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  • Page extent: 336 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.66 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 323.445
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: n/a
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Government information
    • Freedom of information
    • Secrecy

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 (ISBN-13: 9780521858700 | ISBN-10: 0521858704)

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INDEX

Abu Ghraib prison, 51–54

   American public on abuse, 233, 238

   International Red Cross access to, 68–69

   material bases of reports on, 53, 77–78

   Rumsfeld on, 52

   Taguba report and, 12, 51–54, 68–69, 154

   U.S. contractor accountability at, 154–156. See also Guantánamo Bay; prisoner abuse

Access to Information Act (AIA; Canada), 87–93

   categorizing/identifying requesters in, 25, 91–92

   changing nature of requests in, 88

   confidential information from other country and, 135

   Conservative Party and, 87, 91

   Liberal Party and, 87–89, 92, 93

   routing simple/noncontentious requests in, 28

   significance effects of surveillance/review procedures, 92–93

   surveillance/review procedures to weaken

     administrative policy changes, 89

     amberlight process, 89–93

     litigation, 88

     repeated acts of omission, 88

Access to Information Act (Zimbabwe), 121

Administrative Procedure Act (APA; U.S.), 13

Adzharia, Georgia, nongovernmental organizations in, 120

AES Nile Power, 5–6

Afghanistan, prisoner abuse in, 53, 69, 78, 233

African National Congress, 162–163, 168

Agreement on Basic Telecommunication Services (WTO), 180

Agreement on Government Procurement (WTO), 180

Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (WTO), 180

AIDS, 5, 87

Akosombo Dam (Ghana), 185

Alfonsin, Raul, 30

al Qaeda

   evidence of plotting against U.S. after 9/11, 38

   information sharing among, 140–141

al-Zarqawi, Abu Musab, 45

amberlight process (Canada), 89–93

American Bar Association, report on unchecked power, 12

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)

   Joint Terrorism Task Forces and, 143–145

   prisoner abuse and, 155

American Society of Newspaper Editors (ASNE), 13–14, 51

Amsterdam Treaty (1997), 177

Anderson, Charles, 23

Anti-Terrorism Act (Canada), 136, 137

Arar, Maher, 136–138

Arar Inquiry (Canada), 136–138

arcana imperii (secrets of imperial policy), 10

Argentina, 30, 33, 172, 192

Arizona, prison information access in, 166–167

Armenia, marred elections in, 120

Article 21, of Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 12

Article 19 (Great Britain), 109, 114

Ashcroft, John, 64, 66, 78

Asiaweek, 4

atomic secrets (U.S.), 34

Attlee, Clement, 34

Australia

   adoption of access-to-information laws in, 93

   attempt to extend FOIA to private sector in, 169

   costs for disclosure law administration in, 113

   FOIA fee increase in, 32

   misrepresentation by government in, 96

   obstruction/delays in information requests in, 96–97

   prison contract disclosure in, 153

   prison privatization and, 152–153

   privatization and, 151

   privatization of utilities in, 157–158

   recordkeeping in, 111–112

   security establishment resilience in, 35

   Security Of Information Agreement with United States, 132, 133–134

Aylwin, Patricio, 31

Azerbaijan, media/information access in, 121

Bangkok, Thailand, school admissions procedures in, 4

basic civil rights protection, 48–49

basic human right, access to information as, 165–166

Berkowitz, Bruce, 42

Bernstein, Carl, 231–234

Black Wednesday (Great Britain), 7

Blair, Tony, 46, 83–84. See also Blair government

Blair government

   decision-making before Iraq war, 101

   delay in implementing disclosure law, 7, 104–105

   FOIA and, 83–84

   Iraq intelligence handling by, 82–83

   media criticism of, 83

   pre-election reform promises, 83

   pre-war evidence on Iraq, 46

   privatization and, 151

   right to information under, 7

Blanton, Tom, 217

Bloc countries, ex-Soviet

   disclosure law adoption as prerequisite to join NATO, 129–130. See also individual country

Blumenthal, Sidney, 102

Bobbit, Phillip, 101–102

Bodin, Jean, 10

Bosnia, whistleblowers on U.S. military contractor in, 156

Brandeis, Louis, 232

Brazil, 30–31, 34, 183, 184, 193

Bretton Woods institutions

   disclosure law adoption and, 110. See also International Monetary Fund; World Bank

British Columbia

   monitoring sensitive information requests in, 97–98

   price barrier to publicly available structured data, 206

   routing simple/noncontentious requests in, 28

Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 56

Bulgaria, 29, 130, 182

bureaucracy

   countering poor analysis by transparency, 48

   power in United States, 11–13

   regulation/legitimization of power in U.S., 13

   Weber on, 11, 215

Bush, G. W., 63, 210. See also Bush administration (G. W.)

Bush administration (G. W.)

   classification decisions during, 214

   DSM transparency and, 183

   Foreign Intelligence Service Act and, 72

   incomplete rollback of disclosure laws, 70

     advocacy groups and, 71

     Internet poll use, 70–71

     public opinion and, 70

   information sharing and, 143

   misrepresentation of evidence on Iraq, 45

   multilateral legal assistance treaties and, 138

   openness after terrorists attacks on U.S., 18–20

   post-war planning for Iraq, 46–47

   restrictions on disclosure, post 9/11, 141–143

   transparency maelstroms under, 72–78

     abuse/torture of detainees, 77–78, 80

     factors influencing, 72–74:

     ease of broadcasting documents to mass audience, 73;

     media structure transformation, 73–74;

