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 (ISBN-13: 9780521855020 | ISBN-10: 0521855020)

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From Movements to Parties in Latin America
The Evolution of Ethnic Politics

From Movements to Parties in Latin America provides a detailed treatment of a fascinating and important topic that heretofore has received no scholarly attention: the surprising transformation of indigenous peoples’ movements into viable political parties in the 1990s in four Latin American countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela) and their failure to succeed in two others (Argentina, Peru). The parties studied are crucial components of major trends in the region. By providing clear programs for governing to voters and reaching out in particular to underrepresented social groups, they have enhanced the quality of democracy and representative government. Based on extensive original research and detailed historical case studies, the book links historical institutional analysis and social movement theory to a study of the political systems in which the new ethnic cleavages emerged. The book concludes with a discussion of the implications for democracy of the emergence of this phenomenon in the context of declining public support for parties.

Donna Lee Van Cott is assistant professor of political science and Latin American studies at Tulane University. She is author of The Friendly Liquidation of the Past: The Politics of Diversity in Latin America (2000) and editor of Indigenous Peoples and Democracy in Latin America (1994), and she has published more than a dozen articles on related topics. She has been awarded a Fulbright Fellowship as well as a residential fellowship from the Helen Kellogg Institute of International Studies at the University of Notre Dame. Dr. Van Cott is the founding chair of the section on Ethnicity, Race, and Indigenous Peoples of the Latin American Studies Association.





From Movements to Parties in Latin America

The Evolution of Ethnic Politics


DONNA LEE VAN COTT
Tulane University





CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo

Cambridge University Press
40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA

www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521855020

© Donna Lee Van Cott 2005

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception
and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2005

Printed in the United States of America

A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library.

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Van Cott, Donna Lee.
From movements to parties in Latin America : the evolution of ethnic politics / Donna Lee Van Cott.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references (p. ) and index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-521-85502-0 (hardback)
ISBN-10: 0-521-85502-0 (hardback)
1. Political parties – Latin America. 2. Indians of South America –
Politics and government. 3. Latin America – Ethnic relations – Political aspects.
4. Latin America – Politics and government – 1980– I. Title.
JL969.A45V36    2005
324.2′089′98 – dc22    2005002285

ISBN-13 978-0-521-85502-0 hardback
ISBN-10 0-521-85502-0 hardback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for
the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or
third-party Internet Web sites referred to in this publication
and does not guarantee that any content on such
Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.





Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments page vii
Abbreviations and Acronyms xi
1   Introduction: Toward a Comprehensive Theory of Ethnic Party Formation and Performance 1
2   Institutions, Party Systems, and Social Movements 22
3   “A Reflection of Our Motley Reality”: Bolivian Indians’ Slow Path to Political Representation 49
4   “We Are the Government”: Pachakutik’s Rapid Ascent to National Power 99
5   “It Is Not a Priority”: The Failure to Form Viable Ethnic Parties in Peru 140
6   Argentina, Colombia, and Venezuela: Unlikely Cases of Ethnic Party Formation and Success 177
7   Conclusions and Implications 212
References 237
Index 271




Preface and Acknowledgments

It is a crisp, sunny, late-June day in La Paz. At 3,600 meters, the Andean sky is an implausible Soviet-postcard blue. In the Plaza de San Francisco, supporters of coca growers’ leader Evo Morales are setting up for this evening’s end-of-campaign rally and a few hundred supporters are congregating near the stage. As the sun begins to set, an impromptu parade winds past the Plaza, stopping rush-hour traffic on the Prado, the city’s main drag. It is led by Esther Balboa, a Quechua intellectual who is the Aymara leader Felipe Quispe’s vice presidential running mate in Sunday’s presidential election (the scene is depicted on the jacket of this book). Less than one week before the election, Morales and Quispe, leaders of parties representing the country’s indigenous majority, are expected to finish behind the pack. No one predicts the transformation that is about to occur. Quispe will merely win twice the vote of any previous indigenous presidential candidate. Morales will finish second, less than two percentage points behind the winner.

