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Home > Catalog > International Justice in Rwanda and the Balkans
International Justice in Rwanda and the Balkans
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  • Page extent: 296 pages
  • Size: 234 x 156 mm
  • Weight: 0.61 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 341.6/9
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: K5001 .P48 2008
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Criminal justice, Administration of--International cooperation
    • International criminal courts
    • Milosp-sŒevicp-s, Slobodan,--1941-2006
    • Serbia--Politics and government
    • Tup4s‘man, Franjo

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Index




accountability, 5, 23, 160, 227, 237, 245, 247

Ademi, Rahim, 102

   arrest of, 130

   indictment of, 128, 132, 139

Afghanistan, 135, 252

African Union, 253, 254

Ahmići massacre, 101, 107, 110

Aidid, Mohamed Farrah, 47

Albania, 54.

   See also Kosovo crisis

Albright, Madeleine, 32

   capital punishment and, 164

   Dayton Accords and, 53

   ICTY and, 55

   Milošević and, 52, 53

Aleksovski, Zlatko, 113

Alilović, Stipo, 115

American Service Members’ Protection Act, 252

amnesty, 39, 42

   Dayton peace talks and, 44

Amnesty International, 175, 192

Annan, Kofi, 220, 221

Arab League, 254

Arbour, Louise, 18, 30, 48, 51, 58, 172, 239

   on ICTY’s power, 110

   Kosovo crisis and, 56

   Milošević indictment and, 58, 59

   political advisors of, 212

   RPF investigations by, 190

   Rwandan demonstration against, 178

   successor of, 58

   on UN Security Council, 49

Argentina, 23

Armenian genocide, 19

Arusha Accords, 156, 167

Ashdown, Paddy, 25n

Assembly of States Parties, 251n

Association for the Promotion of Croatian Identity and Prosperity, 129

Avega (survivor organization), 199–200

   boycott by, 203–4

   protest march by, 215–16

Bagosora, Théoneste, 173, 177, 226

Bakuramutsa, Manzi, 161, 163, 164, 165, 167

   on location of ICTR, 165, 167

Banović, Nenad, 74

Banović, Predrag, 74

Barayagwiza, Jean-Bosco, 171, 187, 213, 222

   due process violations with, 179

   ICTR reforms after, 184

   role in genocide of, 177

   sentencing of, 183, 184

   trial of, 184

Barbie, Klaus, 196

Bass, Gary, 19–22

Bassiouni, Cherif, 40

Belgium, 157, 173

Bellinger, John B. III, 253

Bergevin, Nicole, 214

Bishop, James K., 36

Blair, Tony, 52

Blaškić, Tihomir, 112

   indictment of, 109

   promotion of, 108, 109

   sentencing of, 110, 123, 140

   trial of, 110, 115

Blewitt, Graham, 45, 59, 67, 72, 106, 115, 124

Boban, Mate, 101, 135

Bobetko, Janko, 102

   death of, 132, 135

   indictment of, 102, 132, 135, 139, 140

Bosnia, 25

   civil war in, 36, 46

   Croatia and, 50–51, 102

   Dayton Peace Accords and, 46

Bosnian Serb Republic. See Republika Srpska

Bot, Bernard, 87

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros, 166

Brammertz, Serge, 89n

Bruguière, Jean-Louis, 229–30

Budiša, Dražen, 124, 126, 128

Burns, Nicholas, 40, 50

Bush, George H. W.

   Bosnian war and, 35, 38

   ICTY and, 69

   Persian Gulf War and, 98

Bush, George W.

   ICC and, 21, 252, 253

   Nigeria and, 249

   Rwanda and, 222

   Serbian aid and, 77, 82

   U.S. human rights abuses and, 135

Butare trial, 199, 226

Cambodia, 5, 42n, 247

Cameroon, 173, 180, 250

capital punishment, 21, 154, 162, 164, 227

Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, 18

Cassese, Antonio, 42, 47, 108

   complaints of, 49

   successor of, 48

Central African Republic, 254

čermak, Ivan, 139

   arrest of, 139

   indictment of, 138

   trial of, 140

Chad, 5

Chapter VII of UN Charter, 10, 247, 250

Chile, 5, 23

China, 164, 251

Chirac, Jacques, 64

Christopher, Warren, 36, 52, 108

Cicero, Marcus Tullius, 245

Clark, Wesley, 46

Clinton, Bill, 40

   Bosnian War and, 38, 47, 51

   Kosovo crisis and, 60

   Tuman and, 102, 108

Coalition for International Justice, 250

Coalition for the Defense of the Republic, 177

compliance.

