636; Isoptera, 249, 251; Lepidoptera, 560, 561; Mandibulata, 108; nematocerous Diptera, 496; Neuroptera, 150; Neuropterida, 336; Odonata, 163, 169; Odonatoptera, 180, 181; Orthopterida, 202; Panarthropoda, 93; Panorpida, 469; Paraneoptera, 263; Plecoptera, 194; Polyneoptera, 191; Symphytans, 409; Trichoptera, 544, 550; Thysanoptera, 286; Zoraptera, 199–201

insect sociality, 237, 238, 283, 293, 372, 377, 397, 464, 533

insectivores, 482

Institut und Museum für Geologie und Paläontologie, Göttingen, 88

Integripalpia, 548, 550

intercalary segment, 123

intertidal, 504

intima: proctodeal trophallaxis, 240

intrinsic muscles, 126

Introverta, 94

Iotatubothrips, 283

Ips, 396

Ipswich Series, Australia (Triassic), 72

Iridomyrmex ants, 443, 580

Ironomyia, 536

Ironomyiidae, 536, 632

Ischnocera, 274, 275, 277

Ischnopsyllidae, 481, 482, 640

islands faunas, 647: and dispersal ability, 644; and niche expansion, 645; fragility, 647; Galapagos Islands, 643; Hawaiian, 644; reasons for endemic diversity, 644–45

Isle of Wight, UK (Eocene-Oligocene), 47: Bembridge Marls, 47; marcasite, 49; pyrite, 49; pyritization, 49

Isophlebiidae, 187

Isoptera, 12, 51, 55, 147, 238–251, 467, 638: Alates, 250; ancestral, 252; and humification, 241; and mineralization, 241; arboreal nest, 249; biomass, 241; castes, 238; cellulose consumption, 241; Cretaceous fossil nest, 248; diet, 238; diversity, 242; ecological significance, 241; evolutionary trends in, 250; fecundity, 238; fossil nests, 51, 248; fossilized workings, 55; fossils, 242; lower termites, 242; methane production of, 241; mounds, 242; nasute soldiers, 250; neotenic reproductives, 238; origins, 251; phylogeny, 249, 251; physogastry, 238, 240; sex-linked translocations, 238; sociality, 238; soil excauation, 242; soil feeders, 241; symbiotic bacteria of, 238; symbiotic protists of, 238, 240–1

Isotomidae, 116

isotope dating: 14C (carbon), 63; 40K-40Ar, 63; 235U – 207Pb, 63

Issidae, 2, 306

Issyk-Kul’, Kazakhstan (Triassic), 71

Ithomiinae, 614

Ithonidae, 336, 348, 349

Izarra, Spain (Miocene), 45

J

Jantarostylops kinzelbachi, 406 Japygidae, 118

Japygomorpha, 116

Jarmilidae, 164

Jascopidae, 312

Javelina Formation, 247

Jeannel, René, 627, 631

Jeholodens, 81

Jersicoccus kurthi, 299

Jersimantis, 259

Jerusalem crickets, 209

Johnston’s organ, 137

Jordanian amber (Cretaceous), 80

jugal bar, 192

Juglandaceae, 410

Juraconiopteryx zherichini, 352

Juraphis, 295

Jurassic, 73–76: continental configurations, 73; insect deposits, 74–76; significance of, 73

Jurassic Park, 60

Jurina marginata (Jurinidae), 333

Jurinidae, 332

juvenile hormone ( JH), 334, 379

K

K/T event, 635: Chicxulub crater, 635; insect family survivorship, 637

Kalligramma, 74

Kalligrammatidae, 75, 336, 347, 348, 637

Kalotermes swinhoei, 247

Kalotermitidae, 238, 240, 242, 247, 248, 250, 251: Cretaceous fossil nest, 248; diversity, 247; fossils, 247; pseudergates, 238

Kaltanidae, 469, 472

Kansasiidae, 171

Karabasia evansi, 313

Karabasiidae, 313

Karabastau Formation, 75

Karajassidae, 312

Karanabis kiritshenkoi, 317

Karataothrips jurassica, 285, 286

Karatau, Kazakhstan, 74, 75, 220, 270, 380, 397, 398, 416, 526, 560

Karataublatta longicaudata, 233

Karatawiidae, 187

Karoophasma bielouwensis, 225

Karschielloidea, 218

katydids (see Orthoptera, Tettigonioidea)

Kazachothrips triassicus, 285, 286

Keithia luzzii, 299

Kelita, 458

Kemperala, 189

Kennedyidae, 183

Keroplatidae, 511: Cretaceous, 512; larva, 511

Kerria lacca: historical significance, 297

Keuper Basin (Triassic), 71

king crickets, 209

Kinorhyncha, 93, 94

Kishenehn Basin, Montana (Oligocene), 88

Kladothrips, 283, 467: harpophyllae, 284

Klapálek, Franz, 143

Klondike Mountain Formation (Eocene), 86

Kojutellitinae, 419

Kokiriidae, 555

Königsberg, 88

Koonwarra, Australia (Cretaceous), 84, 319, 485, 487

Koruga, 240

Koshelevka Formation, 69 Kotá Formation, India (Jurassic), 76 Kotujellitinae, 419 Kovalevimyia lacrimosa, 505 Krausse, Anton, 140 Kristensen, Niels P., 144 Krombeinictus nordenae, 453 Kukalová-Peck, Jarmila, 144 Kyromyrma neffi, 446, 449, 451

L

La Brea, California, 61, 62, 90

La Cabrua, Spain, 79

La Voulte-sur-Rhône, France ( Jurassic), 49

Labandeira, Conrad, C., 52

labial palpus, 124

Labiococcus joosti, 299

labium structure, 124

labrum, 122, 123

lacewings (see Neuroptea)

Lachesillidae, 270

lacinia, 124

Lacturidae: aposematic, 579

lacustrine (deposits/preservation), 42

ladybugs (see Coccinellidae)

Laemobothriidae, 274

Laetilia coccidovora, 301, 581

Lagerstätten: Konservat, 42; Konzentrat, 42

Laiyang Formation, 81

Lalacidae, 311, 312

Lamarck, Jean Baptiste, 23

Lamproblatta, 237

Lampyridae, 383, 384, 386: bioluminescence, 384–385; femme fatale, 385; in amber, 386; light signals, 385; photic organs, 385

Languriidae, 490

Laphria, 522

Larropsis, 453

larva, 331, 333–335: fossil, 346, 348, 352, 365, 377, 378, 381, 384, 386, 388, 391, 393, 533, 566, 575, 581, 588; in Coleoptera, 359, 364; 394; in Diptera, 493, 503, 505, 511, 515, 521; in Lepidoptera, 565, 574, 580, 585, 589, 595, 597–601; in Neuropterida, 342, 344, 347, 349, 350; in Siphonaptera, 484; in Strepsiptera, 401; in Trichoptera, 551

larval cases: fossils, 394

Las Hoyas, Spain (Cretaceous), 79

Lasia, 521

Lasiocampa, 582

Lasiocampidae, 583

Lasiochilidae, 329

Lasioglossum, 14

Lasiohelea, 504

Lasius neoniger, 301

Lasius, 443: neoniger, 301

Latah Formation, Idaho (Miocene), 89

Lathiceridae, 210

Lathridiidae, 391

Latimeria, 97

Latreille, Pierre André, 21

Latrodectus, 103

Laurasia, 76

Laurhervasia setacea, 344

leaf beetles (see Chrysomelidae)

leaf hoppers (see Cicadelloidea)

leaf mines, 52, 575: fossil, 52

leaf-cutter ants (see Attini)

leaf-cutter bees (see Megachile)

leaf-insects, 211

Lebanese amber (Cretaceous), 80, 247, 270, 285, 295, 312, 317, 398, 499, 506

Lebanophlebotomus, 499

Lebiinae, 369

leg structure, 125–128

Leidy, Joseph, 240

Leiodidae, 335, 371, 372

Lemmatophora typa, 196

Lemmatophoridae, 194, 195, 196

lemurs, as hosts, 275

Lentulidae, 210

Lepiceridae, 370

Lepidodendrales, 173

Lepidophthirus macrorhini, 272

Lepidopsocidae, 332

Lepidoptera, 12, 147, 333, 469, 548, 555–606, 618, 622, 642: ant-enticing organs, 598; aptery, 572, 583; aquatic, 578; austral distributions, 562, 572; basal relationships, 558, 560–2; bat detection, 583, 589; blood feeding, 590; brachypterous, 586; butterfly mimics, 576; caterpillar crochets, 570; Cretaceous, 560, 562, 572; crochets, 565, 570; cyanide production, 579–580; detritivorous, 581; earliest fossil, 556; ectvoparasitic larvae, 577; ectoparasitoid larvae, 580; evolution of larval diets, 558; external feeders on plants, 573; female reproductive systems, 569–71; fossil leaf mine, 572; fossilized wing scales, 570; frenulum, 572; galls, 572; head features, 567; Heteroneuran, 571; in Cretaceous amber, 563; Jurassic, 556, 560, 561; largest in amber, 588; leaf mine fossil, 572; leaf miners, 558, 567; leaf-mining, 572; Mesozoic fossils, 556–61, 562, 566; mimics, 579; monographs, 556; monotrysian, 570–2; most diverse phytophages, 556; myrmecophily, 599; parthenogenesis, 575; phylogeny, 558, 561; popularity, 555; predators, 558, 598; primitively mandibulate, 561–62; proboscis functional morphology, 562; proboscis structure, 563, 564, 567; prolegs, 563, 581; pupa, 577; pupae, 568; radiation with angiosperms, 555; reproductive system structure, 569, 571; retinaculum, 571, 594; root borers, 579; scale structure, 567–9; silk production, 584; silken galleries, 569; smallest, 572; snake mimics, 586; stem, 579; triungula, 580; tympanal organs, 586, 583, 585, 586; wasp mimics, 579; wing scale colors, 567; wing scale structure, 568, 569

Lepidothrix pilifera, 151

Lepidotrichidae, 150, 151

Lepiotaceae, 278, 444

Lepismatidae, 151

Leptinotarsa decemlineata, 648

Leptocola stanleyana, 255

Leptoconops, 504, 507

Leptopanorpa, 475

Leptophlebiidae, 628

Leptopodidae, 319, 326

Leptopodomorpha, 319, 321, 326

Leptosalda, 326

Leptosomidae, 634

Leptospironympha, 240

Leptychoptera, 500

Leshmania: brasiliensis, 499; donovani, 499

leshmaniasis, 499

Lesotho, South Africa (Stormberg Series: Triassic), 72

Lestidae, 184

Lestremiinae, 513

Leto, 557

Letopalopteridae, 338

Leucospidae, 418, 423, 424

Levantine amber belt, 80

Liadopsyllidae, 289

Liadotaulius maior, 550, 554

Liadytidae, 367

Liassocicada, 308

Liassophilidae, 469, 472

Liassophlebiidae, 187

Liassopsychodina, 497, 499

Liayang Formation (Cretaceous), 77

Libanophlebotomus lutfallahi, 500

Libellulidae, 180, 182

Libellulium longialata, 187

Libelluloidea, 187

Libytheinae, 600

lice (see Phthiraptera)