   Almost exactly five years earlier, after the 1997 elections, I wrapped up doctoral dissertation research in La Paz. I had a hunch that the new indigenous peoples’ parties that had formed in the 1990s might be the basis of a study of how small parties representing the marginalized indigenous population are having an impact on the quality of democracy in Latin America. As I concluded fieldwork for this book in 2002, indigenous peoples’ parties entered the government in Ecuador and controlled almost one-third of the Bolivian congress. They controlled regional governments in Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. In five short years, the interesting little parties had come of age.

   Preliminary field research in Bolivia and Colombia in 1997 was funded by a Fulbright dissertation fellowship. Two University of Tennessee Professional Development Awards and a grant from the UT Department of Political Science’s Cordell Hull Fund supported trips to Ecuador in 1999, Venezuela in 2000, Bolivia in 2001 and 2002, and Peru in 2002. I gratefully acknowledge this support. A six-country study required a great deal of collaboration from colleagues. Jóhanna Kristín Birnir, Michael Coppedge, Andrew Crain, Miguel García Sánchez, Thea Gelbspan, Kevin Healy, Dieter Heinen, Steven Levitsky, José Antonio Lucero, Raúl Madrid, Pilar Martínez, and José E. Molina V. generously helped me to acquire data and materials, and Robert Andolina, Jóhanna Kristín Birnir, Jo-Marie Burt, Michael Coppedge, Javier Corrales, Jean-Jacques Decoster, Rebecca Demar, Henry Dietz, María Elena García, Janet Kelly, Chris Krueger, José Antonio Lucero, Cynthia McClintock, Jennifer McCoy, David Myers, Joanne Rappaport, Kenneth M. Roberts, Martín Tanaka, Wendy Weiss, Coletta Youngers, and Raquel Yrigoyen shared their contacts in the Andes. Jo-Ann Hegre provided a luxury apartment, gourmet meals, handsome Frenchmen, and friendship during my stay in Venezuela. Rayda Márquez and Jesús Avirama gave me shelter and helped arrange interviews during two trips to Popayán, Colombia. In Lima, Jorge Agurto generously assembled and photocopied materials from his private files. More than seventy indigenous movement and party leaders, social scientists, and development professionals agreed to be interviewed for this project. Their collaboration was vital to its successful completion and I thank them for their patience and generosity.

   Portions of this book appeared in different form in “Institutional Change and Ethnic Parties in Latin America,” Latin American Politics in Society 45, 2 (Summer 2003): 1–39, and in “From Exclusion to Inclusion: Bolivia’s 2002 Elections,” Journal of Latin American Studies 35, 4 (November 2003): 751–75, published by Cambridge University Press.

   During the writing process Lisa Báldez, Robert Barr, Raúl Barrios, Scott Beck, Jóhanna Kristín Birnir, Claudia Briones, Michael Coppedge, Brian Crisp, Jonathan Hartlyn, Kevin Healy, Miguel Hilario, Silvia María Hirsch, Mala Htun, Mark Jones, Raúl Madrid, Ken Mijeski, Kathleen O’Neill, Eduardo Pizarro Leongómez, Benjamin Reilly, and Kenneth M. Roberts generously commented on drafts of various chapters and provided missing data. Their contributions improved the manuscript immensely. I am also indebted to two anonymous readers for their useful suggestions for reorganizing and clarifying my argument, and to Lewis Bateman for his skillful supervision of the editorial process. For their encouragement and solidarity during the long period of research and writing, I am deeply indebted to Willem Assies, Jóhanna Kristín Birnir, Mala Htun, Jean Jackson, Shannan Mattiace, and Kathleen O’Neill. This book is dedicated to these friends for their generosity and the spirit of collaboration that they inspire.