     willingness of officials to ignore warnings of leaks, 73

     Iraq war plans, 75–77

     terrorist attack warnings, 74–75

   “zone of autonomy” protection by, 63–69

     classified information, 65–66

     congressional efforts to oversee antiterror efforts, 66–67

     criticism of, 69, 71

     detainees and, 66, 68–69

     difficulty of, 79–81

     efforts to narrow FOIA impact, 64

     Iraq War and, 67–68

     Presidential Records Acts and, 64

Bush administration (G.H.W.), email destruction and, 215

Byrd, Robert, 62

CACI, 154–155, 156

California, utility regulation in, 158–159

California Anti-Terrorism Information Center (CATIC), 146

Camdessus, Michel, 190–191

Campbell, Alastair, 83

Canada

   access to government information in, 17

   access-to-information law adoption in, 82–83

   Arar Inquiry, 136–138

   browsing EDRM library in, 223

   costs for disclosure law administration, 114

   disclosure of information in, 35

   EDRM system adoption in, 219

   government email in, 213

   increase in email requests in, 217

Canada (cont.)

   internally developed database in, 221–222

   international intelligence networks and, 135–138

   monitoring sensitive information requests in, 97–98

   price barrier to publicly available structured data, 206

   privatization and, 153

   privatization of air traffic control in, 159–160

   privatization of utilities in, 157

   record-keeping in, 214

   Security Of Information Agreements with United States, 133–134

   trivialization of information requests in, 118. See also Access to Information Act

Carpinello, George, 211

Carter Center (Atlanta, GA), 109

Castells, Manuel, 147

Center for American Progress, 63

Center for Constitutional Rights, 78

Center for Investigative Journalism (Philippines), 120

Center for Public Integrity (U.S.), 72, 78, 202–203, 205

Center for the Study of Responsive Law (U.S.), 14, 98

Central/Eastern Europe, security establishment resilience in, 34

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

   classified report on Iraq threat, 45

   data aggregation industry and, 209

   limited analytic capacity of, 46

   reappraisal of Hussein link to al-Zarqawi, 45

   secret programs after terrorist attacks on U.S., 37

   secret support to former Nazi officials, 32

Central Records System (U.S.), 224–225

Cheney, Dick, 74

   antipathy toward open government, 19

   energy policy and, 62

   on erosion of power of executive, 63

   on lawsuit abuse, 234

   as Rumsfeld deputy, 55

Chile, 31, 34, 52

China, 7–9, 110, 121–122

ChoicePoint, 208–209

Chulov, Martin, 96

Citizens’ Ombudsmen Association (Zenkoku Shimin Ombudsmen; Japan),

Civil Service Reform Act (1978), 59

Clark, Joe, 87

Clarke, Richard, 74, 76

Classified Information Protection Act (Bulgaria), 130

Classified National Security Information (U.S.), 35

Clausen, A. W., 186

Clean Air Act (EPA), 207

Clinton, Bill, 127, 150. See also Clinton administration

Clinton administration

   classification decisions during, 214

   disclosure and, 15, 32, 64, 65

   DSM transparency and, 183

   email destruction and, 215

   multilateral legal assistance treaties and, 138

   toxic chemical regulation, 203, 206

CNSS et al v. Department of Justice, 71

Code of Conduct (EU), 174–176

Cold War era

   assumption about principal threat to national security, 38

   resistance to openness during, 32–33

collective groupthink, 45–46

Colorado, surveillance restrictions in, 143–144

Columbia Accident Investigation Board, 216

commercial data brokers, see digitization, of government documents, data aggregators

Commonwealth, model disclosure law for, 109

Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (India), 109, 114

Communist Bloc countries, access to secret police files in former, 29

Comptroller General, 59

computer-assisted reporting (CAR), 201–202

confidence, in government, 58

Congress of South African Trade Unions, 162, 164

Congress (U.S.)

   fragmentation of power in, 58

   IMF transparency and, 190–191

   increased role in political system, 56

   joint inquiry into 9/11 report, 42, 140, 143, 216

   overseeing of antiterror efforts, 66–67

   restrictions on executive branch, 58–59

Consejo de Seguridad Nacional (Ecuador), 34

Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters (EU), 138

Coolidge Committee on Classified Information, 128

Coordination of Access to Information Request System (CAIRS), 91–92

Corporate Warriors (Singer), 155–156

Corrections Corporation of America, 156–157

Corrections Corporation of Australia (CCA), 166–167

Corruptions Perceptions Index, 110

Council of Europe, 109–110

Council of European Union, 174

Council on Foreign Relations (U.S.), 47

criminal penalty, for leaking classified information, 127–130

Crosbie, John, 87

Cross, Harold, 13–14

Crozier, Michel, 56

Customs Service (U.S.), restriction of information by, 38

Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia, fall of communism in, 28

Czech Republic, 29, 130

Daily Yomiuri (Japan), 5

Daniels, Mitchell, 62

Danner, Mark, 234–235, 236

data aggregators, see digitization, of government documents, data aggregators

Dayton Daily News, 205

Dean, John, 69, 127

defamation (desacato) laws, 120

Delhi, India, public hearing on government corruption in, 3

democracy

   governance structure weakening in, 102

   public sector restructuring in, 160, 168–170

   Trilateral Commission study on, 56–57, 58. See also individual country

Denmark, 129, 151, 174, 176, 177

Department of Defense (U.S.)