Lichanothrips, 283

lignocellulose, 238, 241

ligula, 124

Limacodidae, 579: caterpillar, 580

Limenitis archippus, 603

Limnephilidae, 550

Limnichidae, 381

Limnoporus, 324

Limonia, 494, 517

Limoniidae, 498

Limothrips denticornis, 281

Limulodinae, 374

Limulus polyphemus, 97, 100

Lindroth, Carl, 61

lineages, 37: crown-group, 40; stem-groups, 40

Linnaeus, Karl, 17, 19

Linognathidae, 273, 275

Liomopteridae, 194, 196

Liopteridae, 422

Liposcelidae, 266, 267, 269, 270: as sister group to lice, 266, 269; Cretaceous, 269; habits, 266; structure, 269; wings, 269

Liposcelis, 266, 267, 269: bostrychophila, 266, 269; formicaria, 266; myrmecophila, 266; prenolepidis, 266

Liquidambar, 237

Lirimis, 582

Liriodendron, 237, 353

Lithomantis carbonarius, 171

Lithoneura lameerei, 163, 164

Lithophotina, 260

Lithopsyche antiqua, 593

Lithoserix, 437

Lithoserix williamsi, 413

Litophlebiidae, 164

living fossils, 244

Lobophasma redeling huysensis, 226

Locusta migratoria, 206

Locustavidae, 210

Locustopseidae, 210, 215, 637

locusts (see Orthoptera, Caelifera, Acridoidea)

Lomamyia, 356

Lonchopteridae: Cretaceous, 532, 533, 534

Lonchopterites prisca, 534

Lonchopteromorpha asetocella, 534

London Clay (Eocene), 49

long-horned beetles (see Cerambycidae)

Lophioneurida, 285, 286, 287

Lophocoronidae, 560

Lord Howe Island stick insect, 647

Loricifera, 93, 94

lorises, as hosts, 277

Lorisicola, 277

Los Angeles Natural History Museum, 89

Los Rastros Formations, Argentina (Triassic), 72

louse cospeciation, 279

Lucanidae, 379

Lucilia, 543

Luteitermes prisca, 246

Lutz, Frank, 11

Lutzomyia, 499

Lycaenidae, 592, 593, 594, 59799, 649: Caterpillars, 597; extinct, 649; myrmecophily, 599; relation to Riodinidae, 597

Lycidae, 358, 359, 383, 384, 386

Lyctocoridae, 326

Lyctocoris, 326

Lyell, Sir Charles, 23, 24

Lygaeidae, 327

Lygaeoidea, 327, 329

Lygistorrhinidae, 38, 39, 511

Lymantria dispar, 589

Lymantriidae, 589

Lyme disease, 272

Lymexylidae, 387, 402: Creaceous, 387; in amber, 387

M

Maamingidae, 421

Macaranga, and ants, 302

Macherotidae, 308

Machiloides, 628

Machiloides group, 150

Macroglossinae, 615

Macroglossum, 584

Macrolepidoptera, 581

Macromiidae, 187

Macroscelidea, as hosts, 274

Macrosoma, 590-91

Macrotermes, 51, 241, 242: falciger, 242; mounds, 242

Macrotermitinae, 248

Macroveliidae, 317, 321

Macroxyela, 410

Macrozamia cycads, 284

Madygen Formation, 71, 497

Madygenius, 410

Magicicada, 307, 308

Magnolia latahensis, 60, 237

Magnoliaceae, 621

Magnoliidae, 621

Magothy Formation, New Jersey (Cretaceous), 82

Maimetsha, 417

Maindroniidae, 150

Malacopsyllidae, 480

Malacosoma, 583

Malacostraca, 99

Malaicoccus formicarii, 302

malaria: sickle cell anemia, 502; sickle cell trait, 502; vectors, 502

male genitalia (in insect), 9, 134, 228, 477

male genitalia complexity, 135

Mallophaga, 274

Mallophorina, 522

Malmopsyllidae, 289

mammalian radiations and insects, 638–42: insectivores, 638; specialized ant and termite feeders, 638

mammals: fossils, 37; orders, 37

mandible, 124: articulation, 124; structure, 124

Mandibulata, 99, 107–18: phylogeny, 108

mandibulate hypothesis, 93

Manidae, 638

Manlayinae (see Baissidae)

Mantidae, 257, 260: mimicry, 256

mantises (see Mantodea)

Mantispa, 354

mantispid lacewings (see Mantispidae)

Mantispidae, 336, 348, 353–354: Cretaceous, 354; in amber, 354

Mantispidiptera, 355: henryi, 354

Mantispinae, 353

Mantodea, 12, 147, 193, 252–260: adaptations, 257; bat predation of, 257; camouflage, 255; Cretaceous, 229, 258, 259; diversity, 252, 253; ear function, 257; ear structure, 257; eye, 255; flower mimics, 255; femoral brush, 254, 255; foreleg structure, 254; fossils, 257–260; in amber, 259; mating, 256; metathoracic ear, 257; polymorphisms, 256; pseudovein, 259; raptorial fore legs, 254, 255; relationships, 229, 259; sexual cannibalism, 256; structure, 254; Tertiary radiations, 260; vision, 255

Mantoidea, 257, 252

Mantoididae, 257, 259

Mantophasmatodea, 12, 14, 147, 188, 191, 224–226, 628, 632: defined, 224: fossils, 226

Marattiales, 173

Marella, 98

Marellomorpha, 98, 99

Margarodidae, 296, 297, 298, 302: marsupium, 298

Margas Verdes Formation, Argentina, 92

Marquettia americana, 87

marsupials: biogeography, 274, 485, 486, 634

Martinssonia, 99

Martynov, Andreas V., 139, 140, 141

Masarinae, 437, 454

mass extinctions, 37, 635: 24 my periodicity, 635; and insects, 635; changes in sea levels, 635; climate change, 635; conditions of determining, 635; defined, 635; drifting continents, 635; fern, 635; iridium layers, 635; K/T event, 635; microtektites, 635; shocked quartz, 635; spike, 635; volcanism, 635

Mastotermes, 89, 92, 229, 230, 242–245, 250: anglicus, 244; castes, 243; darwiniensis, 230, 240, 243, 244,628; electrodominicus, 60, 242, 244, 245; electromexicus, 242; fossils, 89, 244, 245

Mastotermitidae, 242–245, 250, 251:extinctions, 244; fossils, 242, 244, 245

mating behavior, 8

mating swarms, 530

Matsucoccidae, 298, 299

Matsuda, Ryuichi, 143

maxilla structure, 124

maxillary palpus, 124

Maxillopoda, 94, 99

maximum likelihood, 32–33

mayflies (see Ephemeroptera)

Mayr, Ernst, 26

Mazon Creek, Illinois (Carboniferous), 44, 45, 67, 68, 118, 216, 335

Mazothairos, 170

mealy bugs (see Coccoidea)

Mecoptera, 12, 147, 469, 470: Mesozoic, 472; nuptial trophallaxis, 476; recent diversity, 474–480; relationship to Diptera, 472

Mecopterida, 468, 469, 470–491, 547: Cretaceous, 470; defined, 474; early history, 470; in Permian, 472; larval eye, 475; Mesozoic ectoparasites, 472–4, 480–91; primitive features, 470

Mecopteroidea, 468

medial plate, 130

medial veins, 129

Medicine Hat, Alberta (Cretaceous), 81

Mediterranean floras, 78

Medullosales, 173

Megachile, 435, 458, 461: Chalicodomopsis, 461; cut leaves, 461; glaesaria, 461; rotundata, 435

Megachilidae, 454, 455, 456, 459, 463

Megachilinae, 435

Megakhosaridae, 223

Megaleurodes megocellata, 304

Megalodontesidae, 409, 412

Megalodontidae (see Megalodontesidae)

Megalopinae, 393

Megaloptera, 147, 335, 336, 340–341; fossils, 341

Megalopyga, 578

Megalyra troglodytes, 417

Megalyridae, 417, 630, 632

Megalyroidea, 415, 416

Meganeura monyi, 176

Meganeuridae, 175, 176

Meganeuropsis permiana (syn. americana), 69, 175, 176

Meganomiinae, 455

Megarhyssa, 427

Megasecoptera, 147, 160, 169, 171, 172: defining features, 171–72; nymphs, 172

Megaselia (Phoridae), 14, 538

Megasoma, 379

Megaspilidae, 426

Megathon zwicki, 501

Megatypus schucherti, 175, 178

Megenicophalini, 317

Meiatermes, 245, 246: araripina, 246; bertrani, 245, 246

Meinertellidae, 148

Meioneurites spectabilis, 348

Melander, Axel L., 140

Melandryidae, 391

Melanothripidae, 284

Melieria calligrapha, 546

Melikertes stibonotus, 466

Melinaea, 602

Meliphagidae, 615

Meliponinae, 58, 464; nests, 465

Meliponini, 461, 466, 619

Melissites trigona, 466

Melittia, 578

Melittidae, 454, 455, 456

melittophiles, 377

Meloidae, 390

Melyridae, 387, 391

Membracidae: 305, in amber, 310

Membracoidea, 307

Menát, France (Paleocene), 85

Mengea tertiaria, 403, 404

Mengeidae, 402

Mengenillidae, 399, 401, 402

Menoponidae, 274, 278

Merian, Maria Sibylla, 19, 20

meroistic overioles, 132

Merope tuber, 476

Meropeidae, 469, 471, 476

Merothripidae, 283, 284, 285

Mesaulacinus, 417

Mesephemeridae, 164

Mesithonidae, 336, 349

Mesochorista, 471

Mesochria neotropica, 513

Mesococcus, 299

Mesohemerobius, 351

Mesopanorpa, 471

Mesoplectopteridae, 164

Mesopsychidae, 469, 472

Mesoraphidia luzzii, 339; pterostigmalis, 338

Mesoraphidiidae, 336, 338, 339

Mesorhopalosoma, 436

Mesorhyphus, 514

Mesorussus taimyrensis, 414

Mesoserphus karatavicus, 421

Mesothaumalea, 505

Mesothelae, 102

Mesotitanoptera, 215

Mesoveliidae: Cretaceous, 317, 321, 323

Mesozoic, insect deposits, 70–84

Mesozoicaphididae, 295

Messel, Germany (Eocene), 87

Metallyticidae, 257, 259

Metallyticus, 259

metamerism, 119

Metapterygota, 147, 153, 158, 166: defined, 158; defining features, 166–167

methanogens, 240

Metoecis, 581

Metopina goeleti, 536

Metriini, 369

Mexican “jumping beans”, 572

Mfwangano Island, Kenya (Miocene), 46

Miastor, 331, 334

Michener, Charles D., 26, 584

Microcoryphia (see Archaeognatha)

Microdiplatys campodeiformis, 220

Microdontinae, 537

Microhodotermes, 244

Micromalthidae: in Cretaceous amber, 365

Micromalthus debilis, 331, 334, 363, 364, 365: amphitokous females, 364; arrhenotokous females, 364; larvae, 364

Microphor, 516, 517

Microphorinae: Cretaceous, 529

Micropterigidae, 560, 562, 564, 568, 621, 623: Cretaceous, 562; fossils, 562

Micropterix, 557, 583

Microptysmatidae, 469, 548

Microsporidae, 370

Microstigmus, 467

Microthoraciidae, 275

Micrura, 99

Midco, Oklahoma (Permian), 69, 171, 175, 362

Middlesex County, New Jersey (Cretaceous), 82

migratory locust (see Locusta migratoria)