   See non-compliance

Congo, Democratic Republic of, 15, 154, 254, 255

   Anglo-American interests in, 211

   civil war in, 210

   Hutu refugees in, 156, 157, 159, 162

   Hutu reprisals from, 168

   RPF interventions in, 160

Contact Group, 55

Cook, Robin, 52

cooperation, 30, 62, 239–43.

   See also non-compliance

   compliance and, 243–46

ćorić, Valentin, 141

Côté, Luc, 58

Council of Europe, 88n, 112–113

counter-shaming, 11, 12, 62.

   See also shaming techniques

   by Croatia, 93, 116, 121

   by Rwanda, 152, 186, 195, 198, 201, 205, 218

   by Serbia, 63, 85, 114

Crane, David, 25, 249n, 255n

crimes against humanity, 29, 42, 57, 189, 235

Croat Union of Herceg-Bosna, 101n

Croatia. See also Homeland War

   Bosnia and, 50–51, 102

   constitutions of, 97

   EU candidacy of, 146, 148, 191

   Greater, 100, 141

   independence of, 23, 132

   stabilization and association agreement for, 134, 143

   transitional democracy in, 14

   Ustaša movement and, 33

   victim status of, 100

   war crimes of, 33, 51

Croatian Democratic Union Party, 94, 111, 117, 132

   defeat of, 119, 122

   Raćan’s defeat by, 137

   reemergence of, 121, 137

Croatian Social Liberal Party, 124, 128

Dallaire, Roméo, 155

Darfur conflict, 252–56

Dayton Accords, 45, 46, 108

   Albright and, 53

   Kosovo crisis and, 53

   Serbian non-compliance with, 53

Dayton peace talks, 37, 43, 44, 45, 57, 103, 107

   results of, 45–46

Del Ponte, Carla, 25, 29, 58, 82, 88–90, 172

   assessment of, 225, 239

   Barayagwiza and, 179, 222

   Bobetko and, 135

   concessions by, 16n, 63, 84, 89, 142, 148

   criticisms of, 63, 66, 73, 120, 141

   Ðinđić and, 66–69, 79

   dismissal of, 222

   Gotovina and, 131, 147

   ICTR and, 72

   importance of The Hague for, 68, 72, 87–88

   Kigali protest march for, 216

   Koštunica and, 67, 83, 89

   Norac indictment and, 126, 142

   Račan and, 137

   RPF investigations by, 152, 186, 187, 191, 192, 195, 200, 208–10, 219

   Sanader and, 141

   živković and, 83

Democratic Opposition of Serbia, 74

Democratic Party of Serbia, 63, 65, 82, 83, 84, 91

Des Forges, Alison, 180

Dicker, Richard, 85

Dieng, Adama, 198, 215, 216

Ðinđić, Zoran, 63, 79

   assassination of, 13, 80, 81, 91

   Blewitt on, 67

   Del Ponte and, 66–69, 79

   ICTY after, 83

   Koštunica and, 65, 69, 74

   Milošević’s arrest by, 70

   successor of, 80

Ðordević, Vlastimir, 90

Dubrovnik, 97

Eagleburger, Lawrence, 31, 32, 36

East Timor, 5n, 9, 247

El Salvador, 42n

Elster, Jon, 22n

Erdemović, Dražen, 48?>

Ethiopia, 174

ethnic cleansing, 38, 164

   by Croats, 101, 103, 105, 140, 141, 143, 147

   by Serbs, 14, 31, 32, 39, 46, 91

EU. See European Union

European Union

   Croatia’s candidacy for, 146, 148, 191

   ICC and, 253–54

   Serbia’s candidacy for, 29, 62, 85, 87–90, 191

   trials of cooperation and, 10

   Turkey’s candidacy for, 146

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 33, 63

   Croatia and, 95

   demise of, 79

   financial aid for, 68

   Kosovo and, 54

fee-splitting scandal, of ICTR, 197

Foreign Operations Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriation Act, 69n

