Intervention and Resilience after Mass Trauma
Intervention and Resilience after Mass Trauma
Michael Blumenfield and Robert J. Ursano
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
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© Cambridge University Press 2008
This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published 2008
Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge
A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication data
Intervention and resilience after mass trauma/edited by Michael Blumenfield and Robert J. Ursano. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-521-88374-0 (hardback)1. Post-traumatic stress disorder – Treatment.2. Psychic trauma – Treatment.3. Crisis intervention (Mental health services)4. Disasters – Psychological aspects.5. Resilience (Personality trait)I. Blumenfield, Michael.II. Ursano, Robert J., 1947-[DNLM:1. Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic – therapy.2. Adaptation, Psychological.3. Disasters.4. Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic – prevention & control.5. Survivors – psychology. WM 170 I6155 2008] RC552.P67I66 2008 362.2′5–dc222008012214
ISBN 978-0-521-88374-0 hardback
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Every effort has been made in preparing this publication to provide accurate and up-to-date information which is in accord with accepted standards and practice at the time of publication. Although case histories are drawn from actual cases, every effort has been made to disguise the identities of the individuals involved. Nevertheless, the authors, editors and publishers can make no warranties that the information contained herein is totally free from error, not least because clinical standards are constantly changing through research and regulation. The authors, editors and publishers therefore disclaim all liability for direct or consequential damages resulting from the use of material contained in this publication. Readers are strongly advised to pay careful attention to information provided by the manufacturer of any drugs or equipment that they plan to use.
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Dedicated to those who have suffered from disasters and terrorism and taught us how better to care for them.
Dedicated also to the late Sidney E. Frank, industrialist, creative entrepreneur, and philanthropist. Mr Frank recognized the importance of supporting the study of the impact of disaster and it was his grant to New York Medical College which sponsored the conference upon which this book is based.
List of contributors
Foreword by Joseph T. English
1 Systems, science, and populations Effective early mental health intervention following mass trauma: the roles of government, clinicians, and communities
2 Factors in the development of community resilience to disasters
Rose L. Pfefferbaum, Dori B. Reissman, Betty Pfefferbaum, Karen Fraser Wyche, Fran H. Norris, and Richard W. Klomp
3 Psychological first aid
Patricia J. Watson
4 Acute stress disorder and early interventions after trauma
Richard A. Bryant
5 The role of pharmacotherapy in early interventions
Matthew J. Friedman
6 Should culture considerations influence early intervention?
Carl C. Bell
7 Resilience is the default: how not to miss it
Arieh Y. Shalev and Yael L. E. Errera
Robert J. Ursano and Michael Blumenfield
Carl C. Bell, M.D.
Michael Blumenfield, M.D.
Richard A. Bryant, Ph.D.
Joseph T. English, M.D.
Yael L. E. Errera
Matthew J. Friedman, M.D., Ph.D.
Richard W. Klomp, MOB, MS, LPC, BCPC
Fran H. Norris, Ph.D.
Betty Pfefferbaum, M.D., J.D.
Rose L. Pfefferbaum, Ph.D., M.P.H.
Beverley Raphael, M.D.
Dori B. Reissman, M.D., M.P.H.
Arieh Y. Shalev, M.D.
Robert J. Ursano, M.D.
Patricia J. Watson, Ph.D.
Karen Fraser Wyche, MSW, Ph.D.
© Cambridge University Press