Milichiidae, 58, 540

milkweed butterflies (see Danainae)

millipedes (see Diplopoda)

Milnesiidae, 97

Milnesium, 96, 97: swolenskyi, 96, 97; tardigradum, 96

Mimallonoidea, 583

Mimetaster, 98

Mimetica, 207

mimicry, 537, 602606: aculeate wasp models, 604; aposematism, 603; Batesian, 602, 603; butterflies, 603; Diptera, 6045; Lepidoptera, 601; Müllerian, 602; Orthoptera, 605; Pompilidae, 605; Reduviidae, 605; rings, 602; Vespidae, 604

mineralized replication, 45–49

Minyorussus luzzii, 414

Miocene, 89–90

Miomoptera, 147, 331–333, 341, 636; as stem-group Paraneoptera, 332

Miotermes, 244

Miridae, 323, 326, 329

Mischocyttarus, 437

Mischoptera nigra, 172

Mischopteridae, 172

Misthodotidae, 163, 164

mites (see Acari)

Mitophlebiidae, 183

Mixotricha paradoxa, 240

Mnesarchaeidae, 569

Mo-Clay, Denmark 85, 317

Moegistorrhynchus longirostrus, 521, 618, 619

mole crickets (see Gryllotalpidae)

molecular clock, 38, 237, 609: overestimation of age, 38

Molindusia variabilis, 554

Molossidae, 220

Molothrus as hosts, 277

Molteno Formation, South Africa (Triassic), 72, 497

Mongoloraphidia eklipes, 336

monocondylic mandibles, 124, 148

monographic revisions, 14

monophyly, 27

monotremes, as hosts, 272, 482, 486

Montceau-les-Mines, France (Carboniferous), 67

Montsec, Spain (Cretaceous), 79

Monura, 149

Moraceae, 423

Moravia grandis, 171

Moravocoleus, 362

Moravohymenidae, 172

Mordellidae: Cretaceous, 389, 391

Morgan, Thomas, H., 7, 26

Mormon cricket (see Anabrus simplex)

Mormotomyia hirsuta, 489, 541, 542

Mormotomyidae, 489, 490, 541, 544, 640

Morphinae, 600

Morpho 600: achilles, 601

morphology, 119, 144: comparative, 119; functional, 119

Morphopsis, 594

Morrison Formation (Jurassic: west. North Amer), 76

mosquitoes (see Culicidae)

moth lacewings (see Ithonidae)

moths (see Lepidoptera)

Mount Flora, Grahamland, Antartica (Jurassic), 76

mouthpart structure, 122–124, 646

Mt. Crosby in Queensland (Triassic), 73, 497

multituberculates, 486

Munroessa, 578

Musca vetustissima, 378

Muscidae, 426, 490, 493, 542

muscles, 126, 157

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 86, 87, 88, 139

Mutillidae, 429, 435

Mycetobiinae, 513

mycetocytes, 242, 288

Mycetophilidae, 508, 511

Mydidae, 521, 630

Mygalomorphae, 102

Myiodactylidae, 344

Myiodactylus, 344

Mylacrididae, 233

Mylothrites pluto, 139

Mymaridae, 424

Mymaromma (see Palaeomymar)

Mymarommatidae, 425: Cretaceous amber, 425

Mymarommatoidea, 415, 424

Mymarothrips, 284

Myodocopa, 99

Myriapoda, 98, 99, 108–9: relationships, 108

Myrmecia, 429, 446, 630, 632

Myrmeciinae, 446, 447, 630

Myrmicinae, 638

Myrmecobius, 638

Myrmecocystus, 443

Myrmecolacidae, 402, 406

Myrmecolax, 406

myrmecomorphs: 256, 323 fossilized, 440

Myrmecophagidae, 638

myrmecophiles, 377, 440

Myrmecophilidae, 207, 209

myrmecophytes, 440

Myrmeleontidae, 336, 342, 345–346, 516: Cretaceous, 346; larva, 346

Myrmeleontiformia 336, 342–8: defining features, 342

Myrmicinae, 302, 443

Mystacinobia zelanica, 489, 490, 544, 640

Mystacocarida, 99

Mythicomyiinae, 517, 525, 618

Myxophaga, 360, 361, 363, 370–71

Myzus persciae, 648

N

Nabidae, 322, 329

NADH Dehydrogenase (subunit 1) (ND1) gene, 32

Nadipteridae, 497, 499

Nahecarida, 99

naked mole rat (see Heterocephalus glaber)

Nallachiinae, 353

Nallachius americanus, 353

Namkungia, 222

Namurodiaphidae, 172

Namurotypus, 167, 177: sippeli, 177

Nannochorista, 472, 477, 479: neotropica, 477

Nannochoristidae, 475, 477, 478: Cretaceous, 478; fossil record, 478; recent diversity, 478; relationships, 478

Nannotanyderus, 499

Nanoraphidia electroburmica, 338, 339

Nanosella fungi, 373

nasutes, 249

Nasutitermes: 239, 240, 249 electrodominicus, 250

Natal, South Africa (Beaufort Series, Permian), 69

Natural History Museum, London, 81, 89, 91

natural selection, 25

Naucoridae, 71, 319, 321: fossils, 71

Naupheta cinerea, 231

Necrotauliidae, 548

Necrotaulius tener, 549

nectar-feeding bats, 615

Nectarinidae, 615

Necymylacrididae, 233

Neduba extincta, 648

Neelipleona, 115

Nel, André, 144

Nemapalpus, 630

nematocerous Diptera: evolution of blood- feeding, 496; phylogeny, 496

Nematoda, 93, 94

Nematoida, 94

Nematomorpha, 93, 94

Nemestrinidae, 516, 523, 616, 618, 619

Nemonychidae, 395, 398

Nemoptera bipennis, 344

Nemopteridae, 88, 336, 342, 344, 633

Nemopterinae, 342

Neocorynura, 461: electra, 461

Neodermaptera, 218, 221

Neodiptera, 507

Neohymenoptera, 409, 410

Neolepidoptera, 560, 568, 569

Neolinognathidae, 274, 275

Neopanorpa, 475

Neopetaliidae, 628

Neophyllaphis, 302

Neopseustidae, 564

Neoptera, 147, 157, 188–189: defining features, 188; evolutionary success, 188

Neorthophlebiidae, 475

neosomy, 485

neoteny, 505

Neottiophilum, 540

Nepidae, 319, 321

Nepomorpha: airstraps, 319; families of, 319; fossil record, 319, 320; predatory behavior, 319; relationships, 319, 321

Nepticulidae, 52, 572: fossil mines, 572; fossil, 572

Nepticuloidea, 572

Nesomachilis, 628

Neuroptera, 73, 147, 335, 341–356: classification, 341–2; defining features, 341; fossils, 149, 341–56; phylogeny, 336

Neuropterida, 12, 147, 332, 335–357, 360: defining features, 335; phylogeny, 336

Neuropteris seed ferns, 52, 233

Nevrorthidae, 336, 341, 342

Nevrorthiformia, 336, 341–2: fossil, 342; primitive features, 342

Nevrorthus, 341, 342: fallax, 342

New Jersey amber (Cretaceous), 166, 234, 235, 246, 259, 285, 287, 290, 295, 300, 302, 329, 339, 381, 383, 398, 632

New Synthesis, 26

Newark Supergroup rift basins, 72, 75

Newcastle Coal Measures, Australia (Permian), 69

Nicoletiidae, 150

Nicrophorus, 373, 650: americanus, 650; tomentosus, 373; vespillo, 373

Nitidulidae, 388, 391

Nitidulina, 391

Niwratia elongata, 485

Nocticolidae, 231

Noctua, 582

Noctuidae, 178, 589: tympanum, 583

Noctuoidea, 560, 583, 587–90: monophyly, 587

Nogueirapis, 463

Nomadinae, 458

nomenclature: 34–36; author names, 34; combinations, 35; homonyms, 34; International Code of Zoological, 34, 36; principle of priority, 34; synonyms, 34; type species, 35; typification, 35; zoological ranks, 33

Nosybinae, 356

notal wing processes, 128

Noteridae, 367

Nothofagus, 297, 562, 625, 626: as coccoid hosts, 562; biogeography, 625; distribution, 625

Nothomyrmecia macrops, 446, 630, 632

Notiophilus biguttatus, 369

Notiothauma reedi, 476

Notocampa, 628

Notocupoides triassicus, 362

Notodontidae, 590: larvae, 589; larval, 589

Notonectidae, 319, 321

Notonemouridae, 195

Notoneumouridae, 628

Notoptera, 222

notum, 121

numbat, 638

nuptial feeding, 203, 529

Nycteribiidae, 543, 640

Nymphaceae, 394, 621: as hosts, 622; pollination, 621

Nymphaeales, 613, 621

Nymphalidae, 14, 583, 593, 594, 599–602, 614: caterpillars, 601; diversity, 600; major groups, 600

Nymphes, 344

Nymphidae, 336, 342, 344

Nymphitidae, 336, 348

Nymphomyia succina, 505 Nymphomyiidae, 501, 505, 506: fossil, 505 Nyrminae, 356 Nyssonini, 453

O

Oboriphlebiidae, 164

Oboro, Czech Republic (Permian), 69

Obrienia, 399

Obrieniidae, 397

Obtectomera, 560, 577

ocelli, 124

Ochteridae, 319, 321

Ochteroidea, 319

Ocoa chilensis, 522

Ocoidae, 522

Odonata, 12, 43–44, 147, 167, 174, 178–187, 628: arista, 167; classification, 183–7; copulation wheel, 179; copulation, 131, 134, 155; copulation, 179, 182; defined, 179; early history, 182–87; fossils, 162; Jurassic, 184, 187; male genitalia, 182; naiads, 181; nymphal labium, 181; phylogeny, 180; prehensile mask, 181; secondary genitalia, 182; subordinal relationships, 180; venation, 181

Odonatoptera, 147, 157, 173–187; defined, 174; gigantism, 178; phylogeny, 180, 181