French, Howard, 210

FRY. See Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Gahima, Gerald, 25, 175, 182, 183, 217, 218

Galbraith, Peter, 104, 108

gay pride parade, in Belgrade, 73

genocide, 29, 42, 57, 188, 227, 235

   Armenian, 19

   reparations for, 16, 88

   Convention on, 16n

Glenny, Misha, 80, 103

Goldstein, Ivo, 101

Goldstone, Richard J., 18, 25, 30, 239

   Bagosora and, 173

   Bosnian Croat suspects and, 106

   Dayton peace talks and, 43, 44

   ICTR and, 167

   ICTY and, 34, 35

   Karamira and, 172, 175, 176

   RPF investigations by, 190

   Rwandan diplomacy of, 172–74

   successor of, 48, 172

   TuEntity Error man and, 94, 104, 105, 107, 108, 114

Gospić massacre, 125

Gotovina, Ante, 142

   arrest of, 130, 135, 138, 147

   indictment of, 131–33, 139

Gourevitch, Philip, 158, 165, 193

Gow, James, 99

Grandić, Stjepan, 127

Granić, Mate, 111, 116

Gruban, Momčilo, 77

Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, 135

Habré, Hissène, 5

Habyarimana, Juvénal, 156, 229

Hagan, John, 18, 19

“Hague invasion clause,”, 252

Haiti, 42n

Haradinaj, Ramush, 25n

Hariri, Rafiq, 89n

Harun, Ahmad Mohammad, 255

hate speech, 184

Hazan, Pierre, 42

HDZ (Hrvatska Demokratska Zajednica). See Croatian Democratic Union Party

Helsinki Watch, 105

Holbrooke, Richard, 38, 43, 44

   Karadžić and, 50

   October 1998 peace agreement and, 57

   Vukovar Three and, 45

Holocaust, 97, 193

Homeland War, 94, 105, 106, 117.

