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Evolution of the Insects
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Details

  • 265 b/w illus. 400 colour illus.
  • Page extent: 772 pages
  • Size: 279 x 215 mm
  • Weight: 2.92 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 595.7/138
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: QL468.7 .G75 2005
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Insects--Evolution

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521821490 | ISBN-10: 0521821495)

Unavailable - out of print June 2014

$127.00



CONTENTS




Preface page xi
Commonly Used Abbreviations xv
1.   Diversity and Evolution 1
  Introduction 1
  SPECIES: THEIR NATURE AND NUMBER 6
      Drosophila 7
      Apis 9
      How Many Species of Insects? 11
  RECONSTRUCTING EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY 15
      Systematics and Evolution 15
      Taxonomy, Nomenclature, and Classification 33
      Paleontology 36
2.   Fossil Insects 42
  INSECT FOSSILIZATION 42
      Types of Preservation 43
  DATING AND AGES 62
  MAJOR FOSSIL INSECT DEPOSITS 65
      Paleozoic 65
      Mesozoic 70
      Cenozoic 84
3.   Arthropods and the Origin of Insects 93
  ONYCHOPHORA: THE VELVET WORMS 94
  TARDIGRADA: THE WATER BEARS 96
  ARTHROPODA: THE JOINTED ANIMALS 97
      Marellomorpha: The Lace Crabs 98
      Arachnomorpha: Trilobites, Arachnids, and Relatives 98
      Crustaceomorpha 107
      Mandibulata 107
      The Invasion of Land 109
  HEXAPODA: THE SIX-LEGGED ARTHROPODS 111
      Entognatha: Protura, Collembola, and Diplura 111
4.   The Insects 119
  MORPHOLOGY OF INSECTS 119
      General Structure 119
      The Head 121
      The Thorax 125
      The Abdomen 131
  DEFINING FEATURES OF THE INSECTS 137
  RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE INSECT ORDERS 137
      A Brief History of Work 137
      A Roadmap to the Phylogeny of Insects 144
5.   Earliest Insects 148
  ARCHAEOGNATHA: THE BRISTLETAILS 148
  DICONDYLIA 150
  ZYGENTOMA: THE SILVERFISH 150
  RHYNIOGNATHA 152
6.   Insects Take to the Skies 155
  PTERYGOTA, WINGS, AND FLIGHT 155
      Insect Wings 156
  EPHEMEROPTERA: THE MAYFLIES 160
  METAPTERYGOTA 166
  PALAEODICTYOPTERIDA: EXTINCT BEAKED INSECTS 168
      Palaeodictyoptera 170
      Dicliptera 170
      Megasecoptera 171
      Diaphanopterodea 172
      Paleozoic Herbivory 173
  ODONATOPTERA: DRAGONFLIES AND EARLY RELATIVES 173
      Geroptera 174
      Holodonata: Protodonata and Odonata 174
      Protodonata: The Griffenflies 175
      Order Odonata: The Dragonflies and Damselflies 178
7.   Polyneoptera 188
  NEOPTERA 188
  WHAT ARE POLYNEOPTERA? 189
      Plecopterida 192
      Orthopterida 193
  PLECOPTERA: THE STONEFLIES 194
  EMBIODEA: THE WEBSPINNERS 196
  ZORAPTERA: THE ZORAPTERANS 199
  ORTHOPTERA: THE CRICKETS, KATYDIDS, GRASSHOPPERS, WETAS, AND KIN 202
      Ensifera 208
      Caelifera 210
  PHASMATODEA: THE STICK AND LEAF INSECTS 211
  TITANOPTERA: THE TITANIC CRAWLERS 215
  CALONEURODEA: THE CALONEURODEANS 217
  DERMAPTERA: THE EARWIGS 217
  GRYLLOBLATTODEA: THE ICE CRAWLERS 222