Odontotermes obesus, 132

Oecophoridae, 576, 577

Oecophylla ants, 46, 47: behavior, 46, 47; fossils, 46, 47

Oedemeridae, 390, 391

Oedischiidae, 207

Oedoparena glauca, 540

Oeningen, Germany (Miocene), 54, 89, 382

Oenosandridae, 587

Oestridae, 492, 493, 543

Oestroidea, 62, 543, 640: fossilized in hosts, 62

Oiketicus, 576

Okanongan Highlands, Bristish Columbia (Eocene), 86

Okham’s Razon, 32

Olbiogaster perezi, 514

Olbiogastrinae, 513

Oligochlora eickworti, 461, 463

oligophagy, 283

Oligophrynidae, 516

Omalisidae, 384

Omalium, 374

Omamina, 365

Omethidae, 384

Omma, 363

Ommatidae, 363, 364

ommatidium, 124

Ommexechidae, 210

onchocerciasis, 502

Oncopeltus, 327

Oncothrips, 283, 465, 467

Oniscigastridae, 628

Onthophagus, 378

ontogenetic criterion (of character polarity), 28

Onychomachilis fischeri, 150, 152

Onychophora, 93, 94, 95, 98: fossils, 94; phylogenetic position, 94

Onychotrechus, 317

oothecae, 83, 230, 231, 242: fossil, 83, 231, 235; in Dictyoptera, 230, 231, 252

operculum, 193, 212, 213, 226, 262

Opetia, 532, 533, 630: nigra, 534

Opetiala shatalkani, 533

Opetiidae, 532, 533

Opiliones, 99, 103

opisthognathy, 121

Opisthothelae, 102

Opostegidae, 572

Opsiphanes, 601

Orapa, Botswana (Cretaceous), 83

orb webs, 102

orchid bees (see Euglossini)

orchids, 615: and orchid bees, 616; and pseudocopulation, 615; pollination, 615

orders (insect), phylogeny, 146; classification, 147

Oreadomyia, 505

Oreopteridae, 187

Örsten preservation 45, 96

Ornithoptera, 595

Orstenocarida, 99

Ortheziidae, 296, 297, 298, 299

Orthophlebia, 471

Orthophlebiidae, 470, 471, 475

Orthoptera, 12, 147, 189, 191, 201, 202–211, 622, 628, 642: Aposematic coloration, 202; calling behaviour, 203–4; crypsis, 206–7; cryptopleuron, 203; defining features, 203; fossils, 208–11; plague locusts, 206; tympana, 203, 204

Orthopterida, 147, 188, 202: defining features, 193; phylogeny, 191, 202

Orussidae, 409, 411, 413, 630

Orussoidea, 412

Orycteropus afer, 638

Osmia, 455

osmylid lacewings, 348

Osmylidae, 336, 348, 349

Osmylitidae, 336

Osmylops, 344

Osmylopsychopsidae, 336, 344

Osmylus fulvicephalus, 349

Ostracoda, 99

Otitidae, 30, 541: fossil, 546

outgroup comparison (of character polarity), 158

ovary structure, 132

ovarioles, 132

ovipositor, 127, 132–134, 137: evolution, 133

oviscapt, 133

ovoviviparity, 230

Owen, Richard, 26

owlflies (see Ascalaphidae)

Oxymonadidae, 240

Oxymonas, 240

P

Pachyneuridae, 508 Pachysandra, 237 Pachysystrophus rohweri, 619 Pachytrochidae, 270 pack rat middens, 62 paederin, 374 Paederinae, 374 Paederus, 374 paedogenesis, 331 paedomorphosis, 220, 252

Palaeoboreus: baissicus, 479; zherikhini, 479, 480, 488

Palaeocynipidae, 422

Palaeodictyoptera, 147, 170: defining features, 170

Palaeodictyopterida, 147, 157, 168–173, 623: classification, 169; defining features, 170; nymphs, 169; Paleozoic herbivory, 173

Palaeogryon musesebecki, 426

Palaeokoenenia mordax, 104

Palaeoleon ferrogeneticus, 346

Palaeoleontidae, 346

Palaeomymar, 424

Palaeomyrmecolax, 406

Palaeopsylla: baltica, 485; dissimilis, 485; in Baltic amber, 485; klebsiana, 485

Palaeoptera, 157–187

Palaeotis, 634

Palaephatidae, 572

Paleocene: insect deposits, 85, 637; insects, 637

Paleoculicis minutus, 506

paleoentomology, 144

Paleomelitta nigripennis, 461

Paleontinidae, 309

Paleontological Institute, Moscow, 71, 74

paleontology, 36–41; 144

paleopterous, 157

Paleotermopsis, 247

Paleozoic: insect deposits, 3, 38, 45, 53, 63, 65–6, 69; significance of, 65

Paleozoic roachoids, 36–7, 231

Paleuthygramma tenuicornis, 217

Paleuthygrammatidae, 217

Pallopteridae, 540

Palophagus, 393

Palpigrada, 99

Pamphagidae, 210

Pamphagodidae, 210

Pamphiliidae, 409, 411, 412

Pamphilioidea, 412

Panamanian Land Bridge, 92

Panarthropoda, 93, 94: phylogeny, 93

Pancrustacea, 107, 108: defined, 107

Pandermaptera, 218

Panesthia, 237

Panesthiinae, 241

pangolins, 638

Panhexapoda, 99, 111

Pannota, 162

panoistic ovarioles, 132

Panorpa, 475, 476

Panorpida, 147: ancestral, 468; defined, 468; monophyly, 468; mouthparts, 495; phylogeny, 469; relationship to Hymenoptera, 407, 468

Panorpidae: fossil, 469, 475, 476; male terminalia, 475; nupital feeding/trophallaxis, 475

Panorpodes, 475

Panorpodidae, 469, 475

panorpoid orders, 468

Pantophthalmidae, 516

Pantopoda (Chelicerata), 45

Paoliidae, 147, 160, 188, 189

Papaipema, 582

paper wasps (see Polistinae)

Papilio: dardanus, 603, 604; glaucus, 605; polyxenes, 596

Papilionidae, 556, 595: caterpillar, 596; major groups, 597; osmeterium, 595, 596

Papilioninae, 597

Papilionoidea, 555, 556, 591, 594, 618: anttended caterpillars, 599, 600; chrysalis, 596; color genetics, 605; color pattern, 605; cremaster, 594; families, 594; faunistic treatments, 595; field guides, 594; fossil, 592, 594, 595; in amber, 594, 595; mimicry, 604 ; predatory larvae, 598

Parabasalea, 240

Paracolletinae, 455

Paracolletini, 630

Paradixa, 504

paraglossa, 124

Parahemiphlebia mickoleiti, 187

Parahygrobia natans, 368

Parahygrobiidae, 367

parallel cladogenesis (see cospeciation)

Paralogidae, 176

Paramegasecoptera, 172

parameres, 134, 135

Paraneoptera, 12, 147, 160, 188, 261–330; feeding habits, 261, 263; monophyly, 261; mouthparts, 261, 264; phylogeny, 263; relationships among orders, 261; wing coupling mechanisms, 261, 265; wing venation, 268

paranotal lobes, 158

Parapamphiliidae, 412

Paraphrynoveliidae, 317, 321

paraphyly, 27

Paraplecoptera, 193, 196

Paraponera clavata, 430, 446

Paraponerini, 446

paraprocts, 131

Parasialidae, 336, 341

parasitic wasps (see Apocrita)

parasitism, 413

parasitoids, 79, 204, 301, 323, 371, 543: in Coleoptera, 374, 377, 380, 389, 390; in Diptera, 516–7, 521, 536, 537, 540, 543; in Hymenoptera, 408, 413–29; in Lepidoptera, 558, 572, 577, 580; in Mantispidae, 354; in Strepsiptera, 399–406

Parasphaeria boleiriana, 241

Parastizopus armaticeps, 389

Parastylotermes, 247

Parategeticula, 572, 573

parental care, 325, 330; in Arachnida, 101; in Blattaria, 237, 252; in Coleoptera, 373, 378, 394; in Dermaptera, 217; in Diptera, 507; in Hemiptera, 312, 319, 323, 325; in Mantodea, 252

Paris Basin amber (Cretaceous), 79

Parnassiinae, 597

Paroryssidae, 409, 414

Parotermes, 247

parsimony: 32 Camin-Sokal, 32; Dollo, 32; general, 32; Wagner, 32

parthenogenesis, 266, 290, 297

Paskapoo Formation, Alberta (Paleocene), 85

Passalidae, 378

Passiflora, 277

Passifloraceae: as hosts, 604

passion vine butterflies (see Heliconius)

Pauliniidae, 210

Paurometabola (see Polyneoptera)

Pauropoda, 99, 108, 110

Paussinae, 368, 369

Paussini, 369

Pearman’s organ, 265, 266

Pecaroecidae, 275

Pedicia, 498

Pedicinidae, 275

Pediculidae, 275

Pediculus humanus, 62, 270–272, 274, 275, 280; on mummies, 62

pedipalps, 135

Pelecinidae, 421

Pelecorhynchidae, 522

Peloridiidae, 312, 317, 630; See also Coleorrhyncha

Peloridora, 312

Pemphiginae, 54, 293, 295, 465, 467

penguins, as hosts, 277

penis, 132, 134, 135

Pentastomida, 45, 93, 99

Pentatomidae, 268, 327, 329, 330

Pentatomoidea, 327, 329

Pentatomorpha, 321, 326–330, 622, 637: Cretaceous, 330

Pentoxylon, 607

Pepsis, 429

Peradeniidae, 421

Pergidae, 409, 410, 411, 630

period gene, 8

Peripatidae, 94

Peripatopsidae, 94

Peripatus, 94

Periplaneta americana, 231

Perissomatidae, 508, 630

Perlidae, 195

Permaeschnidae, 183

Permagrionidae, 183

Permaleurodes, 299

Permelcanidae, 208, 210

Permembia, 199

Permepallagidae, 183

Permian, 44, 53, 68–70: fossil insect deposits, 65, 77, 79; significance of, 68, 70, 178; paleomap, 70

Permila, 497

Perilampidae, 420

Permithonidae, 336, 341

Permoberotha villosa, 333

Permoberothidae, 332, 336, 337

Permocentropidae, 469, 472

Permochoristidae, 469, 471, 472, 479

Permocupedidae, 362

Permocupoides, 362

Permolestidae, 183

Permopanorpidae, 469, 472

Permoplectoptera, 163, 164

Permopsocida, 269, 285

Permopsocidae, 269

Permoraphidiidae, 208, 338

Permotanyderidae, 469, 472, 497

Permothemistida, 169, 170

Permotipula, 497

Permotipulidae, 469, 472, 497

Permo-Triassic Extinctions (End Permian Event), 69, 71

Petaluridae, 182, 628

Petaluroidea, 187

Petrified Forest, Arizona (Triassic), 72

Petrobius, 148

Petromantis, 471

Petropsychops superba, 344

Phaetempis lebanensis, 530

Phalangiotarbida, 99

phallomeres, 228

Phallothrips, 283

Pharnacia kirbyi, 211

Phasmatodea, 12, 147, 189–191, 211–215, 622: aptery, 212; area apicalis, 213; classification, 213; defining features, 211; eggs, 214; fossils; 215; in amber, 215; mimicry, 211; operculum, 212, 213; parthenogenesis, 213; vomer, 211

Phasmida (see Phasmatodea)

Phasmomimidae, 208

Pheidole, 14, 443

Phenacoleachia, 297

Phenacoleachiidae, 296, 297, 298

phenetics, 26

Phengodidae, 383, 385

Philopotamidae, 550

Philopteridae, 275

Phlaeothripidae, 280, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287

Phlaeothripine, 467

Phlebotominae, 490, 500: as disease vectors, 499; Cretaceous, 499; earliest, 499

Phlebotomites, 499

Phloeidae, 327

Pholidota, 482, 638

Phoridae, 538–540: ecological diversity, 534; fossil, 539; in Cretaceous amber, 539; Megaselia, 534, 538; parasitoid, 533, 536; Prioriphora, 536, 539; species diversity, 533; stem-group, 536