Donna Lee Van Cott
New Orleans





Abbreviations and Acronyms

AD Acción Democrática (Democratic Action)
ADM-19 Alianza Democrática M-19 (Democratic Alliance M-19)
ADN Acción Democrática Nacional (National Democratic Action)
AGAAI Asociación Guatemalteca de Alcaldes y Autoridades Indígenas (Guatemalan Association of Indigenous Mayors and Authorities)
AICO Autoridades Indígenas de Colombia (Indigenous Authorities of Colombia)
AIDESEP Asociación Inter-étnica para el Desarrollo de la Selva Peruana (Interethnic Association for the Development of the Peruvian Jungle)
AIECH Asociación de Iglesias Evangélicos de Chimborazo (Association of Evangelical Churches of Chimborazo)
AIRA Asociación Indígena de la República de Argentina (Indigenous Association of the Republic of Argentina)
ANC Asamblea Nacional Constituyente (National Constituent Assembly)
ANUC Asociación Nacional de Usuarios Campesinos (National Association of Campesino Users)
APCOB Apoyo Para las Comunidades Indígenas del Oriente Boliviano (Assistance for the Indigenous Communities of Eastern Bolivia)
APG Asamblea del Pueblo Guaraní (Assembly of the Guaraní People)
APRA Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americano (American Popular Revolutionary Alliance)
APRE Acción Popular Revolucionario del Ecuador (Revolutionary Popular Action of Ecuador)
ASI Alianza Social Indígena (Indigenous Social Alliance)
ASP Asamblea de la Soberanía de los Pueblos (Assembly for the Sovereignty of the Peoples)
CAAAP Centro Amazónico de Antropología y Aplicación Práctica (Amazonian Center for Anthropology and Applied Practice)
CCIIRA Comisión Coordinadora de Institutiones Indígenas de la Argentina (Coordinating Commission of Indigenous Institutions of Argentina)
CCP Confederación Campesina del Perú (Peasant Confederation of Peru)
CDCQ Confederación Departmental Campesina de Qosqo
CEDOC Confederación Ecuatoriana de Organizaciones Clasistas (Ecuadorian Confederation of Classist Organizations)
CEJIS Centro de Estudios Jurídicos e Investigación Social (Center for Legal Studies and Social Research)
CESC Coordinadora Etnica de Santa Cruz (Ethnic Coordinator of Santa Cruz)
CFP Concentración de Fuerzas Populares (Concentration of Popular Forces)
CFR Concentración de Fuerzas Revolucionarios (Concentration of Revolutionary Forces)
CGTP Confederación General de Trabajadores del Perú (General Confederation of Workers of Peru)
CIDOB Confederación Indígena del Oriente Boliviano, later Confederación Indígena del Oriente y Amazonía de Bolivia (Indigenous Confederation of Eastern Bolivia, later Indigenous Confederation of the East and Amazon of Bolivia)
CINA Consejo Indígena Nacional de la Amazonía (Amazon National Indigenous Council)
CIPA Centro de Investigación y Promoción Amazónica (Center for Amazon Research and Promotion)
CIRABO Central Indígena de la Región Amazónica Boliviana (Indigenous Central of the Amazon Region of Bolivia)
CISA Consejo Indio de Sud América (Indian Council of South America)
CMS Coordinadora de Movimientos Sociales (Coordinator of Social Movements)
CNA Confederación Nacional Agraria (National Agrarian Confederation)
CNCTK Confederación Nacional de Campesinos Tupak Katari (Tupak Katari National Confederation of Campesions)
CNE Corte Nacional Electoral (National Electoral Court)
CNTCB Confederación Nacional de Trabajadores Campesinos de Bolivia (National Confederation of Peasant Workers of Bolivia)
COB Central Obrero Boliviano (Bolivian Workers Central)
CODENPE Consejo de Desarrollo de las Nacionalidades y Pueblos del Ecuador (Council for the Development of the Nationalities and Peoples of Ecuador)
COICA Coordinadora de Organizaciones Indígenas de la Cuenca Amazónica (Coordinator of Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon Basin)
COICE Coordinadora de Organizaciones Indígenas de la Costa del Ecuador (Coordinator of the Indigenous Organizations of the Ecuadorian Coast)
CONACAMI Coordinadora Nacional de Comunidades Afectados por la Minería (National Coordinator of Communities Affected by Mining)
CONACCIP Coordinadora Nacional de Comunidades Campesinos e Indígenas del Perú (National Coordinator of Peasant and Indigenous Communities of Peru)