   classification of already public information, 65

   oversight at, 156. See also Rumsfeld, Donald

Department of Energy (U.S.), 213

Department of Fisheries and Oceans (Canada), 222

Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (Canada), 90

Department of Homeland Security (U.S.), 37, 41

Department of Housing and Urban Development (U.S.), 205

Department of Human Resources Development (Canada), 92

Department of Public Works (Canada), 93

Department of Transportation (U.S.), fatality reporting by, 201–202

desacato (defamation) laws, 120

developed countries

   court role in disclosure law implementation, 116

   recordkeeping in, 111–112. See also individual country

developing countries, see soft states; individual country

Dey, Nikhil, 2

Diamondback Correctional Facility, 166–167

Diebert, Ronald, 147

digitization, of government documents

   data aggregators, 207–212

     court records and, 211–212

     dominant businesses in data aggregation, 208–209

     government-collected personal data access and, 210

     government reliance on, problems with, 209–211

     personal information types extracted by, 208

     Social Security numbers and, 209

     unwittingly selling to identity thieves, 209

   making sense of data, problems with, 218

   move toward, 199–200

   paper record advantage over digital, 217–218

   reacting to, 225–227

   structured data, 201–207

     academic/interest group use of, 202–203

     computer-assisted reporting and, 201–202

     costs of providing, 203–204

     databases, 201

     databases, digitization of, 201

     EFOIA and, 205

     FOIA and, 204

     government resistance to release of, 203–206

     industry pressure on agencies to not release, 206–207

     journalist use of, 201–202

     material incentive for government to release, 205–206

   unstructured data (metadata), 212–218

     effect of expansion/ diversification of, 214

     email, 214, 215

     email, as monitoring tool, 216–217

     email, presidential, 214–215

     increased costs of data provision, 217–218

     increase in classified documents, 213–214

     original/derivative classification decision, 213–214

     recordkeeping for, 225.

     (See also Electronic Document and Records Management Systems)

     technology effect on increase in volume of, 213

Di Rita, Lawrence, 52

disclosure laws

   administrative costs for, 112–114

   adoption by first/second wave of countries, 108–109

   effectiveness as corruption-fighting tools, 122–123

   implementation by richer/poorer countries, 115–116

   income source for administering, 114–115

   information seeking by richer/poorer countries, 116–120

   official resistance to

     centripetal/centrifugal pressures and, 102–103

     change in governance structure role in, 102

     in countries outside U.S., 99

     differing reaction among countries, 98–99

     intensification of, over time, 99–100

     in Japan, 99

     motives for, 103

     OECD countries and, 100

     in United Kingdom, 100–101

     in United States, 98–99

   profile of first wave of countries to adopt, 107–108

   profile of second wave of countries to adopt, 108.

   (See also soft states)

   suggested conditions essential for adoption, 107–108

Dismukes v. Department of Interior, 204

Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM; WTO), 178, 182

Driver Privacy Protection Act (DPPA; U.S.), 210

drug trafficking, 138

Dynacorp, 156

East Asia

   IMF crisis management and, 189–190. See also individual country

East Germany, security service in (Stasi), 27–29

Echeverria, Luis, 6

Economist, 8

Ecuador, 34, 112

Edison Schools, 151

education

   access to information in U.S., 165, 166

   privatization of schools, 151, 157

   school admissions secretiveness in Thailand, 4

Egypt, on asbestos product ban, 183

Eigen, Peter, 110

Eisenhower, Dwight D., 14

Electronic Document and Records Management Systems (EDRMS), 219–225

   government agencies grapple with heightened transparency, 222–224

   potential of, 219–225

   potential official evasion of, 224–225

   user problem solver, 222

Electronic Freedom of Information Act (EFOIA), 205

Electronic Privacy Information Center, 72

Ellsberg, Daniel, 47, 49, 73

Ellwood, Brian, 94

Elster, Jon, 36

El Universal (Mexico), 6

Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), 203

England, see United Kingdom

English, Bill, 95

English Revolution, 10

Enron Corporation, 62, 158–159

environmental groups

   call for reform of DSM, 182–183

   hydro-electric dam and, 5–6

   nuclear plants and, 41

   toxic chemical information and, 203

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 39, 207

Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.), 203

environmental safety, 202

Ethics in Government Act (1978), 59

Etzioni, Amitai, 139

EU Council, 175–176

European Commission, 174, 175, 177

European Court of Justice, 176

European Union

   adoption of EDRM systems in, 219

   transparency in, 173–178

     EU Council actions, 175–176

     new disclosure regulation, 177

     new procedures to access documents, 174–176

     Ombudsman role, 175, 177

     popular resistance to integration and, 174

   U.S. multilateral legal assistance treaties with, 138. See also individual country

Executive Order 12958, 35, 38

Executive Order 13292, 35

Falconer, Charles, 105

Fallows, James, 47

Fatality Analysis Reporting System, of U.S. Department of Transportation, 201–202

Fay-Jones report, on prisoner abuse, 154

Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA; 1972), 15–16, 59, 62–63

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA; U.S.), 37–38

Federal Bureau of Information (FBI)