Phormia, 491

phosphatization, 46, 47, 96

Phosphatocopida, 99

phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PepCk) gene, 32

Photinus, 385

Photuris, 385

phragma, 120

Phrixothrix, 385

Phryganeidae, 555

Phryganopsychidae, 555

Phthiraptera, 12, 62, 147, 270–280, 490, 640: ages, 276–77; as disease vectors, 272; classification, 274–5; cowbird hosts, 277; cuckoo hosts, 277; dispersal, 272, 280; effects of host extinctions on, 277; egg laying in, 272; eggs, 272; fossils, 275–76; founder effects, 280; high rates of nucleotide substitutions, 280; host age estimation, 276; host colonization in, 276, 277; host use patterns, 277; hosts, 272–74; on mummies, 275; Pleistocene remains, 275; putative Cretaceous, 276

phyletic gradualism, 11

Phylloblatta gallica, 227

Phylloblattidae, 227, 229, 233

Phyllobrotica, 624

Phyllocarida, 99

Phyllopoda, 99

Phyllostomidae, 615

Phylloxeridae, 293, 295

phylogenetic analyses, 31: Bayesian methods, 38; general, 31; taxon completeness, 31

phylogeny, 15, 27, 31, 40: defined, 31, 32; general, 31, 32; significance of fossils, 40

Phymatinae, 323

Physalaemus pustulosus, 206

Physocephala, 541

Phytalmia, 541

Phytophaga, 361, 392–399, 622, 637: Monophyly, 393

phytophagan Beetles, 393

phytophagous insects, 622–25, 642: and allopatric divergence, 625; and angiosperms, 623; Paleozoic, 173; and plant toxins, 624

phytotelmata, 317

Piagetiella, 274

Pieridae, 592, 597: and Brassicaceae, 597

Pieris, 596: brassicae, 597; rapae, 597

Piesmatidae, 329, 330

Pinaceae, 55, 88, 410

Pincombea, 295

Pincombeidae, 295

Pinites succinifer, 297

pinnipeds, 482: as hosts, 272

Pinus, 410

Piophilidae, 540

Pipunculidae, 537, 539

Pisciformia, 162, 163

Piscindusia, 52, 551

Plagiocephalus latifrons, 30, 541

plague, 480, 482: and flea proventriculus, 482; bubonic, 482; historical significance, 480; pneumonic, 482; Yersinia, 482

planidia, 517, 543

Planivora, 512

planktonic foraminiferans, 63, 642

Planoneoptera, 192

plant feeding (see phytophagous insects)

plant galls: fossils, 50, 52, 53

plant lice (see Psylloidea)

Plasmodium falciparum, 502

Plastoceridae, 384

Plataspidae, 327

Plattenkalke deposits, 74, 82

Platycoelostoma, 297

Platygastridae, 425

Platygastroidea, 415, 425–6: Cretaceous, 426; defining features, 425

Platypedia primigenia, 310

Platypezidae, 532: Cretaceous, 537

platypodid, 58

Platypodinae, 387, 396, 397, 467: fossils, 387; in amber, 397

Platypsyllus castor, 373, 490

Platystoechotes, 349

Platystomatidae, 541

pleasing lacewings (see Dilaridae)

Plebeia, 457, 465

Plecoptera, 12, 147, 188, 191, 194–196, 554, 628: classification, 194; defining features, 194; fossils, 195–96; nymphs, 195; phylogeny, 194

Plecopterida, 192–201: defining features, 192

Plectrotarsidae, 555

Pleidae, 319, 321

Pleistocene dispersal, 642–43

Pleistocene insects, 61, 90

Pleotomus, 385

Plesiometa argyra, 427

plesiomorphy, 27

pleural coxal process, 125

pleural wing process, 128

pleuron, 125

plica orales, 112

Pliny the Elder, 16

Pliocene, 90

Plokiophilidae, 323, 328

Plumariidae, 430, 632

Plusiotes resplendens, 378

Plutella xylostella, 648

Pneumoroidea, 210

pocket gopher-louse cospeciation, 278

pocket gophers, as hosts, 277, 279

Podocarpus, 302, 625: as hosts, 302

Podonominae, 627

Poduridae, 114

Pogonomyrmex, 443

Polanskiella, 450, 632

Polistes, 429

Polistinae, 437, 438

pollination, 5, 540, 613–622; age of specialized pollination, 616; ages of insect pollinators, 616; amount by insects, 615; and fossilized pollen meals, 616; and hovering, 617; and long proboscis, 616; and origins of bees, 619; bee, 619; by bats, 615; by birds, 615; chronology of pollination features, 616; defined, 613; droplets, 620; earliest pollinators, 621; ecological advantages, 615; examples of specialized, 615, 616; faunas of pollinators, 621; fossil evidence, 616–20; fossilized pollinators, 619; in basal angiosperms, 620; in cycads, 620; in gnetaleans, 620; in grasses, 621; in primitive living angiosperms, 620–22; insect, 613, 614 ; pollination features, 616; pollinators, 618; significance of Brachycera, 618; specialized floral structures, 616; syndromes, 615; wind, 615

Polyctenidae, 272, 326, 329, 490, 640

Polycytellidae, 332

Polydnaviruses, 427

Polyergus, 442, 443

Polyneoptera, 147, 188–260: defining features, 189; orders of, 191; phylogeny, 191; wing venation, 190

Polyorthoptera, 193

Polyphaga, 371–99, 630: diversity, 371; infraorders, 371; monophyly, 371

Polyphagidae, 231, 235, 237

polyphagy, 283

polyphyly, 27

Polystoechotes, 349

Polystoechotidae, 336, 342, 348, 349, 633

polytene chromosomes, 8

polytrophic overioles, 132

Pompilidae, 429, 433, 434, 435, 604, 630: Cretaceous, 435

Pompilopterus, 435

pond skaters (see Gerromorpha)

Ponerinae, 446

poneroid grade of ants, 449, 450: Cretaceous, 435

Pongidae, as hosts, 275

Ponopterix axelrodi, 235

Pontomyia, 548

Populus (poplars), 52

Porotermes, 247, 628

Porphyry: Tree of, 16

Porrerus dominicanus, 346

Porricondylinae, 513

postmentum, 124

postnotum, 121

postoccipital suture, 122

Postopsyllidium, 289

Potrerillos Formation, Argentina (Triassic), 72

potter wasps (see Eumeninae)

Praeaulacidae, 419

Praeichneumon, 429

Praeichneumonidae, 429

Praemordella, 389

preantennal segment, 123

Praesiricidae, 409

Precambrian Period, 93

prehalter, 499

prementum, 124

Premnoxylon, 53, 54

pretarsus, 125, 127, 475

Priapula, 93

Priapulida, 94

primates, 482

principle of connections (St. Hilaire), 28

Prionoglariidae, 269, 270

Prionomyrmex, 450, 632

Prioriphora, 40, 536, 539: casei, 539; in Cretaceous amber, 539

Priscaenigmatidae, 336, 338

Priscaenigmatomorpha, 338

Pristapenesia, 431

Probnidae, 196

Proboscidea, 482

Procelariiformes, as hosts, 278

Procercopoidae, 308

Prochaerododis enigmaticus, 260

Prochoristella, 472

Procramptonomyiidae, 508, 509

proctodeal trophallaxis, 235

Proctorenyxidae, 421

Proctotrupidae, 421

Proctotrupoidea, 415, 421: Jurassic, 421

Proctotrupomorpha, 415, 418, 419–427: defining features, 421

Prodoxidae: diets, 572; evolution of monoelectric, 573; monophagy, 573; pollination of yuccas, 572–73; specialized maxillae, 573

Prodoxus, 573

Prodryas persephone, 87, 590, 593

prognathy, 121

Progonocimicidae, 313, 314, 637

Progonophlebiidae, 187

Promantispa similis, 355

Promegalomus, 351

pronymph, 333, 334

Propalosoma, 436

Proparagryllacrididae, 215

Proplebeia dominicana, 60, 461, 464

propodeum, 414

Proscolia, 437

Proscopiidae, 203, 205, 211, 224, 628

Proscorpius osborni, 101, 102

Prosoeca, 523

Prosphyracephala, 543

Prostomidae, 390: Cretaceous, 390

Prosyntexis gouleti, 413

Protanisoptera: defined, 183

protein: fossilization, 42

Proteinus, 374

Protelencholax, 406

Protelytroptera, 192, 220, 221

Protembia permiana, 198

Protembiaria, 198

Protembiidae, 198

Protempis antennata, 526, 527

Protereisma, 167: americanum, 165; permianum, 164

Protereismatidae, 163, 164

Protobiellinae, 356

Protobombus, 466: indecisus, 462

Protocoleoptera, 361, 362

Protodermaptera, 218, 221

Protodiplatyidae, 218, 220

Protodonata, 147, 174–178

Protohymenidae, 172

Protohymenoptera, 169, 171, 172

Protolepis cuprealata, 575

Protoligoneura limai, 165

Protolithurgus, 461: ditomeus, 461

Protomelecta brevipennis, 458

Protomeropeidae, 548

Protomyrmeleontidae, 183

Protonemestrius, 616

Protoneuroptera, 332

Protoperlaria, 194, 196

Protopleciidae, 508

Protopone, 446

Protopsyllidiidae, 289, 290, 637

Protoptera, 188

Protoreogeton, 526

Protorhyphidae, 514

Protorthoptera, 147, 173, 188: Paleozoic herbivory, 173

Protoscelis, 394

Protosceloides, 394

Protosolpuga carbonaria, 103

Protozygoptera (see Archizygoptera)

Protura, 12, 111–113, 154

proventriculus, 228, 237, 474, 479: in Dictyoptera, 228; in fleas, 474, 479; plicae, 228; structure, 228

Psacodromeus guttata, 367

Psaronius tree ferns, 53

Pselaphidae, 627

Pselaphinae, 374

Pselaphognatha, 99

Psephenidae, 359, 381

Pseudococcidae, 296, 298–303: and nomadic ants, 301–2

Pseudococcites eocaenicus, 406

Pseudohymen, 171

Pseudolarix, 88

Pseudomacromia sensibilis, 187

Pseudomegamerus, 394

Pseudomorphinae, 368

Pseudomyrmecinae, 446

Pseudoperla, 215

Pseudophengodes, 385

Pseudophyllinae, 207

Pseudopolycentropodidae, 469, 637: arista, 472; halteres, 472; in Burmese amber, 472; long proboscis, 472; possible diet, 472; vestigial labial palps, 472

Pseudopolycentropus, 471, 472, 494, 617

Pseudopsis, 14

Pseudoregma bambucicola, 293

Pseudoscorpionida, 99, 103

Pseudosphinx, 603

Pseudostigmatidae, 184

Pseudotettigonia amoena, 206

Psocidae, 270

Psocidiidae, 269

Psocodea, 147, 261–3, 276, 332

Psocoptera, 12, 147, 199, 261–270, 332: antennal rupturing mechanism, 266; aptery, 266; brachyptery, 266–67; cibarium, 266; classification, 266; feeding habits, 266; in Cretaceous amber, 269; in Permian, 269; mating behavior, 266; nymphal stages, 332; oldest fossils, 270; Paleozoic paraphyly, 269; paraphyly of, 266; parthenogenesis, 266; Pearman’s organ, 265; sister group to lice, 266; sitophore sclerites, 263; structure, 265, 266; viviparity, 266; water vapor absorption, 263