   See also Croatia

   legal defense of, 140

   Norac and, 125

   popular support for, 129

   Račan and, 120

“Hour of Europe,”, 254

Hrvatska Demokratska Zajednica. See Croatian Democratic Union Party

HSLS. See Croatian Social Liberal Party

human rights abuses

   accountability for, 5, 23, 160, 227, 237, 245, 247

   Iraq, 21, 135, 252

human rights advocacy, 4, 7, 9, 77

   shaming techniques and, 10

   truth commissions and, 22

Human Rights Watch, 10n, 39, 51

   Barayagwiza and, 180

   Del Ponte and, 221

   Jallow and, 228

   RPF massacres and, 192

Hussein, Saddam, 98

Ibuka (survivor organization), 199–200

   boycott by, 203–4

   protest march by, 215–16

ICC. See International Criminal Court

ICJ. See International Court of Justice

ICTR. See International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

ICTY. See International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia

IMF. See International Monetary Fund

India, 172, 174, 251

Interahamwe, 216

International Court of Justice, 16, 88

International Criminal Court, 5, 9, 18, 24, 133, 186, 229, 243

   Bush’s view of, 21

   establishment of, 251

   European Union and, 253–54

   extradition agreements and, 222

   future of, 246–47, 254–57

   United States and, 135, 160, 252–54

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 237

   autonomy of, 173, 205

   Barayagwiza, trial of, 184

   boycott of, 203–4

   capital punishment and, 162, 164

   closing of, 226

   complaint to Security Council by, 216–17, 218

   defense teams and, 109

   Del Ponte and, 72, 222

   divisions in, 14

   domestic politics and, 13

   due process violations by, 179

   establishment of, 5, 20–21, 151, 154, 158

   failures of, 208

   fee-splitting scandal of, 197

   ICTY and, 6, 9, 159, 160, 162, 164–65, 211–12, 228

   international views of, 161, 168

   legitimacy of, 243–46

   location for, 162, 167

   Office of the Prosecutor of, 211, 218

   reforms after Barayagwiza trial, 184

   RPF investigations by, 187–91

   RPF requests for, 157–59

   Rwandan resistance to, 163, 165, 208–10

   sentencing by, 140

   shaming of, 152, 178, 186, 195, 198, 201, 208

   state cooperation with, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 153

   survivor organizations and, 200, 203–4

   victor’s justice and, 93

   Witness and Victims Support Section of, 202, 213

   Witness TA, affair of, 199, 200

International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, 9, 237

   Bass on, 20, 22

   Bush policies and, 69

   defense teams and, 109

   Ðinđić’s assassination and, 82, 83

   divisions in, 14

   domestic politics and, 14

   establishment of, 5, 30, 31, 38, 40, 100

   Goldstone and, 34

   Hagan on, 18, 19

   ICTR and, 6, 9, 140, 159, 160, 162, 164–65, 211–12, 228

   Kosovo crisis and, 57

   legitimacy of, 243–46

   Milošević indictment and, 59

   precursor of, 39

   Serbia and, 30

   state cooperation with, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 151

   visas for, 55

International Federation of Human Rights, 228

international humanitarian law, 78, 163, 207

international law 219, 242. See also justice, international

   domestic support for, 243

   Kant on, 9

   modernizing of, 244

International Monetary Fund, 68

Iraq

   human rights abuses in, 21, 135, 252

   Persian Gulf War and, 35, 98

Izetbegović, Alija, 45, 101, 102

Jallow, Hassan, 172, 207, 225–29

JNA. See Yugoslav Peoples’ Army

Johnson-Sirleaf, Ellen, 250

Jorda, Claude, 163n

Judah, Tim, 33

justice. See also international law

   international, 20, 40, 243

   peace and, 37, 43, 45, 57, 211, 243, 256–57

   victor’s, 6, 93, 132, 152, 158, 162, 188, 207, 222, 238, 243, 245

Kabuga, Felicien, 192n

Kagame, Paul, 20, 156, 160, 190, 240

   Bruguière’s accusations of, 229–30

   Ibuka and, 202

   international support of, 211, 222

Kajelijeli, Juvénal, 202n

Kant, Immanuel, 9

Karadžić, Radovan, 31, 37, 38, 88, 107

   amnesty for, 41

   arrest of, 49, 50, 75, 85, 87, 145

   indictment of, 43, 44, 74

   Koštunica and, 65

   Milošević and, 50

   removal of, 45, 47, 50

Karamira, Froduald, 170, 173, 177

   arrest of, 175, 180

   trial of, 174, 190

Keating, Colin, 161

Kenya, 157

Kerr, Rachel, 18

KLA. See Kosovo Liberation Army

Knin garrison, 139

Kony, Joseph, 255

Kordić, Dario, 107, 113

Kosovo crisis, 30, 46, 57

   Arbour’s approach to, 56

   Clinton and, 60