   data aggregation industry and, 209

   denial of evidence of impending terror attacks, 74–75

   secret support to former Nazi officials, 32

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC; U.S.), 37, 40, 159

Federal Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC), 70

Federal Register, 13

federal tax law study, 202

Feith, Douglas, 77

Fianna Fáil government, 84

Filmer, Robert, 10

Financial Times, on World Bank, 187

Finland, official documents in, 14

Fischer, Stanley, 192

Fleisher, Ari, 58

Florida, 210, 212

FOIA, see Freedom of Information Act (FOIA; U.S.); individual country

Ford, Gerald, veto of 1974 amendments to FOIA, 55

Foreign Intelligence Service Act (1978), 59, 72

Foreign Intelligence Service Court, 59, 72

Foreign Policy, 17

Fox, Vicente, 6, 31

France, 9, 151, 176–177, 178, 183

Frank, Barney, 186

Franks, Tommy, 76–77

Freedom of Information Act (FOIA; U.S.), 13–14

   abuse in military facilities and, 78

   administration costs of, 114

   Bush Administration (G. W.) and, 64, 71–72

   classified information and, 35–36

   expanded access to information under, 58

   on files for law enforcement purposes, 13

   forerunner to, 179

   nongovernmental agencies and, 118

   resistance to, 98–99

   Rumsfeld support for 1966 Act, 54–55

   Schlesinger on, 69

   veto of 1974 amendments to, 55

   worldwide trend toward adoption of FOIA-style laws, 14–17

Freedom of Information Act Network, 120

French Revolution, 10

GATT, 178

Gauck, Joachim, 29

G-7 countries, law enforcement collaboration among, 138

General Accounting Office Act (1980), 59

General Accounting Office (GAO), energy policy investigation by, 62–63

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (WTO), 179

General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS; WTO), 179–180

Georgia, 119, 120

Germany, 15, 35, 151, 176–177, 178. See also East Germany

Ghana, Akosombo Dam project in, 185

ghost detainees, 68–69

Gibson, William, 79–80

Giddens, Anthony, 15

Gill, Stephen, 55

Gilligan, Andrew, 82

Gingrich, Newt, 60

Glen Canyon Dam, 39, 40

Globe and Mail (Canada), 93

Gonzales, Alberto, 64, 234

Gonzáles, Mónica, 31

Government Accountability Office (GAO), 41

Government Executive, 208

Government in the Sunshine Act (1976), 59

Graham, Mary, 206–207

Great Britain, see United Kingdom

Greenpeace, nuclear plants and, 41

Greenwatch, hydro-electric dam and, 5–6

groupthink, 45–46, 47

Guangzhou, China, right to information in, 8–9

Guantánamo Bay, 19, 37, 66

Guardian newspaper, 105, 176

Gulliver analogy, 59–62

Gutman, Daniel, 156

Haave, Carol, 142

Hansard, 10

Hautala, Heidi, 176

Hawaii, contractor information access in, 166–167

Hazare, Anna, 3

health information access, 5, 87, 166, 202

He Guoping, 9

hepatitis C, 5

Herbert, Bob, 234

Hersh, Seymour, 53, 78

homeland security, 37

Homeland Security Act, 16, 65, 146

Honecker, Erich, 27

Hoover, Herbert, 224

Houston Chronicle, on prisoner abuse, 154

Howard, Michael, 106

Howard government, 96

Human Rights Commission (Pakistan), 111

Hungary, 6, 27, 29

Huntington, Samuel, 56, 57

Hutton Inquiry, 82–83, 216

hyper pluralism, 57

Immigration Department (Canada), 89–90, 92

Immigration Service (New Zealand), 95–96

Imperial Hubris, 76

India

   adoption of disclosure law in, 3–4

   on asbestos product ban, 183

   disclosure as corruption-fighting tool in, 123

   on DSM reform, 183

   implementation of disclosure law in, 116–117, 120

   security establishment resilience in, 34–35

   Security Of Information Agreement with United States, 133

   U.S. multilateral legal assistance treaty with, 138

Indonesia, 132, 193

Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO; U.S.), 213, 214

Information Sharing Task Force (FBI; U.S.), 143

Inspector General Act (1978), 59

Institute for Nuclear Power Operations (U.S.), 159

Interior Department (U.S.), citizen rights and, 39

Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 205

International Band for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), 184, 187

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), 68–69

international defense networks, post-Cold War, 131–135

   bureaucracy to network move, 147–149

   European Union and, 134–135

   new global security architecture, 139–147

   United States

     domestic networks in, 139–147

     international intelligence networks and, 135–138

     law enforcement and, 138–139

     Security Of Information Agreements and, 132–135

International Development Association (IDA), 184, 186, 187

International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, 109

International Media Lawyers Association, 120

International Monetary Fund (IMF), 157

   crisis management and, 189–190

   Pakistan and, 111

   privatization and, 157

   response to pressure for openness, 191–192

   surveillance efforts of, 192–193

   transparency and, 188–193

   Transparency and Efficiency Act, 190

   U.S. Congress/transparency of, 190–191

International Records Management Trust, 112

International Red Cross (IRC), access to Abu Ghraib prison, 68–69

International Rivers Network, 6

international trade, liberalization of, see World Trade Organization

Internet, 70–71, 159, 161–162, 203

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (U.S.), 159, 161–162

Iran-Contra scandal, 214–215

Iraq

   British intelligence and, 46, 82–83

   post-war construction contracts, 202–203

   U.S. intelligence and, 44–46, 68, 69, 75–77

   U.S. post-war planning and, 46–47. See also Abu Ghraib prison

Iraq Survey Group, 45

Ireland

   amendments to FOIA in, 86

   contractor record disclosure requirements in, 153

   fee increase in, 32

   Freedom of Information Act of, 84–86

   right to information in, 7

   Single European Act and, 174

Irish Sun, 85

Irish Times, 84–85

Jacobson, Joseph, 39

Jamaica, FOIA implementation in, 115–116

Janawad, Rajasthan, India, 2

Janis, Irving, 45

Japan, 4–5, 15, 117, 138

Japanese Defense Agency, 99

Jiang Weiping, 121

Jiang Yangong, 122

Joint Congressional Inquiry into 9/11 report, 42, 140, 143, 216

Joint Intelligence Task Force, Combating Terrorism (JITF-CT), 145

Joint Regional Information Exchange System (JRIES; U.S.), 145–146

Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs; FBI), 134, 143–144, 145, 146

journalism, see story line, journalistic

Judicial Watch, energy policy and, 15–16, 62

Justice Department (Canada), journalist vs. legislator request, 92

Justice Department (U.S.)