  MANTOPHASMATODEA: THE AFRICAN ROCK CRAWLERS 224
  DICTYOPTERA 227
      Dictyopteran Relationships 228
      Blattaria: The Roaches 230
      Citizen Roach: Isoptera (Termites) 238
      The Predatory Roachoids: Mantodea (Mantises) 252
      Ages of the Dictyoptera 260
8.   The Paraneopteran Orders 261
  PSOCOPTERA: THE BARK LICE 261
  PHTHIRAPTERA: THE TRUE LICE 272
      Fossils and Ages 275
  FRINGE WINGS: THYSANOPTERA (THRIPS) 280
      Feeding Habits 283
      Social Behavior 283
      Diversity and Relationships 284
      Fossils and Origins 285
  THE SUCKING INSECTS: HEMIPTERA 287
      Sternorrhyncha: Aphids, Whiteflies, Plant Lice, and Scale Insects 289
      Auchenorrhyncha: The Cicadas, Plant Hoppers, and Tree Hoppers 303
      Coleorrhyncha 312
      Heteroptera: The “True Bugs” 314
9.   The Holometabola 331
  PROBLEMATIC FOSSIL ORDERS 331
      Miomoptera 331
      Glosselytrodea 332
  THE ORIGINS OF COMPLETE METAMORPHOSIS 333
  ON WINGS OF LACE: NEUROPTERIDA 335
      Raphidioptera: The Snakeflies 337
      Megaloptera: The Alderflies and Dobsonflies 340
      Neuroptera: The Lacewings, Antlions, and Relatives 341
10.   Coleoptera and Strepsiptera 357
  EARLY FOSSILS AND OVERVIEW OF PAST DIVERSITY 360
  ARCHOSTEMATA 363
  ADEPHAGA 366
  MYXOPHAGA 370
  POLYPHAGA 371
  STREPSIPTERA: THE ENIGMATIC ORDER 399
      Diversity 402
      Relationships to Other Orders 402
      Fossils 403
11.   Hymenoptera: Ants, Bees, and Other Wasps 407
  THE EUHYMENOPTERA AND PARASITISM 413
  ACULEATA 429
      The Ants 440
      The Bees (Anthophila) 454
  EVOLUTION OF INSECT SOCIALITY 464
12.   Panorpida: Antliophora and Amphiesmenoptera 468
  PANORPIDA 468
  ANTLIOPHORA: THE SCORPIONFLIES, TRUE FLIES, AND FLEAS 468
  MECOPTERIDA: MECOPTERANS AND SIPHONAPTERA 470
      Early History 470
      Recent Diversity and Relationships 474
      The Fleas 480
      Evolution of Ectoparasites and Blood Feeders of Vertebrates 489
  DIPTERA: THE TRUE FLIES 491
      The Brachycera 514
      The Cyclorrhapha 531
13.   Amphiesmenoptera: The Caddisflies and Lepidoptera 548
  TRICHOPTERA: THE CADDISFLIES 548
  LEPIDOPTERA: THE MOTHS AND BUTTERFLIES 555
      Mesozoic Fossils 556
      Basal Groups 560
      Ditrysia 573
      The “Higher” Ditrysians: Macrolepidoptera 581
      Butterflies and Their Relatives (Rhopalocera) 590
      Mimicry 602
14.   Insects Become Modern: The Cretaceous and Tertiary Periods 607
  THE CRETACEOUS 607
      Flowering of the World: The Angiosperm Radiations 607
      Plant Sex and Insects: Insect Pollination 613
      Radiations of Phytophagous Insects 622
      Austral Arthropods: Remnants of Gondwana? 625
      Insects, Mass Extinctions, and the K/T Boundary 635
  THE TERTIARY 637
      Mammalian Radiations 638
      Pleistocene Dispersal and Species Lifespans 642
      Island Faunas 642
15.   Epilogue 646
  WHY SO MANY INSECT SPECIES? 646
      Age 646
      Design 646
      Capacity for High Speciation Rates 647
      Low Rates of Natural Extinction 647
  THE FUTURE 647
Glossary 651
References 662
Index 733

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