   victim status and, 14

Kosovo Liberation Army, 53

Koštunica, Vojislav, 64, 76, 79, 88–89

   Del Ponte and, 67, 83, 89

   Ðinđić and, 65, 69, 74

   Karadžić and, 65

   Milošević’s arrest and, 70

   Mladić’s arrest and, 86–87

   return to office of, 83

Krajina atrocities, 96, 97, 105

   Ademi indictment for, 128

   Serb exodus after, 143

Kritz, Neil, 22n

Kupreškić brothers, 140

Kushayb, Ali, 255

Kuwait, 98

Lake, Anthony, 40

Lazarević, Vladimir, 84

Leahy, Patrick, 71, 82

legal aid scandal, of ICTR, 197

legalism, 19, 21

Levar, Milan, 125

Liberal paradigm, 19

Liberia, 248–51

Lubanga, Thomas, 255

Lukić, Sreten, 82, 84

MacDonald, David Bruce, 14, 15

Macedonia, 25, 54

MacShane, Denis, 134, 144

mafia. See organized crime

Markač, Mladen, 139

   arrest of, 139

   indictment of, 138

   trial of, 140

Martić, Milan, 77

Martinović, Vinko “Stela”, 117

Mateša, Zlatko, 113

McConnell, Mitch, 71

McDonald, Gabrielle Kirk, 49, 57

Medak Pocket atrocities, 102, 128, 141

Media Trial, 177, 184

Mesić, Stjepan, 112, 121, 122

   Norac and, 126

   Račan and, 132

Milošević, Slobodan, 20, 30, 37, 39, 85, 220

   Albright and, 52, 53

   amnesty for, 58

   arrest of, 60, 69–71, 127

   as commander in chief, 44

   corruption charges against, 68, 69

   death of, 8

   Eagleburger’s warning to, 31, 36

   fall from power of, 22, 29, 60, 61, 63, 64, 74

   indictment of, 41, 59

   Karadžić and, 50

   Kosovo crisis and, 57

   non-compliance of, 35, 53, 56

   reward for, 60

   strategies of, 32

   transfer to The Hague of, 68, 72, 73, 249, 251

   trial of, 4, 6, 132

   Tuđman and, 97, 101, 103, 109

Milutinović, Milan, 76, 79

Mintas-Hodak, Ljerka, 109n

Mladić, Ratko, 31, 37, 38, 49, 68, 82, 85–87, 107

   amnesty for, 41

   arrest of, 50, 79, 86, 87, 145

   Eagleburger’s warning to, 31

   indictment of, 43–55, 74

Moi, Daniel arap, 167

Montenegro, 25, 79, 81, 86

Moreno-Ocampo, Luis, 25, 255, 256

M⊘se, Erik, 226

Mrkšić, Mile, 44, 77.

   See also Vukovar Three

Mucyo, Jean de Dieu, 205

Mutaboba, Joseph, 159, 180, 181

Nahimana, Ferdinand, 184

Naletilić, Mladen “Tuta”, 117, 123

Napoleonic Wars, 19

NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Nazabirinda, Joseph, 198

negotiations, 6, 12, 26, 243

Neier, Aryeh, 18, 31n, 39, 56

neutrality, 188

   due process and, 19, 21, 174, 179

   proportionality in indictments and, 33

   war crimes tribunals’, 6

Nevins, Joseph, 20n

Ngendahimana, Aloys, 198n

Ngeze, Hassan, 184

Ngoga, Martin, 218

Nigeria, 248–51

Nikolić, Dragan, 49n

Nikolić, Tomislav, 88

non-compliance, 11, 12, 31, 35, 56, 90, 185, 209

   with Dayton Accords, 53

Norac, Mirko, 124, 125, 127

   Del Ponte and, 126, 142

   sentencing of, 127

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 6, 47

   arrests of war criminals by, 17, 19, 51, 52

   bombing of Bosnian Serbs by, 40

   bombing of Serbia by, 58, 66

   Kosovo crisis and, 53–55, 57

   Partnership for Peace and, 86, 87

Nshamihigo, Siméon, 196–198

Ntahobali, Shalom, 199

Nuremberg military tribunal, 6, 21, 31, 93, 98, 188, 196, 235, 238, 243, 244

   capital punishment and, 163

   ICC and, 247

Nye, Joseph S., Jr., 7

O’Donnell, Everard, 230

Obasanjo, Olusegun, 249, 250

Off, Carol, 190

Office of Internal Oversight Services, 197

Ogetto, Kennedy, 174

Ojdanić, Dragoljub, 77

Olympic Games, 112

Open Society Institute, 39

Operation Flash, 102, 105, 117

Operation Storm, 40, 102, 104, 105, 117, 124

   čermak indictment for, 140

   Gotovina indictment for, 128, 129

   Markač indictment for, 138

   U.S. support of, 135

Orešković, Tihomir, 127

Organization for Security and Cooperation, 57, 64

organized crime, 79, 80, 197

Owen, David, 31n

Paraga, Dobroslav, 99

Pavković, Nebojsa, 84

peace and justice issue, 37, 40, 43, 45, 57, 211, 243, 256, 257

Perry, William J., 108

Persian Gulf War, 35, 98

Petković, Milivoj, 141

Pillay, Navanethem, 185, 199

Pinochet, Augusto, 5

plea bargaining, 143

Pocar, Fausto, 86

Poos, Jacques, 254n

Popović, Vujadin, 84

Powell, Colin, 69

Power, Samantha, 36, 37, 210

Praljak, Slobodan, 141

Prlić, Jadranko, 141

Prosper, Pierre-Richard, 253

Pušić, Berislav, 141

Račan, Ivica, 120, 122, 124, 128, 141

   Bobetko indictment and, 135

   defeat of, 137

   Del Ponte and, 137

   election of, 122, 123

   Gotovina indictment and, 131, 132, 143

   Norac and, 127

Radić, Miroslav, 44, 81.