   classification of already public information, 65

   database information withholding by, 205

   on ethos of diplomatic confidentiality, 172

   misrepresentations by, 72

   on selling driver records, 210

Kahn-Freund, Otto, 98

Karpinski, Janis, 53

Kasten, Robert, 186

Kay, David, 11

Kean, Thomas, 67

Kellner, Douglas, 236

Kelly, David, 82–83, 216

Kelwara, Rajasthan, India, 1–2, 3, 116–117

Kenya, recordkeeping conditions in, 112

Kissinger, Henry, 67

Klayman, Larry, 62

Kohl, Helmut, on Stasi record disclosure, 29

Köhler, Horst, 191

Krenz, Egon, 27

Labour Party (U.K.), see Blair government

Lagos, Ricardo, 31

Latin America

   IMF crisis management and, 189

   secret file access after regime collapse in, 30–32

   security establishment resilience in, 33–34. See also individual country

Latvia, security establishment resilience in, 34

Law of Associations (Turkey), 119

Law Reform Commission (Australia), 111–112

Leahy, Patrick, 186

LeBlanc, Daniel, 93

Lewis, Anthony, 234

Libertad de Información de México, 6

Liberty Institute (Georgia), 119, 120

Limpa-ovart, Sumalee, 4

Living Rivers environmental group, 39

lobby groups

   proliferation of, 56, 57. See also nongovernmental organizations

Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995, 57

local law enforcement, collaboration with, 134, 144–146

Lord, Carnes, 15

Los Angeles Times, on prisoner abuse, 77

Lott, Trent, 68, 213

Lugar, Richard, 67–68

Madison, James, 160

Maharashtra, India, information disclosure law adoption in, 3–4

malpractice, by military medical staff, 205

Management and Training Corporation (U.S.), 155

Matthews, Chris, 52

Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS), 1–3

McCain, John, 216

McCreevey, Charlie, 85

McDowell, Michael, 85–86

McGregor, Theo, 158

McMahon Act (U.S.), 34

McNamara, Robert, 47

meatpacking industry, 232

media

   attitudes toward established institutions/government and, 15, 56

   capacity to act on information obtained through law, 120–122

   change in organization of, 57–58

   influence on state’s crisis of legitimacy, 101–102

media lines, 90, 92

medical implant safety, 202

memorandums of understanding (MOU), 132, 143–144

metadata, see digitization, of government documents, unstructured data

metric martyrs, 171

Mexico

   agricultural trade liberalization of, 181

   IMF crisis management and, 189

   information disclosure law adoption in, 6

   secret files access in, 31–32

   WTO/disclosure and, 182, 183

Mielke, Erich, 28

Miller, John, 141

Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (Stasi), 27–29

Mirror, 105

Mitrokhin, Vasili, 29–30

Mitrokhin Archive, 29–30

Mohammed, Khalid Sheikh, 75

Moldavia, implementing disclosure law in, 116

Montana, media requests for governor email in, 217

Morgenthau, Hans, 173

Mother Jones magazine, computer-assisted reporting by, 202

Moussaoui, Zacarias, 44

Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 36

MSNBC, 52

muckrakers, 232

multilateral legal assistance treaties (MLATs), 138–139

Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, information disclosure law adoption in, 3–4