Psychidae, 572: fossil cases, 575; larval cases, 576

Psychodidae, 489, 492, 498, 500: Cretaceous, 500

Psychodomorpha, 496, 498–501

Psychomorpha, 582

Psychopsidae, 85, 336, 342, 633

Psychotanyderus, 500

Psyllipsocidae, 270

Psylloidea, 268, 291

pteralia, 128, 129

Pteromalidae, 420

Pteropinae, 615

Pteroptyx, 385

pterosaurs, as hosts, 276

pterostigma, 131

pterothorax, 128

Pterygota, 147, 155, 157: defining features, 155

Pthiridae, 275

Pthirus pubis, 274

Ptiliidae, 373

Ptilocerus ochraceus, 326

Ptilodactylidae, 381

Ptinidae: fossils, 62

Ptininae, 386

Ptychopteridae, 492, 498, 499

Pulex, 485, 486: in amber, 485; irritans, 481; larimerius, 485, 486; Miocene, 486

Pulicidae, 480, 481

Puliciphora, 540

Pulicoidea, 485

punctuated equilibrium, 11, 26

Pupipara, 490

Purbeck Group, England (Cretaceous), 78

Purbeck, 533

Putoidae, 296, 297, 298, 299

Pycnogonida, 99, 100

Pygidicranidae, 221

Pygidicranoidea, 218, 221

pygidium, 131

pygmy grasshoppers (see Tetrigoidea)

Pyralidae, 301, 569, 580–81, 608

Pyrearinus termitilluminans, 384

Pyrgomorphoidea, 205, 210

Pyrgotidae, 540

pyritization, 49 Pyrochroidae, 390 Pyrocoelia, 385 Pyrophorinae, 384 Pyrophrous, 384 Pyrrhocoroidea, 327, 329

Q

quartz, 45, 635 Quaternary Period, 642 Queensland, Australia, 92, 244 Quercus (oaks), 52, 53, 353 Quercy, France (Eocene), 46 Quinarians, 21 quinoline, 213

R

races, 9 radial veins, 129, 183 radiations (evolutionary), 37, 53–54 Radoboj, Croatia (Miocene), 89 Rangomaramidae, 511 Ranzovius, 323 Raphidia funerata, 339 Raphidiidae, 336, 338, 339 Raphidiomimidae, 229, 234, 637 Raphidiomimula, 234 Raphidiomorpha, 338 Raphidioptera, 75, 147, 335, 336, 337–340, 633: classification, 337–8; Cretaceous, 339; defined, 337; fossils, 338; Jurassic, 338 Rapisma, 349 Rapismatidae, 336, 349 Raptophasma, 226 raptorial forelegs, 254, 255, 367: convergence in, 356 Rasnicynipidae, 422 Rasnitsyn, Alexandr, 144 Ratemiidae, 275 Ray, John, 17, 19 Redbank Formation, Queensland (Paleocene), 92 Redivivini, 456 Reduviidae, 268, 323, 327, 329 Regiata scutra, 258 Remane, A., 29 Remipedia, 99 Renova Formation, Montana (Oligocene), 88 repugnatorial glands, 109 resilin, 470, 482, 563 resinite, 55, 57 Reticulitermes flavipes, 240 Rhachibermissa splendida, 355, 634 Rhachiberothidae, 336, 348, 355–356, 634: Cretaceous, 355, 634 Rhaetomyiidae, 505 Rhagio, 522 Rhagionidae, 489, 490, 492, 516, 522, 523, 524: blood feeding, 522; Cretaceous, 524 Rhagoletis pomonella, 624 Rhagophthalmidae, 384 Rhagovelia, 317, 323 Rhamphomyia, 529 Rhaphidophoridae, 208, 628 Rhetinothripidae, 285 Rheumatobates, 317 Rhinophoridae, 543

Rhinotermitidae, 242, 247, 249, 250, 251: diversity, 247; fossils, 247; oldest, 249

Rhipidoblattina katavica, 234

Rhipiphoridae, 390, 391, 402: in amber, 390, 403

Rhipipterygidae, 211

Rhodites vetus, 422

Rhodnius, 323

Rhombocoleidae, 362

Rhopalocera, 590, 591: Eocene, 590; fossil, 590; in amber, 590; Paleocene, 590; recency of, 590

Rhopalopsyllidae, 485, 486

Rhopalopsyllus, 485

Rhopalosomatidae, 433, 436

Rhyacophilidae, 550

Rhynchosciara, 491

Rhyncophthirina, 274

Rhynie Chert, 49, 66, 116, 152

Rhynie, Scotland, 49, 66, 116, 153

Rhyniella praecursor (Collembola), 66, 116, 152, 154

Rhyniognatha hirsti, 40, 66, 152–154, 160, 646: phylogenetic position, 154

Rhyparochromidae, 327

Rhysodinae, 368, 369, 370: in amber, 368

Riciniidae, 274, 306

Ricinulei, 99, 106

Rickettsia prowazekii, typhi, 272

Riodinidae, 594, 597, 598, 623: caterpillars, 599–600; myrmecophily, 599

Riversleigh, Queensland (Miocene), 46

RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) gene: calcium phosphate, 46

roaches (see Blattaria)

roachoids, 227

Robinjohnia, 497

Robinjohniidae, 469, 472, 497

Robopus, 385

rock crawlers (see Mantophasmatodea)

Rodentia, 465

Rohdendorf, Boris B., 37, 74, 143

Romaleidae, 210

Roman Empire, 16

Ronheim, Germany (Oligocene), 46

Rophalis, 342

Roproniidae, 421

Rosa, 422

Rosaceae, 412

Rothsehild, Miriam, 480

Rothschildia, 584

Rott, Germany (Oligocene), 463

Roussyana, 466

Rubielos de Mora, Spain (Miocene), 89, 465

Ruby River Basin (Oligocene), 88

S

Saint-Hilaire, Etienne Geoffroy, 23, 28 Sakhalin Island amber (Paleocene), 85 Saldidae, 319 Saldonia, 319 Salicaceae, 413 salivarium, 124 salivary canals, 288 Salpingidae, 391 Samia cynthia, 584, 585 Sanctacarida, 99

Santana Formation (Crato member), Brazil, 47, 48, 83, 152, 165, 166, 185, 187, 235, 380, 381, 382, 398, 449, 523, 562, 611, 617, 618: assorted fossils, 46; diversity, 53; general, 82–83; preservation, 46

Santanmantis axelrodi, 258, 259

Sapyga, 435

Sapyginae, 435

Sarcophagidae, 493, 543

Saturniidae, 584, 585

Saurodectes vrsanskyi, 275, 276

Saurophthirus longipes, 472, 473

Savage Canyon Formation, California (Miocene), 90

sawflies (see Symphyta)

Saxonagrionidae, 184

Scala Naturae, 16

scale insects, 297

Scalidorhyncha, 94

Scaphidiinae, 374

Scaptomyza, 644

Scarabaeidae, 378, 490: dung rolling, 378; significance among Egyptians, 378

Scarabaeiformia, 377: monophyly, 377

Scarabaeinae, 378

Scarabaeoidea, 358, 359, 361, 377–380: Cretaceous, 380; fossil, 380; larva, 378; male horns, 379; monophyly, 377 ; relationships in, 377, 424

scarabs (see Scarabaeoidea)

Scathophagidae, 492, 542

Scatopsidae, 500

Scatopsoidea, 501, 500

Scelionidae, 425

Sceliphron, 48

Scenopinidae, 521, 618

Scheuchzer, Johann J., 22, 23

Schistocerca gregaria, 206

Schistonota, 162

schistosomiasis, 540

Schizocoleidae, 361, 362, 365

Schizodactylidae, 208

Schizomida, 99, 106

Schizophora, 539–547, 637: acalyptrates, 539; compression fossil, 545, 546; defined, 539; fossil, 545; in amber, 547; origin of, 547; ptilinum, 539; sexual dimorphisms, 542; Tertiary radiation of, 546

Schizophoridae, 363

Schizopteridae, 317, 318

Schizoramia, 93, 107

schizoramian hypothesis, 93

Schizura, 589

Schlee, Dieter, 80

Schlettereriinae, 416

Sciadocera rufomaculata, 537

Sciadoceridae, 533, 536, 630

Sciaridae, 511

Sciaroidea, 508, 511: Cretaceous, 509

Sciomyzidae, 540

Scirtidae, 363, 381

Scirtoidea, 380

Sciuridae, as hosts, 274

sclerites, 120

Sclerogibbidae, 432

Scolebythidae, 431, 630, 632: Cretaceous, 432

Scoliidae, 437

Scolytinae (bark beetles), 54, 387, 396, 397: fossils, 387, 396; in amber, 397

Scolytus, 398

scorpionflies, 468

scorpions, 99, 101–102, 319, 474, 642: Cretaceous, 102; Silurian, 102

Scraptiidae, 391

Scudder, Samuel H., 85, 137, 139

Scutellaridae, 327

scutellum, 125

scutum, 125

Scydmaenidae, 372: Cretaceous, 372

Scyphindusia, 551

Scytohymenidae, 172

sea birds, as hosts, 278

sea scorpions, 100

seabirds, 279

secondary segmentation: in insects, 120

Seitz, Adalbert, 555

Sematuridae, 585

Semenoviolidae, 218

semiaquatic insects, 499

semisocial, 464

semi-species, 8

Sepulcidae, 409, 412

sericulture, 584

Serphitidae, 424–425, 637

Serphitoidea, 415, 424–425

Serritermitidae, 247, 250

Sesiidae, 579

Sesioidea, 579

Setisura, 162

Seward Peninsula, Alaska (Pliocene), 90

sexual cannibalism, 103

sexual dimorphism, 379, 542, 644, sexual selection, 136, 379

Shaanxi Province, 71

Shangu Formation, 71

Shanwang Formation, China (Miocene), 89

Sheimiodea, 198

Sialidae, 340

Sialis, 340

Siberia, 80, 398

Siberian amber (Cretaceous), 270, 293, 295, 299, 391, 572

siderite, 44

Sidneyiida, 99

Sierolomorpha, 434

Sierolomorphidae, 434

Sikhotealinidae, 363

silkworms (see Bombyx)

silkworm moths (see Bombycoidea)

silky lacewings (see Psychopsidae)

Silphidae, 358, 372, 373: parental care, 373

Silphopsyllus, 373

silverfish (see Zygentoma)

Simpson, George Gaylord, 26

Simuliidae, 84, 489, 490, 493, 502, 504, 505: Cretaceous amber, 506; labral fans, 505; larva, 505

Simulimima grandis, 505

Simulium damnosum complex, 11, 502

Sinicorussus luzhongensis, 414

Siphlonuridae, 628

Siphonaptera, 12, 147, 468, 469, 480–490, 640: and plague, 480; classification, 485; cocoon, 484; Cretaceous stem-group, 487, 488; Cretaceous, 485; ctenidia, 486; distributions, 480, 484; eggs, 485, 489; families, 480, 485; features, 482, 483; feeding, 482; fossil record, 486–8; hosts, 482; in amber, 485, 486; larva, 482, 484; life histories, 482; monophyly, 482; mouthparts, 483; neosomy, 485; pygidium, 482; sensilium, 482, 486; species diversity, 480; stem-group, 486; subcutaneous, 485

sirenians, as hosts, 272

Siricidae, 409, 411, 412

Siricinae, 412

Siricoidea, 412

sister groups, 40, 237: general, 40; immediate, 40; living, 40, 237

Sisyridae, 336, 341, 348, 352

Skaracarida, 99

skippers, 592

sleeping sickness, 545

Sminthuridae, 115, 628

Smith, William, 23

Smith, John B., 140

Smithsonian Institution, 86, 91

snakeflies (see Raphidioptera)

