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Humanitarianism and Suffering
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Humanitarianism and Suffering
Cambridge University Press
9780521883856 - Humanitarianism and Suffering - The Mobilization of Empathy - Edited by Richard Ashby Wilson and Richard D. Brown
Index

Index

abolitionism, and problem of slave redemption 118–136

See also slavery

Abu Ghraib prison (Iraq) 78

Acuña, C. H. 184n7, 188n12

Adenauer, Konrad 270

Advisory Council on Human Rights (ACHR Morocco) 267–268

aesthetics, and humanitarian narrative 39–40, 45

agency

different views of in human rights and humanitarianism 8

global humanitarianism and changes in understanding of personal 211

limits to children’s 208

Aitken, Stuart 207

Akhmatova, Anna 245–246, 262–263

Alfonsín, Juan Cabandié 194n18

Algeria, financial reparations and witness testimony in 265–282

American Antislavery Society (AASS) 123–124, 130, 133

American Colonization Society (ACS) 121–123

American Revolution, conflict between slavery and values of 120, 122, 133

amnesty, and financial reparations in Morocco and Algeria 269–270

Amnesty International 24, 65–66, 81n32, 225, 247, 250, 255–256, 260, 261

Anguita, E. 189n13

animal rights movement 16

anti-Semitism, and post–World War I settlement in Europe 171

Antislavery International 119n3

Appiah, K. Anthony 90, 104, 105

Arendt, Hannah 21–22, 292

Argentina

and narratives about “disappeared” victims of state repression 177–200, 276

and truth commission report 184, 261–262

Aristotle 101

Armenia, and genocide of 1915–1916 35, 140–154, 165

Armitage, David 17n28

Arntz, E. R. N. 162

artifacts, and refugee resettlement 237–239

Asad, Talal 1

Asociación de Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo (Association of Grandmothers of Plaza de Mayo) 181, 188, 189–191