Murphy, Kevin, 85

Musharraf, Pervez, 111

Myers, Richard, 52

Myrdal, Gunner, 109

Nader, Ralph, 14, 98–99, 178

NASA, investigation of shuttle disaster, 216

National Academy of Sciences (U.S.), 41

National Energy Policy Development Group (NEPDG; U.S.), 62–63

National Human Rights Commission (Mexico), 31

National Intelligence Agency (Chile), 34

National Intelligence Estimate (CIA; U.S.), 45, 68, 76

National Security Agency (U.S.), 65

National Security Archive, blocking email destruction by, 216–217

National Security Archive (U.S.), 63, 118

National Security Decision Memorandum 119 (U.S.), 132

National Society Party (NSP; Mexico), 2

National Strategy for Homeland Security (U.S.), 143

NavCanada, 159–160

NEPDG, 15–16

Netherlands, 151, 174, 176

New Deal, 13

New Jersey, commercial information use in, 206

New Mexico, prison privatization in, 155

New Transatlantic Agenda, 175

New York City Police Department, information sharing by, 140

New York Daily News, anti-leaking penalties and, 127

New Yorker, The, on prisoner abuse, 53, 234

New York Herald Tribune, on executive power, 12

New York State, earnings from driver record sales, 210

New York Times

   anti-leaking penalties and, 127, 128

   Chinese journalist and, 121–122

   computer-assisted reporting and, 201–202

   consequence of leaks to, 128

   local law enforcement/Joint Terrorism Task Forces, 144–145

   on prisoner abuse, 77, 233, 234

   on railroad industry, 202

   on utility vehicle safety, 201–202

   on worker safety, 202

New Zealand, 35, 93, 94–96, 153

New Zealand Herald, 95–96

Nigeria, freedom of information bill in, 122

9/11 Commission

   email and, 216

   on information sharing, 42, 140, 141

   lost operational opportunities to deter attacks, 42

   proposed distributed-computing model for complex analysis, 43

   report on political/bureaucratic missteps before 9/11 attacks, 75

Nixon, Richard, 14, 55–56

Nixon administration

   Pentagon Papers and, 47, 71, 73

   presidential accountability under, 69

nongovernmental organizations

   in advanced democracies, 162, 164

   call for reform of DSM, 182–183

   ex-Soviet Bloc countries and, 129

   funding of, 119–120

   in India, 116–117

   information requests made in behalf of citizens by, 116–117, 120

   in Mexico, 6

   need for capacity to act on information, 120–122

   in OECD countries, 165

   personal economic security/disclosure, 165

   pressure on soft states to adopt disclosure laws, 109–110

   public opinion and, 71

   in South Africa, 162–164, 168

   in United States, 165, 169

North, Oliver, 215

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

   information leaks and, 128–130

   information sharing among members of, 130–131

Norway, NATO secrecy rules and, 129

nuclear plant information, 41

nuclear plant safety, 159

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC; U.S.), 38, 41

Nuncas Mas (Never Again), 30

Oakland Tribune, 146

OECD countries, 100, 110, 165, 169

office of primary interest (OPI; Canada), in amberlight process, 90

Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 7

Oklahoma, prison information access in, 166–167

OMB Watch (U.S.), 63, 118

O’Neill, Paul, 61, 73, 76

Ontario, Canada, 32, 97, 153, 157, 220

Open Democracy Advice Center (South Africa), 120

Open Society, 110, 120

Open Society Justice Initiative, 110, 116

Operation Condor, 31

Oppenheim, Jerrold, 158

Oregon, potential withdrawal from Joint Terrorism Task Forces partnership, 145

O’Reilly, Emily, 85

Organization of American States (OAS), right to information and, 109

Oxfam, 179

Pakistan, 78, 111, 116

Palast, Greg, 158

Panchayat Raj Act, 1

“panopticism,” 55

Paraguay, secret file access after regime collapse, 31

Parivartan, 3

Patriot Act, 70–77

Pearl Harbor, 42–43

Pelosi, Nancy, 185–186

Pelosi Amendment, 185–186

Pentagon, ban on images of coffins returning from Iraq, 72

Pentagon Papers, 47, 71, 73

People for the American Way Foundation, 63

People’s Daily (China), 8

Perle, Richard, 61

“permanent campaign,” 102

personal information, access to nongovernmental, 165, 169

Peru, security establishment resilience in, 34

Philippines, nongovernmental organization funding in, 120

Phillis inquiry, 101, 103–104

Pinochet, Augusto, 31, 32

Plan of Attack (Woodward), 76

Poindexter, John, 215

Poland, 27, 29, 130

political nonprofit organizations, abuses by, 202–203

political process, public disaffection with, 236–237

political right, access to information as, 168

Polonoroeste project (Brazil), 184

Potter, Tom, 145

Powell, Colin, 76, 130

Presidential Records Act (1978), 58–59, 64

President’s Daily Brief (PDB), 74–75

Preston, Lewis, 186

Prewitt, Kenneth, 210

prisoner abuse

   in Afghanistan, 53

   American Civil Liberties Union and, 155

   classified Army files on,

   Fay-Jones report on, 154

   as following typical story line, 232–235

   Houston Chronicle on, 154

   Los Angeles Times on, 77

   New Yorker on, 53

   New York Times on, 77, 233, 234

   in Pakistan, 78

   as transparency maelstrom under Bush (G. W.) administration, 77–78, 80

   Wall Street Journal on,

   Washington Post on, 77, 234. See also Abu Ghraib prison; Guantánamo Bay

prison privatization

   in Australia, 152–153

   international Denmark-based firm, 151

   in New Mexico, 155

   in Oklahoma, 166–167

   terms of contacts, 152

   in United States, 156–157, 166–168

Privacy Act (1974), 59, 71

privatization, 150–160

   of defense sector, 151–152

   disclosure law applicability and, 152–160

     absence of contract and, 156–157

     accountability inconsistencies and, 154–156

     disclosure law in South Africa, 162–164

     documents held by contractors vs. government, 153–156

     gaining access to contracts, 152–154

     self-regulatory organizations, 159

     when government retreats entirely, 157

     whistleblowers, 156

   of prisons (see prison privatization)