Sneath, Peter, 26

Snodgrass, Robert E., 140, 142

social behavior, 397

social insect ectosymbionts, 533

sociality, in Aphidoidea, and galls, 293

Sojanoraphidiidae, 338

Sokal, Robert, 26

Solenopsis, 443

Solenoptilidae, 336

Solfugida, 99, 103, 104, 437

Solnhofen, Germany ( Jurassic), 42, 43, 74, 184, 187

Soyana, Russia (Permian), 69

Spania, 522

Spaniidae, 522

Spanish (Alava) amber (Cretaceous), 79, 271, 518, 527

Spanish fly, 390

Spargotermes limai, 92, 244

specialized pollinators, evolution of speciation rates, ultimate causes, 573

species concept: biological, 6, 9; evolutionary,, 6; phylogenetic, 6

species diversity in insects, 3–4, 6–15: and age, 1–3, 646; and amber fossils, 642; and design, 646; extinction rates, 636, 637; flight, 646; larva, 646; metamerism, 646; prospects, 650; rate of increase, 647; redundant appendages, 646; significance of exoskeleton, 646

species lifespans in insects, 642–43

species, 6–15: concepts, 6–11, 15; cryptic, 8; defined, 6, 9; described numbers (Table 1-1), 12; named hexapods, 12; rarity, 14; semi-, 8; sibling, 8; undescribed numbers, 12–14

sperm pump, 468

Sphaeropsocidae, 270

Sphaerotermes, 248

Sphaerotermitinae, 248

Sphecidae, 451

spheciform wasps (see Apoidea)

Sphecocorydaloididae, 172

Sphecoidea, 454

Sphecomyrma, 40, 82, 446: canadensis, 446; freyi, 446, 448; reconstruction, 448

Sphecomyrminae, 36, 446

sphecophiles, 377

Sphecopteridae, 172

Sphenisciformes, as hosts, 278

Sphex, 454

Sphingidae, 583, 584, 586

Sphyracephala : fossils, 88

Spicipalpia, 550

spiders (see Araneae)

spiderweb cleptoparasites, 590

Spiloconis, 352

spiracles, 125, 178

spirochetes, 240, 272

spittle bugs (see Cercopoidea)

split-footed lacewings (see Nymphidae)

spongillaflies (see Sisyridae)

Spongiphoridae, 220

spoon-winged lacewings (see Nemopteridae, Nemopterinae)

springtails (see Collembola)

Srokalarva, 53, 335

St. Helena earwig, 648

Staatlichen Museum für Naturkunde in Stuttgart, 91

stalk-eyed flies, 30, 541, 543

Stantoniella, 235

Staphylinidae, 71, 358, 363, 372–377: classification, 374; diversity, 374; fossils, 375–7; habits, 377 ; in amber, 375; Jurassic, 374; oldest, 376; Triassic, 374; world catalogue, 374

Staphyliniformia, 371–77: diversity, 372; ectoparasites, 373

Staphylinoidea, 361, 372, 399, 630

Statiomyidae, 618

Steblidae, 543

Steingelia cretacea, 299

Steingeliidae, 298, 299

stem group, 39, 51, 73, 81, 94, 96, 100, 107, 137, 163, 176: general, 40

stemmata, 124, 331

Stenodictya lobata, 168

Stenogastrinae, 437, 438

Stenopelmatidae, 207, 208, 209, 628

Stenopelmatoidea, 208

Stenotritidae (see Colletidae)

Stensham, Forthampton, UK (Triassic), 71

Stephanidae, 417

Stephanocircidae, 481, 485

Stephanocircinae, 485

Stephanogaster magna, 416

Stephanoidea, 414–415

Sternorrhyncha, 288, 289–303, 338, 341: and angiosperm radiations, 302–3; and ants, 300–302; and domatia, 302; and myrmecophytes, 302; classification, 289; defense by ants, 301; early fossils, 289; features, 289; fossilized symbioses, 302; infraordinal features, 304; mouthparts, 289; population growth, 289; prepupae, 290; pupae, 290; tending by ants, 289; see also: honeydew

sternum, 121

Stichotrema, 406

stick-insects (see Phasmatodea)

Stigmaphronidae, 415, 417, 426, 637: in Cretaceous ambers, 427

sting, 429–30, 457

stingless bees (see Meliponini)

stipes, 124

Stizoides, 453

Stolotermes, 228, 240, 247, 628

Stomoxys, 489, 545: calcitrans, 542

stoneflies (see Plecoptera)

Stormberg Series, 72

Strashila incredibilis, 473, 474

stratigraphic-clade rank correlation, 38

Stratiomyidae, 492, 493, 516

Stratiomyomorpha, 516, 519

Streblidae, 545, 640

Strepsiptera, 12, 201, 331, 390, 399–406, 494: adult mandibles, 469; and long-branch attraction, 402; biology, 399; cephalotheca, 399, 401; classification, 402; Cretaceous male, 404; diversity, 402; features, 400; females, 399, 401; fossils, 403–6; high DNA substitution rates, 402; hosts, 400; larval internal defense, 400; male halteres, 399; relationships, 399, 402; reproduction, 400; structure, 402, 403; triungula, 400

stridulation, 367: in Lepidoptera, 599; in Orthoptera, 203–4; in Titanoptera, 215–6

Sturtevant, Alfred, 26

styli, 117, 131, 132, 149

Stylopidae, 402

Stylopidia, 402, 406

Stylotermes, 247

subalare, 128

subcostal vein

subcoxal theory, 125

subimago, 128

subsocial behavior, 283, 464

subspecies, 9

Subulicornia, 167

Succinapis, 466

sulcus, 120, 122

sunbirds, 615

Sunchal, 92

Sundance Formation, Wyoming (Jurassic), 76

Suntrana, Alaska (Pliocene), 90

suture, 120–122

swallowtails, 595

Swammerdam, Jan, 17, 18

swiftlets as hosts, 278

Switzerland, 89

Swofford, David, 33

Sycorinae, 490

Syllepte, 578

Sylvacoleus sharovi, 362

Sylvicola, 494, 517

Symphoromyia, 489, 522

Symphrasinae, 353

Symphyla, 99, 108, 109

Symphypleona, 115

Symphyta, 409, 411

symplesiomorphy, 27

Symplocarpus, 237

Sympycnites primaevus, 529

Synalphaeus, 467

Synanthedon, 579

synapomorphy, 27, 29

Synchlora, 587

Syndixa, 505

synonyms (taxonomic), 14

Syntermitinae, 248

Syntexis libocedrii, 412

Syntonopteridae, 163, 164

Syntonopterodea, 163

Syrphidae, 426, 492, 493, 537, 540, 618: fossil, 541

Syssphinx, 582

Systelloderes, 316

systematics: defined, 15; history of 16–27; molecular, 289–32

Systolosoma, 366

T

Tabanidae, 489, 490, 492, 522, 523: Cretaceous, 523; fossil, 523, 524

Tabanomorpha, 519, 522, 523

Tachinidae, 492, 543

Tachinus caelatus, 61

Tachyglossus aculeatus, 638

Taeniopterygidae, 196

Taeniothrips, 283

tagmata, 119

tagmosis, 97

Taldycupedidae, 362

Tallahatta Formation, Mississippi (Eocene), 86

Tamandua, 638

Tanaoceridae, 211

Tanaoceroidea, 210

Tanaorrhinus, 582

Tanaostigmatidae, 424

Tantulocarida, 99

Tanychora, 429

Tanyderidae, 498, 499: Cretaceous, 499

Tanypyscha, 499

taphonomy, 42

Tapinoma, 443

tarantulas, 102

Tardigrada, 45, 93, 94, 96, 97: Cambrian, 96; cryptobiosis, 97; fossils, 96, 97; general, 96; in Cretaceous amber, 97

tarsomeres, 127

Tarsophlebia, 183

Tarsophlebiidae, 183

Tarsophlebioptera, 183, 184

tarsus, 125

Tarwinia australis, 485–488

taxic analyses, 37, 623, 636: criticism, 636

Taxodiaceae, 76

Taxodium, 60

taxon cycle, 631

taxonomy, 33: general, 35

Taymyraphididae, 295, 302

Tegeticula, 572, 573, 616: corruptrix, 573; intermedia, 572

tegula, 129, 130

Telchin, 578

Telmatogeton, 504

telotrophic ovarioles, 335

telson, 131, 132

Tenebrionidae, 358, 359: fossil, 389, 391; in arid habitats, 389; parental behavior, 389

Tenrecidae, 638

tenrecs, 638

tent caterpillars, 583

Tenthredinidae, 409, 410

Tenthredinoidea, 410–412

tentorium, 123, 137

Tephritidae, 492, 541, 624

Tephritoidea, 541, 623: Eocene, 546

Teratembiidae, 198

Terebrantia, 284

Termitaphididae, 326, 329: fossil, 329

Termitaradus: fossil, 329

termite inquilines, 326

Termitella, 377

termites (see Isoptera)

Termitidae, 238, 239, 240, 242, 247, 250, 251, 377, 467, 638: classification, 248; diet, 238, 244; diversity, 247; ectosymbionts of, 377; nasutes, 249; nests, 51, 240, 242; soldiers, 239, 249; symbiotic fungi of, 248

Termitinae, 248

Termitomyces, 248, 249

termitophiles, 377

Termopsidae, 238, 240, 242, 244, 247, 250, 251, 628: distribution, 242; diversity, 247; fossils, 247

Termopsis, 247

terrestrialization, 109

Terrindusia, 554

Tertiary radiations, 528, 539, 637

Testajapyx thomasi, 118

Tetraphalerites, 365

Tetraphalerus, 363, 365

Tetrigidae, 205, 210

Tetrigoidea, 210

Tettigarcta, 308, 630

Tettigarctidae, 308

Tettigometridae, 312

Tettigoniidae, 127, 178, 205–7, 208: camouflage, 206, 207; nuptial feeding, 203; Tettigonioidea, 209

Thasus, 327

Thaumaleidae, 504, 505

Thaumastobombus, 466

Thaumastocoridae, 326, 329, 330

Thaumatoxena, 377

Thecostraca, 99

Theope, 599

Therea, 237

Thereus, 598

Therevidae, 521

Theridiidae, 103

Thermobia domestica, 151

Thomisidae, 103

Thomomydoecus, 280

thoracic structure, 125–131

thorny lacewings (see Rhachiberothidae)

Thraupidae, 615

thread-winged lacewings (see Nemopteridae, Crocinae)

Thripidae, 284, 285, 286

thrips (see Thysanoptera)

Throscidae, 382, 383

Thuringia, Germany (Triassic), 71

Thuringopteryx, 163, 165

Thyrididae, 583

Thysania agripinna, 178

Thysanoptera, 12, 147, 199, 280–87, 261, 262, 263, 623, 642: austral distributions in, 284; castes, 283; classification, 284; cleptoparasites, 283; communal behavior, 283; development, 282; diets, 283; diversity, 284; feeding, 282, 283; fossils, 285–287; gall forming, 283; haplodiploidy, 284; phylogeny, 286; polymorphism, 280, 283; prepupa, 282; pretarsus, 280, 281; pupa, 282; relationships, 284, 287; social behavior, 283; structure, 280, 281; wings, 286