CONACNIE Consejo Nacional Coordinador de los Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador (National Coordinating Council of the Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador)
CONAICE Coordinadora Nacional de los Indígenas de la Costa del Ecuador (National Coordinator of the Indigenous of the Ecuadorian Coast)
CONAIE Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador (Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador)
CONAMAQ Consejo de Ayllus y Markas del Qullasuyu (Council of Ayllus and Markas of Qullasuyu)
CONAP Confederación de Nacionalidades Amazónicas del Perú (Confederation of Amazonian Nationalities of Peru)
CONAPAA Comisón Nacional de Pueblos Andinos, Amazónicos y Afroperuanos (National Commission of Andean, Amazonian, and Afro-Peruvian Peoples)
CONDEPA Conciencia de Patria (Conscience of the Fatherland)
CONFENIAE Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas de la Amazonía Ecuatoriana (Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of the Ecuadorian Amazon)
CONFEUNASSC Confederación de Afiliados al Seguro Social Campesino (Confederation of Affiliates of Peasant Social Security)
CONIVE Consejo Nacional Indio de Venezuela (National Indian Council of Venezuela)
COPEI Comité de Organización Política Electoral Independiente (also known as Partido Socialcristiano) (Independent Committee of Electoral Political Organization, Social Christian Party)
COPPIP Conferencia Permanente de los Pueblos Indígenas del Perú, Coordinadora Permanente de los Pueblos Indígenas del Perú (Permanent Conference of the Indigenous Peoples of Peru, Permanent Coordinator of the Indigenous Peoples of Peru)
CORACA Corporación Agropecuaria Campesina (Peasant Agricultural Corporation)
CPESC Coordinadora de Pueblos Etnicas de Santa Cruz (Coordinator of Ethnic Peoples of Santa Cruz)
CPIB Central de Pueblos Indígenas del Beni (Indigenous Peoples Central of the Beni)
CRIC Consejo Regional Indígena del Cauca (Regional Indigenous Council of Cauca)
CRIT Consejo Regional Indígena del Tolima (Regional Indigenous Council of Tolima)
CRIVA Consejo Regional Indígena del Vaupés (Regional Indigenous Council of Vaupés)
CSCB Confederación Sindical de Colonos Bolivianos (Syndical Confederation of Bolivian Colonists)
CSUTCB Confederación Sindical Unica de Trabajadores Campesinos de Bolivia (Unitary Syndical Confederation of Peasant Workers of Bolivia)
CTE Central de Trabajadores Ecuatorianos (Ecuadorian Workers Central)
DINEIB Dirección Nacional de Educación Intercultural y Bilingue (National Director of Intercultural and Bilingual Education)
DM district magnitude
DP Democracia Popular (Popular Democracy)
ECUARUNARI Ecuador Runacunapac Riccharimui (The Awakening of the Ecuadorian Indian)
EGTK Ejército Guerrillero Tupak Katari (Tupak Katari Guerrilla Army)
ELN Ejército de Liberación Nacional (Army of National Liberation)
EMIDINHO Encuesta de Medición de Indicadores de la Niñez y los Hogares (Survey of Measurement of Indicators of Children and Homes)
ENPS effective number of parties for seats
EPL Ejército Popular de Liberación; Esperanza, Paz y Libertad (Popular Liberation Army; Hope, Peace, and Liberty)
FADI Frente Amplio de la Izquierda (Broad Front of the Left)
FARC Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarios de Colombia (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia)
FARTAC Federación Agraria Revolucionaria Túpac Amaru (Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Agrarian Federation)
FDCC/FDCQ Federación Departamental del Campesinos de Cuzco/Qosqo (Cuzco/Qosqo Departmental Peasant Federation)
FECONAYA Federación de Comunidades Yanesha (Federation of Yanesha Communities)
FEDEPICNE Frente de Defensa de los Pueblos Indígenas, Campesinos y Negros del Ecuador (Front for the Defense of the Indigenous, Peasant, and Black Peoples of Ecuador)
FENCAP Federación General de Yanaconas y Campesinos del Peru (General Federation of Yanaconas and Peasants of Peru)
FEI Federación Ecuatoriana de Indios (Ecuadorian Federation of Indians)