   of schools, 151, 157

   of social services, 153

   of toll highways/bridges, 151, 153

   of utilities, 157

     regulatory failure, 158–159

     U.S. approach to regulation, 158

   of water/sewer systems, 151. See also public sector, restructuring

Promotion of Access to Information Act (PAIA; South Africa), 162–164, 166, 168

Provisions on Open Government Information (Guangzhou, China), 8–9

Public Citizen (U.S.), 118

Public Citizen v. OSHA, 204

public opinion

   on government secrecy, 237

   on government trust, 236

   on prisoner abuse, 233

public sector, restructuring, 160–162

   access to information in private hands

     in Australia, 169

     in established democracy, 168–170

     in U.S., 169

   in advanced democracy, 160

   inconsistencies in disclosure laws and,

   realities of reform in, 168–170

   threat to disclosure laws, 160–161. See also privatization

Pune, India, government corruption in, 4

Quad countries, WTO transparency and, 180, 181–182

Queensland, Australia, disclosure of prison contacts in, 153

radiation experiments, in U.S., 32

railroad industry, 202

Rajasthan, India, information act in, 2–3

Rather, Dan, 52

Rauch, Jonathan, 57

Reagan, Ronald, email destruction and, 215, 217

Records/Document/Information Management System (RDIMS), 221–222

Rees, Ann, 89

reinvented government, 151

Reno, Janet, 138

Reporter’s Committee for Freedom of the Press, 118

Reston, James, 128

Rice, Condoleeza, 67, 74, 75

Ridge, Tom, 141

Right to Know Day, 6

Roche, James, 216

Rolling Stone magazine, classified Army files on prisoner abuse and,

Romania, 6, 7, 29, 129–130

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 12, 14

Rowley, Colleen, 74

Roy, Aruna, 2

Rumsfeld, Donald

   on Abu Ghraib prison, 52

   on dangers of defense staff leaks, 65

   Guantánamo detainees and, 19

   Gulliver analogy used by, 59–61

   on Hussein regime, 12

   interrogation policy and, 69, 77–78

   mien before House and Senate Armed Services Committees, 80

   on micromanagement of executive branch, 60

   on open government, 19, 51–52, 53, 54

   on post-war planning, 47

   support of 1966 FOIA, 54–55

Russia, 29–30, 138, 189. See also Soviet Union

Safire, William, anti-leaking penalties and, 127

SARS epidemic, 8, 122

Satrak Nagrik Sangathan, 3

Saudi Arabia, 67

Saxton, Jim, 190, 191

Scalia, Antonin, on FOIA, 55

Scarry, Elaine, 10

Scheuer, Michael, 21

Schlesinger, Arthur Jr., 55, 69

Schlesinger, James, 78

Schuck, Peter, 98

Schweiker, Richard, 225

Scotland, security firm contract disclosure in, 153

Sector Facility Indexing Project (EPA), 207

Security Of Information Agreements (SOIAs), in United States, 132–135

   Australia and, 132, 133–134

   Canada and, 133–134

   collapse of Soviet Union and, 132–133

   content of agreement, 133

   India and, 133

   Indonesia and, 132

   right-to-information laws and, 133–134

   tied to specific projects, 134

   Turkey and, 132

   United Kingdom and, 132, 134

security sector, transparency to counter poor analysis in, 48

Senate Banking Committee, on legitimacy of IMF, 190

Senate Intelligence Committee, 44–46, 68, 69, 127

SETI project (University of California), 43

Shanghai, China, right to information in, 8–9

Shenk, David, 18

Shield of Achilles, The (Bobbitt), 101–102

Shinseki, Eric, 18

SIDE (Argentina), 33

Sierra Club, 15–16, 62

silence law, in prerevolutionary France, 9

Silverstein, Ken, 202

Sinclair, Upton, 232

Singer, Peter, 155–156

Singh, Shankar, 1–2

Single European Act (SEA), 174

60 Minutes (TV program), 74

60 Minutes II (TV program), 51, 54

Slovakia, 6, 7, 29, 34, 130

Smith, Ian, 95–96

Snell, Rick, 96

Social Security Administration (SSA), information requests for, 32, 114

Social Security Numbers, 210, 218

Söderman, Jacob, 175

soft states, 109

   administrative costs for disclosure laws in

   implementing disclosure laws in, 115–116

   “ownership” of disclosure laws in, 111

   pressure to adopt disclosure laws, 109–110

   reasons for adopting disclosure laws in, 110–111

   recordkeeping/civil service for disclosure laws in, 111–112

software/music piracy, 138

Solana, Javier, 47

Solove, Daniel, 209

Soros, George, 110

South Africa

   failures in implementing disclosure law in, 116

   municipal water contract disclosure in, 153

   nongovernmental organization funding in, 120

   privatization of utilities in, 157

   right to information in [weapons deals], 7

   right to information/privatization in, 22

   secret file access after apartheid, 32

   security establishment resiliency in, 35

Southeast Asian countries

   WTO/disclosure and, 183

Southern Metropolitan Daily, 122

South Korea, disclosure and, 193

Soviet Bloc states, former

   IMF structural adjustment agreements with, 189

Soviet Union, 132–133. See also Russia

St. Louis Post-Dispatch, anti-leaking penalties and, 127

Stacks, John F., 63–64

Standard Oil, 232

Stasi (Ministerium für Staatssicherheit), 27–29

state vs. federal law, on shared information, 38

steel producers, U.S., call for reform of DSM, 182–183

Steffens, Lincoln, 232

Stein, Janice Gross, 147

Steinzor, Rena, 41

Stern, Carl, 14

Stevens, John Paul, 208

Stewart, Potter, 55

Stiglitz, Joseph, 190

story line, journalistic

   archetypal, 231

   example of, 231–232

   failure of, 234–236

   prisoner abuse story and, 232–235

   progressive reformer use of, 232

Strauss, Leo, 61

Straw, Jack, 84, 104

structural pluralism, 151

structured data, digitization of, see digitization, of government documents, structured data

Students Right to Know and Campus Security Act (U.S.), 165, 166

Sulzberger, C. L., 128

Summers, Larry, 185, 191

supranational institutions

   diplomatic confidentiality and, 172–173

   influence on Argentina, 172

   influence on Uganda, 172

   influence on United Kingdom, 171

   influence on United States, 171–172

   naïve view of transparency and, 193–195

   transparency in, 193–195. See also European Union; International Monetary Fund; World Bank; World Trade Organization

Supreme Court (U.S.), 12, 66

Suskind, Ron, 76

Sweden, 8, 14, 129, 220

Switzerland, U.S. multilateral legal assistance treaty with, 138

Sydney Morning Herald, 96, 97

Taguba, Antonio, 52

Taguba report, 12, 51–54, 68–69, 154

Tanzania, recordkeeping conditions in, 112

Tarbell, Ida, 232

Task Force on Governability of Democracies, 56

technology

   increased access to, 17–18

   increase in amount of, 17–18

   Internet, 70–71, 159, 161–162, 203

   in pre-Revolutionary France, 9. See also digitization, of government documents

Tenet, George, 42, 46

terrorist activity conviction study, 202

terrorist attacks, on U.S.

   advantage of informed public before, 43–44

   criticism of information access after, 38–41

   limits to transparency after, 18–20

   rise in government trust after, 12

   secret CIA programs after, 37

   security after, 36–37. See also 9/11 Commission

terrorists

   activity conviction study on, 202

   special access program to seize suspected, 8. See also prisoner abuse; terrorist attacks, on U.S.