Ataturk, Mustafa Kemal 153–154

Atkinson, Clarissa 204

Austro-Sardinian War (1859) 93

authenticity

and credibility of narratives in refugee resettlement 229, 231, 232, 239–241

and human rights reports 251

and impact of narratives of suffering 22, 24

Avery, Gillian 203, 218

awareness, and international bystanders to Holocaust 169–170

Baier, Annette 31

Baines, E. 240

Baker, Tom 273–274

Balakian, P. 145n8

Balkan wars of 1992–1995 64, 71

Barkan, Elazar 279

Barnett, V. J. 170n21

Baron, Salo 170

Barton, James L. 142n3, 143, 153

Basri, Driss 269

Bauer, Yehuda 156, 169n20

Beccaria, Cesare di 13–14

Beck, Józef 168

Beecher, Henry Ward 127, 132

Belakbyer, Noureddine 272

Belgium

and human rights in Morocco 269

and withdrawal of peacekeepers from Rwanda 287

Bell, C. 246

Bentham, Jeremy 10

Benzekri, Driss 280

Berg, Nick 36

Berlant, Lauren 217

Berlin, I. 2n3, 127n19

Bernheim Petition (1933) 170

Bibb, Henry 126–127

Bill of Rights (USA 1791) 15

Blake, William 40

Bleak House (Dickens 1905) 33

“blood money,” and financial reparations 271–275

Bolivia, and military government 179n2

Boltanski, Luc 4n5

Bonafini, Hebe de 276

Bornstein, Erica 215–216, 219

Bourdieu, Pierre 277

Bourdillon, M. F. C. 208

Bouteflika, Abdelaziz 268

Brauman, Rony 23, 102

Brazil

children and poverty in 205–206

and military government 179n2

British Empire, and abolition of slavery 124

Brookes (slave ship) 40, 41f

Brown, Christopher 36

Brown, Richard D. 36, 224, 239

Brown, William Wells 126, 132–133

Browning, C. R. 292n13

B’Tselem (NGO) 247, 254, 261

Bulgaria, and narratives of suffering from 1870s 33–35, 160–162

Burgers, Jan Herman 163n12

Burin, Eric 121n6, 122n9, 135

Burke, Edmund 159n8

Burritt, Elihu 125

Busman, Charlotte 46n13

Butt, Leslie 209

Calas, Jean 13–14

Calveiro, P. 193

Cambodia, and study of genocide 53

Campbell, C. 251

Campos, M. M. 206

Canada, World Vision and child sponsorship in 212–216

care, feminist ethics of 217

CARE (NGO) 65, 70

Carpenter, R. Charli 211

Cassese, Antonio 164n14

Catholic Church

and familism in Argentina 197

and missionaries in early New France 204

See also religion

Cervantes, Miguel de 102

Chapman, Maria Weston 125–126

Charlton, Dimmock 129

“Charter for Peace and National Reconciliation” (2005, Algeria) 268

Child, Lydia Maria 131–132

children

complexity of human rights for 16

disappearances in Argentina and recovered identities of 189–191

incarceration of in USA 255

NGOs and sponsorship of 212–216

role of in humanitarian appeals 202–219

Chile

and military government 179n2

and truth commission 270–271

Christian Children’s Fund 214

Christian Solidarity International (CSI) 118–119

citizenship, construction of culture of universal in Argentina 198

Clarke, Alan 3

Clarkson, Thomas 40, 41f, 42, 45, 248, 249

coaching, and refugee resettlement narratives 230–231

Coate, R. A. 61–62

Coates, Lindley 124–125

Cobbett, William 52

codes, in human rights reports 252–256

Codrington, Christopher 43

Cohen, Stanley 91, 257, 259–260, 261, 262

Cold War

and international reporting by US media 81

and Red Cross 76

Collins, J. 242, 253

Commission nationale consultative de la promotion et de la protection des droits de l’homme (CNCPPDH, Algeria) 268–269

compañero, use of term in Argentina 194–196

Compassion Canada 214

CONADEP (Comisión Nacional sobre la Desaparición de Personas) 184–189

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948) 4, 37

Coogan, Jackie 145

Cornish, Samuel 122, 123

cosmopolitanism, and nationalism in contemporary international humanitarianism 59–60

Cover, Robert 37

Cowper, William 49

Crane, Charles R. 145

Crenzel, E. 184n8

culture

political in Argentina 198

and rhetoric of violence in humanitarian narratives 42–43

“Culture Wars” (1980s and 1990s) 90

Dadrian, Vahakn 165

Dallaire, Romeo 287

Damascus Affair (1840) 159

Das, Veena 21

Daure-Serfaty, Christine 276n7

Davis, David Brion 120n5, 123n11

death

role of humanitarian narratives in construction of concept of humanity 38–39, 49–51, 52

transformation of in narrative of Memory of Solferino 98–99

Declaration of Independence (USA 1776) 9–10

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (France 1789) 9–10

De Lame, D. 297

Demosthenes 91

descriptions, typologies of in human rights reports 252–256

Des Forges, A. 286n2

D’Halluin, E. 238n15

Dickens, Charles 33, 101

Diderot, Denis 46n12

disappearances

and financial reparations in Morocco and Algeria 275–277

and narratives about state repression in Argentina 177–200

division of labor, and human rights reports 258–260

Doctors Without Borders 65, 110, 228

documentation, and refugee resettlement 237–239

Dodge, Cleveland H. 144–145

Douglas, Lawrence 6n10

Douglass, Frederick 123, 124, 126, 129, 133, 134

dualism

and Armenian relief in early twentieth-century USA 151, 154

dilemma of in Christian theology 149

Dudai, Ron 21, 225

Dunant, J. Henry 15–16, 72, 73, 90, 93–106

Dungy, Katherine 121n8

Dutour, Nacera 276–277

economy, increasing globalization of in USA 81–82

See also financial reparations, financing, poverty

Egeland, Jan 70

El Battiui, Mohammed 269

El Bouih, Fatna 273

Elliott, Mabel 146–147

El Ouazzani, A. 276n8

Eltringham, N. 295

emotions, role of in human rights campaigns 20–21

See also sentiment, sympathy

empathy

definition of in context 2n3

humanitarian narratives and mobilization of 18–26

Engel, David 171n25

Engels, Friedrich 90

ESMA (Escuela Superior de Mecánica de la Armada) 192–193, 194

ethics

and feminist ethic of care 217

as problem of imagination 92–93

See also morality

ethnicity, suppression and reinscribing of in post-genocide Rwanda 294–296

See also minorities, race

Europe, and problem of minorities in post–World War I period 166–167, 171

Everett, Edward 55

Familiares de Detenidos y Desaparecidos por Razones Políticas (Relatives of the Detained and Disappeared for Political Reasons) 181