   See also Vukovar Three

Rajić, Ivica, 107, 113

rape, 17n, 199, 203

realism, 8, 19

Red Berets, 75, 81

Rehn, Olli, 89

reparations, 16, 245

Republika Srpska, 34, 44, 50, 54, 133, 134

Reyntjens, Filip, 175, 177, 189, 223

Riad, Fouad, 43

Rice, Condoleezza, 249

Robertson, Geoffrey, 18

Rome Statute, 5, 251–53, 255, 256

Rossin, Lawrence, 128

Roth, Kenneth, 18, 51

RPF. See Rwandan Patriotic Front

Russia, 103, 251

Rwanda, 151

   1959 revolution of, 157, 165

   death toll in, 155

   domestic trials by, 157

   UN peacekeepers in, 155, 158, 161

   United States and, 152, 155

   victim status of, 152, 154, 168, 186, 187, 201, 230

Rwandan Patriotic Front, 15, 20, 21

   Arbour’s investigations of, 190

   Arusha Accords and, 156

   Congo interventions by, 160

   Del Ponte’s investigations of, 152, 187, 192, 195, 200, 208–10, 219

   Goldstone’s investigations of, 190

   immunity for, 154, 169

   Jallow’s investigations of, 225–29

   requests for trials by, 157–59

   UN peacekeepers and, 156

Sainović, Nikola, 77

Sanader, Ivo, 84, 137, 140, 148

   Del Ponte and, 141

   Gotovina arrest and, 147

Schabas, William A., 174

Scharf, Michael, 42

Scheffer, David J., 25, 52, 151, 239, 244, 248

Scowcroft, Brent, 35

Security Council. See United Nations Security Council

Sekule, William, 199

Sell, Louis, 39

Senegal, 198

Serbia, 11, 23. See also Milošević, Slobodan

   EU candidacy of, 29, 62, 85, 87, 191

   gay pride parade in, 73

   Greater, 37, 65, 100

   ICTY and, 30

   NATO bombing of, 58, 66

   non-compliance by, 53, 56, 76, 77, 83

Serbia

   stabilization and association agreement for, 85n, 88

   transitional democracy in, 14, 67, 78, 82

   U.S. aid to, 60, 77, 82

   UN sanctions against, 33, 35, 47, 64

   victimization of, 32, 33

Serbian Radical Party, 83, 86

šešelj, Vojislav, 37, 83, 86

Shahababuddeen, Mohamed, 179n

shaming techniques, 11, 62, 78, 237.

   See also counter-shaming,

   cooperation and, 243–46

   counter, 93

   Croatia and, 121

   Goldstone’s, 34–35, 108

   limitations of, 239

   of Rwandan government, 160, 178, 191, 208

Shattuck, John, 159, 160

Short, Claire, 221

Sierra Leone tribunal, 9, 24, 42n, 247–49, 250, 252, 256

   establishment of, 251

   ICC and, 247

   location of, 5n

   prosecutor for, 25

   Rwanda and, 204

Simatović, Franko, 81

Slavonia, 96, 97, 102

šljivančanin, Veselin, 44, 81, 82.