Teubner, Gunther, 98–99

Thailand, 4, 117

third party rule (NATO), 129, 133

Thompson, James C., 47

Thurston, Anne, 112

“ticking bomb case,” 236

Time magazine, 53, 74

torture by government, justifying, 236

Tower Commission, 214–215

Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), 203, 206–207

Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM; WTO), 179

Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (TRAC; U.S.), 202, 205

“transitional justice,” 36

transnational terrorism, 37

transparency

   in international institutions (see supranational institutions).

   See also disclosure laws; transparency, limits to; individual country; individual organization

transparency, limits to, 18–23

   after terrorists attacks on U.S., 18–20

   of collapsed government vs. present security sectors, 20

   effect of structural changes in government on, 17–21

   First World vs. poor etc.,

   structural changes threatening transparency

     networking, 21

     privatization, 21–22

     technology, 11–17. See also transparency

Transparency and Efficiency Act (IMF), 190

Transparency International (TI), 110, 111

Transportation Safety Administration (U.S.), 38

Treasury Board (Canada), 221–222

Treaty establishing the European Community (TEC), 47–48

Treaty of Amsterdam, 47–48, 177

Treaty on European Union (TEU), 174

Trilateral Commission study on democracy, 56–57, 58

Trudeau, Pierre, 87

Truman, Harry, 14

Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa), 32

Turkey, 119, 132

Uganda, 5–6, 52, 112, 172

Ukraine, 116–117, 119, 120

United Kingdom

   disclosure law adoption in, 15

   EDRM system adoption in, 219

   email as evidence in, 216

   Freedom of Information Act

     Blair government and, 83–84, 104–106

     delay in implementing disclosure law, 7, 104–105

     implementation in richer vs. poorer country, 115

   NATO secrecy rules and, 128–129

   pre-FOIA administrative code in, 104–105

   privatization of utilities in, 157

   security establishment resilience in, 35

   Security Of Information Agreement with United States, 132, 134

   supranational institutions and, 171

United Nations, drug trafficking and, 138

United Nations Development Program (UNDP), 110, 120, 122

United States

   access restriction after terrorist attacks, 38–41

     erosion of citizen rights, 39–40

     likely effectiveness in world of information abundance, 38–39

     reliance on officials/business to remedy security weakness, 40–41

   census questions, public and, 210

   contractor record disclosure requirements in, 153

   domestic security networks in, 139–147

   EDRM system adoption in, 219

   executive branch of

     attempts to constrain, 62–63

     authority under Nixon, 55–56

     congressional restrictions on, 58–59

     erosion of authority of, 56–57

   resistance to classification reform in, 36

   security after terrorist attacks on, 36–37

   security establishment resilience in, 35–36

   supranational institution and, 171–172

   susceptibility to domestic attack, 38–41

   terrorist attacks on (see terrorist attacks, on U.S.)

   withdrawal of information in public domain, 37–38

     critical infrastructure, 37

     monitoring/inspection work of federal agencies, 37–38

     national missile defense system, 65. See also Congress (U.S.); Freedom of Information Act (FOIA; international defense networks, post-Cold War; U.S.)

United States Marshall Service, 209

unstructured data, digitization of, see digitization, of government documents, unstructured data

Uruguay, World Bank loan and, 187–188

U.S. Administrative Procedures Act, 179

USS Cole, 145

utility vehicle safety, 201–202, 206

Uzbekistan, media/access to information in, 121

Vanguard (Nigeria), 122

Veterans Health Administration (VHA), average cost of request, 32

Victoria, Australia, prison contract disclosure in, 153

Vietnam, weakness in U.S. policy toward, 47

Wackenhut Corrections Corporation (U.S.), 152

Wall Street Journal, 177, 189–190

Washington Post, 77, 78, 234. See also Watergate scandal

Watanuki, Joji, 56

Watergate scandal, 55–56, 231–232

Weber, Max, 11, 212, 215

Weiler, J. H. H., 172

Weller, Patrick, 96

Western Australia, prison privatization in, 152, 153

Western Australia and Corrections Corporation of Australia, 152

western Europe

   security establishment resilience in, 35. See also European Union; individual country

Whistleblower Protection Act (1989), 59, 74–75

Whitney, Charles, 234

Whitney, Craig R., 233

Wilson, Joseph, 76

Wolfowitz, Paul, 18, 61

Woods, James, 44

Woodward, Bob, 67, 76, 231

worker safety, 202

World Bank

   bank-funded mismanagement, 184–185

   components of, 184

   failure to address corruption, 110

   hydroelectric project and, 172

   Information Disclosure Policy of, 186–188

   privatization and, 157

   transparency and, 184–188

   U.S. influence on disclosure policy, 185–186

World Trade Organization (WTO), 13

   China and, 8

   trade liberalization and, 178–184

     Appellate Body on asbestos products, 183

     criticism of lack of transparency, 178–179

     derestriction policy, 180–181

     developing countries resistance to U.S. proposals, 183

     Dispute Settlement Mechanism, 171–172, 182

     mechanisms to increase transparency, 179

     non-papers, 181, 182

     Quad countries/transparency, 180, 181–182

     restriction policy, 180

   transparency promotion procedures, 179–180

Wright Commission on Government Security, 128

Wyden, Ron, 213

Yoo, John, 234

Zarqawi, Abu Musab al, 45

Zárate Vite, Arturo, 6

Zelizer, Julian, 58

Zhao Yan, 121–122

Zimbabwe, media/access to information in, 121


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