Thysanura, 150

tibia, 125 Tien Shan mountains, 71

Tillyard, Robin J., 139, 140

Tillyardembia antennaeplana, 223

Tillyardembiidae, 223

Tillyardipteridae, 499

Timema, 189, 213, 215, 630

Timematidae, 213

Timematodea, 195, 213: defining features, 213

tinamous, as hosts, 277

Tinaphis, 295

Tinea, 574

Tineidae: fossil cases, 51

Tineoidea, 574–575

Tineola, 574

Tingidae, 319, 326, 329, 330

Tingoidea, 328

Tiphiidae, 434, 630: Cretaceous, 434, 498

Tipulidae, 492: fossils, 71, 498, 620

Tipuloidea, 494, 496, 498, 517: Cretaceous, 470, 472, 475, 476, 485; fossils, 469, 470 tissue preservation in fossil insects, 59, 60

titanic crawlers (see Titanoptera)

Titanoptera, 147, 191, 193, 215–216; stridulatory structures, 216

Titanus, 379

Toldito Formation, New Mexico (Jurassic), 76

Tolgoy Formation, Kazakhstan, 71

Tongchuan Formation, 71

Torridincolidae, 370

Tortricidae, 572: fossil, 581

Torymidae, 418, 420

Toxorhynchites, 506

Toxorhynchitinae, 506

Trabutina mannipara, as source of manna, 297

trace fossils, 50, 54, 92, 380, 551, 637: burrows, 50, 51, 54, 55, 92: coprolites, 50: frass, 50, 52, 53, 54; larval cases, 51; nests, 50

tracheae, 125, 178

Tracheata, 99, 107

Trachymyrmex, 278

Trachypachidae, 363, 366, 367, 368, 630: Jurassic, 367

Trachypachus, 366

Traditional, 334–35

traps (Pleistocene/Holocene), 61

tree hoppers (see Membracoidea)

Tremembé Formation, Brazil (Oligocene), 92

Tremicinae, 412

Trench Fever, 272

Triadophlebiidae, 183

Triadophlebiomorpha,183: defined, 183

Triadotypidae, 183

Triaplidae, 367

Triassic, 4, 51, 52, 54, 70–73, 369: fossil insect deposits, 70–73

Triassocoridae, 319

Triassolestidae, 184

Triassomachilidae, 148

Triassomachilis uralensis, 149

Triassothrips virginicus, 285, 286

Triatominae, 323, 490

Tribolium, 389

trichobothria, 326, 327

Trichoceridae, 498

Trichodectidae, 273, 275, 276, 277, 280

Tricholepidion gertschi, 151

Tricholomataceae, 248, 278, 444

Trichomatinae, 356

trichomes, 377

Trichomonadidae, 240

Trichonympha, 240, 241

Trichonymphidae, 240

Trichophaga, 574

Trichophilopteridae, 275

Trichoprosopon, 507

Trichoptera, 12, 51, 147, 469, 548–555: adult structure, 549; biogeography, 552; bipolar distribution, 555; burrowing, 549; case building behavior, 549; classification, 550; corema, 550; earliest fossil, 550; ecological groups, 548; features, 560, 563; fossil cases, 51, 76, 86, 552, 555; fossils, 51, 554; free-living, 549; gills, 548; haustellum, 549; in Cretaceous amber, 555; larval features, 552; larval cases, 548, 550; life histories, 548, 555, 569; marine, 548; net spinners, 549; number living species, 545; oldest, 555; phylogeny, 553; predators, 549; prolegs, 548; purse case, 549; retreat makers, 549; saddle-case makers, 549; tube-case makers, 549; world species, 548

Tricoleidae, 363

Tridactylidae, 205, 210, 211: Cretaceous, 211

Tridactyloidea, 203, 211

Trigonalyidae, 417, 418

Trigonalyoidea, 415, 417

Trigonopterygidae, 211

Trigonopterygoidea, 211

Trigonotarbida, 99, 101

Trilobita, 49, 98–100, 124

Trimenoponidae, 273, 274

Triops cancriformis, 97

Trioza, 291

Triplosoba pulchella, 164

Triplosobidae, 164

Tristiridae, 210

Tritocerebra, 94

trochantellus, 126

trochanter, 125, 126

Trochilidae, 615

Troctomorpha, 266

Trogidae, 270, 378

Trogiomorpha, 266

troglobites, 230

Troides, 556, 595

Troidinae, 597, 604

tropical forest canopies, 12

true bugs, 314

Trypanosoma: brucei, 545; cruzi, 326; gambiense, 545

Trypoxylon politum, 437

tsetse flies (see Glossinidae)

Tshekarda, Russia (Permian: Koshelevka Form), 69

Tshekardocoleidae, 361, 362

Tubulidentata, as hosts, 274

Tubulifera, 284

Tunga, 485

Tungara frog (see Physalaemus pustulosus)

Tupus gracilis, 175

Turanodermatidae, 218

Turanophlebia, 184

Turanothemistidae, 187

Turanoviidae, 218

Turonempis styx, 531

twisted-winged parasites (see Strepsiptera)

Tychtodelopteridae, 341

tympanum (auditory), 203: in Auchenorrhyncha, 304–308; in Lepidoptera, 583–585; in Mantodea, 257; in Orthoptera, 204; in Psocoptera, 266

Tympanogaster, 371

type specimens, 35, 584: holotype, 35, 153; lectotype, 35 ; name-bearing, 35; neotype, 35; paratype, 35

Typhoctes, 437

U

Ulmaceae, 410, 413

Ulmeriella, 244

Ulomites, 391

Ultracoelostoma, 300: honeydew, 300

Ululodes, 347, 348

Umbelliferae, 624

Umenocoleidae, 220, 229, 234, 235

Unicalcarida, 409

uniformitarianism, 24

Uniramia, 98

University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley, 91

University of Kansas, 26

Upiga virescens, 573

Uraloptysmatidae, 548

Urania, 585

Uraniidae, 569, 583, 585

Urodus parvula, 576, 577

Uropsylla tasmanica, 485

Uropygida, 99, 105

Usinger, Robert, 26

Uskatelytridae, 332

Ussher, Bishop, 23

Uzelothripidae, 284, 285

Uzelothrips scabrosus, 284

V

Vachonisia, 98

Valditermes, 244: acutipennis, 250; brenanae, 250

Valeseguya, 500: disjuncta, 501

valvifers, 132, 134, 229

valvulae, 132

Van Houten cycles, 72

Vanhorniidae, 418, 421

Veliidae, 317, 321

Velocipedidae, 329

velvet worms (see Onychophora)

Vermileonidae, 516

Vermipsyllidae, 480, 481, 485

Vertebrata, 467

vertebrate parasitism, 543

Vespidae, 353, 437, 438, 466, 467: in amber, 439; nests, 439; relationships, 439

Vespina (see Euhymenoptera)

Vespinae, 437, 438

Vespoidea, 430, 433–451

vestibulum, 229

vicariance biogeography: criticsms, 631; defined, 631; geographic extinctions, 631–34

viruses, symbiotic, 427–428

Vitimotauliidae, 551

viviparity, 230, 231, 543

Vladipteridae, 498

vomer, 191, 211, 226

Vorkutiidae, 172

Vosges, France, 71

W

walking-sticks (see Phasmatodea)

Wallace, Alfred Russel, 24, 25

walnut (see Juglandaceae)

wasps (see Apocrita)

water bears (see Tardigrada)

water hyacinth, 210

water striders (see Gerromorpha)

wax secretion, 289, 290, 299

Wealden deposits (Cretaceous), 78

webspinners (see Embiodea)

weevils (see Curculionoidea)

Wegener, Alfred, 627

Wellington Formation (Permian), 69

Welwitschia mirabilis, 608

wetas (see Orthoptera, Ensifera)

Whalfera venatrix, 355, 356

whip spiders (see Amblypygida)

white flies (see Aleyrodoidea)

Wigglesworth, Sir Vincent B., 142

Wilcox Group (North America: Eocene), 87

Willmann, Rainer, 144

Wilson, E. O., 14, 631

wing articulation, 130

wing cells, 131

wing coupling, 262, 265, 313, 315, 594

wing function, 156–157

wing scales, 556

wing structure, 128–131, 617, 618

wing veins, 128–129: naming, 190, 217, 231, 259, 268, 521; structure, 158, 178

wing venation, 9, 43, 159, 128, 184

wings, 128–131, 155, 156, 158, 159: ; function, 156; gill theory, 159; origin of, 154, 158–160; paranotal lobes, 158; pronotal lobe theory, 159

Winteraceae, 613, 621

wood borings: fossil, 54

wood roach (see Cryptocercus)

wood wasps (see Symphyta, Siricoidea, Xiphydrioidea)

Woodworth, Charles, 143

worker polymorphism, 444

Wright, Sewell, 26

Wurthiinae, 581

Wyeomyia, 502

X

Xamenophlebiidae, 183

Xaniothrips, 283

Xanthopan, 584: morganii praedicta, 585

Xenopsylla, 480: cheopis, 480, 482

Xenopteridae, 172

Xenozorotypus burmiticus, 201

Xenusia, 94

Xeris spectrum, 412

Xiphiopsyllidae, 480

Xiphopterum, 215

Xiphosura, 97, 99: defined, 100; fossils, 74, 97, 100

Xiphydriidae, 409, 411, 417, 630

Xiphydrioidea, 413

Xyelidae, 71, 409, 410, 616: Cretaceous, 410; Triassic, 409–410

Xyeloidea, 409

Xyelotomidae, 409, 411

Xyelydidae, 409, 412

Xyleborini, 397

xylococcid, 299

Xylocopa, 461, 456: virginica, 456

Xylocopinae, 467

Xylocopini, 435

Xylomyidae, 516

Xylophagidae, 493, 516, 520

Xylophagomorpha, 516

Xyloryctidae, 576

Xyronotidae, 211

Y

Ycaploca, 630

Ycaploca evansi, 431

yellowjackets (see Vespidae)

Yixian Formation (Cretaceous), 470, 478, 523, 611, 616, 618

Yponomeuta, 557

Yponomeutidae, 577

Yponomeutoidea, 576

yucca moths (see Prodoxidae)

Z

Zacryptocerus, 441: colony, 442; in amber, 443

Zelmiarcha lebanensis, 510

Zeuzera, 579

Zingerberaceae, 53

Zootermopsis, 247

Zoraptera, 12, 147, 189, 191, 199–201: classification, 199; defining features, 199, 200; dimorphism, 199; fossils, 201; phylogenetic position, 199–201

zorapterans (see Zoraptera)

Zoropsocus, 286, 287: itschetuensis, 287; stanleyi, 285

Zorotypidae, 199, 200, 201

Zorotypus, 199, 201: goeleti, 201; hubbardi, 200; nascimbenei, 201

Zygaena, 578

Zygaenidae, 579

Zygaenoidea, 579, 580

Zygentoma, 12, 147, 149, 150–152, 160, 628: classification, 150; courtship, 151; defining features, 150; fossils, 152, 154

Zygophlebiidae, 183

Zygoptera, 179, 180, 182, 183, 184: defined, 183; fossil, 185; in amber, 185; mating wheel, 182


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