   See also Vukovar Three

Slovenia, 35, 99

Social Democratic Party of Croatia, 120, 121, 122, 128

Socialist Party of Serbia, 83

soft power, 7, 8, 16, 30, 112, 237, 238

   definition of, 7

Solana, Javier, 128

Somalia, 42n, 47

Soros Foundation, 40

South Africa, 42n

Srebrenica massacre, 40, 42, 43, 74, 85

   Erdemović and, 48

   ICJ lawsuit on, 16n, 88

Srpska. See Republika Srpska

stabilization and association agreement

   for Croatia, 134, 143

   for Serbia, 85–88

Stanisić, Jovica, 81

Stipetić, Petar, 123, 124

Stojić, Bruno, 141

Stojilijković, Vlajko, 4, 76

Stover, Eric, 17n

Sudan, 252–56

survivor organizations, 195, 197, 200

   boycotts by, 203–4

   protest march by, 215–16

šušak, Gojko, 95, 105, 111, 118, 135, 141

Switzerland, 171, 220

Tadić, Boris, 84, 88

Tanner, Marcus, 96, 97n

Taylor, Charles, 248–51

Teitel, Ruti G., 22n

Tito, Marshal, 122

Tokyo military tribunal, 6, 21, 93, 98, 188, 235, 238, 243, 244

   capital punishment and, 163

   ICC and, 247

Tolimir, Zdravko, 89

torture, 80

trials of cooperation, 9, 10, 12, 30, 61, 67, 85 152, 208.

   See also war crimes tribunals

   chief prosecutor for, 238

   conciliation and, 172

   definition of, 29, 170

   dynamics of, 62, 63, 171, 237

   Rwandan non-compliance with, 185

   shaming techniques of, 11, 62

   transcripts of, 24

   unofficial judges of, 10, 90

truth commissions, 22, 42n, 245

Tuđman, Franjo, 13, 20, 106, 132, 141

   Albright and, 52

   anti-Semitism of, 97

   Bosnian Croat suspects and, 107

   Clinton and, 102, 108

   compliance by, 51

   death of, 118, 119, 135

   Goldstone and, 94, 104, 105, 107, 108, 114

   illness of, 117

   Milošević and, 97, 101, 103, 109

   son of, 129

   U.S. support of, 135

Turkey, 146

Uganda, 254–56

United Nations

   Charter of, 5n, 10, 247, 250

   Commission of Experts of, 39, 40, 189

   Genocide Convention of, 16n, 88

   Office of Internal Oversight Services of, 197

   Rwanda and, 155, 158, 161, 168

   Serbia as member of, 64

   war crimes tribunals of, 5

United Nations Security Council, 6, 10, 12, 161

   Arbour’s criticism of, 49

   completion of ICTR and, 226

   ICTR’s complaint to, 216–18

   McDonald’s criticisms of, 57

   Rwanda’s seat on, 151

   Serbian sanctions by, 33, 35, 47, 64

United States

   capital punishment in, 164

   human rights abuses by, 135, 252

   ICC and, 21, 160, 251–254

   ICTY and, 39

   Rwanda and, 152, 155

   Serbia and, 29, 62–82

   trials of cooperation and, 10

Ustaša movement, 33, 96, 97

Vance–Owens peace negotiations, 43

veterans’ organizations, 123

   Bobetko indictment and, 132

   Markač indictment and, 138

   protests by, 129

victim status, 14, 16, 21, 84, 154

   Croatia and, 99, 100

   Rwanda and, 152, 154, 168, 186, 187, 201, 230

   Serbia and, 33

victor’s justice. See justice, victor’s

virtual trials. See trials of cooperation

visas, 55, 181

Vukovar massacre, 44, 74, 97, 98, 99

Vukovar Three, 44, 45, 48, 49, 77, 81

   Albright and, 52

   arrest of, 49, 50

   indictment of, 107

war crimes, 29, 42, 57, 235, 256

war crimes tribunals.

    See also trials of cooperation

   Bass on, 20

   chief prosecutor for, 238

   creation of, 5

   divisions in, 14

   future of, 246–47

   international law and, 20, 219

   neutrality of, 6

   purpose of, 244

   soft power of, 237, 238

   state cooperation with, 17, 151, 153

   transitional democracies and, 22

Witness and Victims Support Section, of ICTR, 202, 213

Witness TA affair, 199, 200

World Bank, 68, 113

Wunenburger, Jacques, 134

Yugoslav People’s Army, 44, 74, 77

   Croatia and, 96, 97

Zadar, 102

Zaire. See Congo, Democratic Republic of

Zimmerman, Warren, 37

živković, Zoran, 25, 70, 73, 80, 81

   Del Ponte and, 78, 82, 83

Zone Turquoise, 15

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