FEINE Federación Ecuatoriana de Iglesias Evangélicas (Ecuadorian Federation of Evangelical Churches)
FENACLE Federación Nacional de Campesinos Libres del Ecuador (National Federation of Free Peasants of Ecuador)
FENAMAD Federación de Nacionalidades Amazonicas del Rio Madre de Dios y Afluentes (Federation of Amazonian Nationalities of the Madre de Dios River and Effluents)
FENOC Federación Nacional de Organizaciones Campesinas (National Federation of Peasant Organizations)
FENOCIN Federación Nacional de Organizaciones Campesinas, Indígenas, y Negras (National Federation of Peasant, Indigenous, and Black Organizations)
FIB Federación Indígena del Estado de Bolívar (Indigenous Federation of the State of Bolivar)
FICI Federación Indígena y Campesina de Imbabura (Indigenous and Peasant Federation of Imbabura)
FIJO Fuerza de Integración Juntos con Orgullo (Force of Integration Together with Pride)
FOCEP Frente Obrero, Campesino, Estudiantil y Popular (Worker, Peasant, Student, and Popular Front)
FOIN Federación de Organizaciones Indígenas de Napo (Federation of Indigenous Organizations of Napo)
FREPASO Frente Para un País en Solidaridad (Front for a Country in Solidarity)
FTC Federación de Trabajadores de Cuzco (Federation of Workers of Cuzco)
FULKA Frente de Unidad de Liberación Katarista (United Front for Katarista Liberation)
FUT Frente Unitario de los Trabajadores (Unitary Front of the Workers)
GAP Guyana Action Party
ICCI Instituto Científico de Culturas Indígenas (Scientific Institute of Indigenous Cultures)
ID Izquierda Democrática (Democratic Left)
ILO International Labour Organization
IMF International Monetary Fund
INAI Instituto Nacional de Asuntos Indígenas (National Institute of Indigenous Affairs)
IPSP Instrumento Político para la Soberanía de los Pueblos (Political Instrument for the Sovereignty of the Peoples)
IU Izquierda Unida (United Left)
JNE Jurado Nacional Electoral (National Electoral Juror)
KND Katarismo Nacional Democrática (National Democratic Katarism)
LCR La Causa R (Radical Cause)
LN Liberación Nacional (National Liberation)
LPP Ley de Participación Popular (Law of Popular Participation)
MACPIO Ministerio de Asuntos Campesinos, Pueblos Indígenas y Originarios (Ministry of Peasant, Indigenous, and Original Peoples Affairs)
MARQA Movimiento por la Autonomía Regional Quechua y Aymara (Movement for Quechua and Aymara Regional Autonomy)
MAS Movimiento al Socialismo (Movement Toward Socialism)
MBL Movimiento Bolivia Libre (Free Bolivia Movement)
MCC Movimiento Ciudadano para el Cambio (Citizens for Change Movement)
MCI Movimiento Cívico Independiente (Independent Civic Movement)
MIAP Movimiento Indígena de la Amazonía Peruana (Indigenous Movement of the Peruvian Amazon)
MIC Movimiento Indígena Colombiano (Colombian Indigenous Movement)
MICNP Movimiento Independiente de Ciudadanos Nuevo Pais (New Country Independent Movement of Citizens)
MIIAA Movimiento Independiente Integracionista del Alto Amazonas (Independent Integrationist Movement of Upper Amazonas)
MIP Movimiento Indígena Pachakuti (Pachakuti Indigenous Movement)
MIR Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionario (Movement of the Revolutionary Left)
MITKA Movimiento Indio Tupak Katari (Tupak Katari Indian Movement)
MKN Movimiento Katarista Nacional (National Katarista Movement)
MNCL Movimiento Nacional de Cristianos por la Liberación (National Movement of Christians for Liberation)
MNR Movimiento Nacional Revolucionario (National Revolutionary Movement)
MPD Movimiento Popular Democrático (Popular Democratic Movement)
MPN Movimiento Popular Nacional (National Popular Movement)
MRIC Movimiento Revolucionario de la Izquierda Cristiana (Revolutionary Movement of the Christian Left)
MRTA Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru (Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement)
MRTK Movimiento Revolucionario Tupak Katari (Tupak Katari Revolutionary Movement)
MRTKL Movimiento Revolucionario Tupak Katari de Liberación (Tupak Katari Revolutionary Movement of Liberation)
MSN Movimiento de Salvación Nacional (National Salvation Movement)
MUPP-NP Movimiento de Unidad Plurinacional Pachakutik-Nuevo País (Pachakutik Movement of Plurinational Unity–New Country)
MVR Movimiento Quinto República (Fifth Republic Movement)
NFR Nueva Fuerza Republicana (New Republican Force)
NGO nongovernmental organization
OBA Organización de Bases Aymaras (Organization of Aymara Bases)
OBAAQ Organización de Bases Amazónicos, Aymaras, y Quechuas (Organization of Amazonian, Aymara, and Quechua Bases)
ONIC Organización Nacional Indígena de Colombia (National Indigenous Organization of Colombia)
ONPE Oficina Nacional de Procesos Electorales (National Office of Electoral Processes)
OPIAC Organización de Pueblos Indígenas de la Amazonía Colombiana (Organization of Indigenous Peoples of the Colombian Amazon)
OPIP Organización de Pueblos Indígenas de Pastaza (Organization of Indigenous Peoples of Pastaza)
ORPIA Organización Regional de Pueblos Indígenas de Amazonas (Regional Organization of Indigenous Peoples of Amazonas)
ORPIZ Organización Regional de Pueblos Indígenas de Zulia (Regional Organization of Indigenous Peoples of Zulia)
PCB Partido Comunista de Bolivia (Communist Party of Bolivia)
PCV Partido Comunista Venezolano (Venezuelan Communist Party)
PIAK Partido Indio Aymara Kechua (Aymara Kechua Indian Party)
PIB Partido Indio de Bolivia (Indian Party of Bolivia)
PJ Partido Justicialista (Justicialist Party)
PMDB Partido de Movimiento Democrático Brasileiro (Brazilian Democratic Movement Party)
POS political opportunity structure
PPC Partido Popular Cristiano (Popular Christian Party)
PPT Patria Para Todos (Fatherland for All)
PR proportional representation
PRD Partido de la Revolución Democrática (Party of the Democratic Revolution)
PRE Partido Roldosista Ecuatoriano (Ecuadorian Roldosist Party)
PRIN Partido Revolucionario de la Izquierda Nacionalista (Revolutionary Party of the Nationalist Left)
PRODEPINE Programa Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas y Negros (National Program for the Development of the Indigenous and Black Peoples)
PS Partido Socialista (Socialist Party)
PSC Partido Social Conservador (Social Conservative Party) (Colombia), Partido Social Cristiano (Social Christian Party) (Ecuador)
PSE Partido Socialista Ecuatoriano (Ecuadorian Socialist Party)
PS-FA Partido Socialista-Frente Amplio (Socialist Party–Broad Front)
PSP Partido Sociedad Patriótica (Patriotic Society Party)
PT(B) Partido Trabalhista (Brasiliera) ([Brazilian] Workers Party)
PUAMA Pueblo Unido Multiétnico de Amazonas (United Multiethnic People of Amazonas)
PUM Partido Unido Mariateguista (United Mariateguist Party)
RENIEC Registro Nacional de Identificación y Estado Civil (National Registry of Identification and Civil Status)
RGAF Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces
SETAI Secretaría Técnica de Asuntos Indígenas (Technical Secretariat of Indigenous Affairs)
SIISE Sistema Integrado de Indicadores Sociales del Ecuador (Ecuadorian Integrated System of Social Indicators)
SINAMOS Sistema Nacional en Apoyo de la Mobilización Social (National System in Support of Social Mobilization)
SMD single member district
THOA Taller de Historia Oral Andina (Andean Oral History Workshop)
TSE Tribunal Supremo Electoral (Supreme Electoral Tribunal)
UCAPO Unión de Campesinos Pobres (Union of Poor Peasants)
UCR Unión Cívica Radical (Radical Civic Union)
UCS Unión Cívica de Solidaridad (Civic Union of Solidarity)
UDP Unidad Democrática Popular (Popular Democratic Unity)
UMOPAR Unidad Móvil de Patrullaje Rural (Mobile Rural Patrol Unit)
UNCA Unión de Comunidades Aymaras (Union of Aymara Communities)
UNDICH Unión Departamental Indígena del Chocó (Indigenous Departmental Union of the Chocó)
UNORCIC Unión de Organizaciones Campesino e Indígenas de Cotacachi (Union of Peasant and Indigenous Organizations of Cotacachi)
UP Unión Patriótica (Patriotic Union)
UPP Unión por el Perú (Union for Peru)
VAIPO Viceministerio Asuntos Indígenas y Pueblos Originarios (Vice Ministry of Indigenous and Original Peoples Affairs)
VR Vanguardia Revolucionaria




From Movements to Parties in Latin America
The Evolution of Ethnic Politics


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