familism

origins of concept in Latin America 197

and politics of memory in Argentina 178, 180, 183, 196

symbolic and political dominance of in Argentina 177

See also family

family

and politics of memory in Argentina 179–183, 191–196, 197

slave redemption and reunification of 127–128, 130, 131

and World Vision’s child sponsorship program 216

See also familism

Farer, T. J. 7n15

Fassin, Didier 238n15

Fein, Helen 168

Feinberg, Kenneth 274–275, 278

Feinberg, Nathan 157n3

Felner, E. 257, 258–259

feminism, and ethics of care 217

Final Report of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC 1998) 252

financial reparations

and survivors of genocide in Rwanda 299–300

and witness testimony in Morocco and Algeria 265–282

financing, of reconstruction after natural disasters 113–114

Finger, Anke 11n23

Fink, Carole 159

Fonteyne, Jean-Pierre L. 158n4

forensics, and human rights inquiries 54, 252–256

Forsythe, David 3, 7n15, 18n30, 19, 61–62, 71n16

Fox, Charles James 44, 45, 47, 48

Fox, William 40

France, torture and criminal code of 14–15

See also Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

Frederick-William III, King (Prussia) 7

Freedom papers, and emancipation 133

Freeman, Michael 251

Freeman, Michael E. 5n8

Fry, C. L. 144

Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 (USA) 128, 133

Gacaca courts, in post-genocide Rwanda 288–302

Gainsborough, Thomas 40

Ganji, M. 158n4

Garrison, William Lloyd 11, 123, 124, 127, 130–131, 134

gender

abolitionism and debate on slave redemption 131

and Armenian relief in early twentieth-century USA 146

in narratives of children and suffering 210–211

and refugee resettlement narratives 234–237

role of in humanitarian narratives 22

and spelling in Spanish 182n6

and stereotypes in Argentina 200n26

Geneva Conventions (1864 to 1949) 5–6, 37, 72, 94

genocide.

See Armenia, Cambodia, Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Rwanda

Germany, as model for financial reparations 270–271

Ghali, Boutros Boutros 64–65

Ghent, Treaty of (1814) 122

Ginzburg, Carlo 46n12

Gladstone, William Ewart 160, 161, 163, 165, 167

global humanitarianism

local roots of 79–82

and modern concept of childhood 203–207

and narratives of children and suffering 209–212

overview of 58–61

and Red Cross 71–79

and UN system 61–71

Global South, and concepts of childhood 205–206, 207

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 12

Goffman, Erving 230, 232, 233

Golden Rule Sunday (USA) 147

Gomes, J. V. 206

Gonzalez Bombal, M. I. 187n11

Gorenberg, G. 257

Gourevitch, Philip 293n15

Grabill, Joseph L. 141n1, 142, 145n8

Graffam, Mary Louise 142n4

Grafton, A. 250

Grandy, Moses 129, 133

Greenburg, Jill 207n6

Gregson, Mathew 33

Gross, Robert 39n8

Grotius, Hugo 5n8, 158

Guantanamo prison 78–79

Guaraní language, and political culture in Paraguay 199

Guatemala, and truth commission 262

Habermas, Jürgen 17n29

Habyarimana, Juvénal 286

Hajjar, L. 247

Hall, William Edward 163

Hart, Levi 120

Harvey, Colin 251

Haskell, Thomas 210

Hassan II, King (Morocco) 267, 268

Hastrup, Kirsten 225, 240

Heath, Stephen 203

Helsinki Conventions 37

Henlein, Konrad 168

Herman@s (Siblings) 182

hierarchies, of victimhood in financial reparations programs 275–277

H.I.J.O.S. (Children for Identity and Justice Against Forgetting and Silence) 182, 194

Hilberg, Raul 169

Hindley, Meredith 169

Hitimana, Leonard 288, 296

Hochschild, Adam 40n9, 124n13, 158n5, 248–249

Hollinger, David 32n2

Holm, H.-H. 82n33

Holocaust, international bystanders and humanitarian intervention 156–172

Holzgrefe, J. L. 6–7, 18n31

Homer 91, 96–97

Hopgood, S. 249, 253

Horst, Cindy 231

Horst, H. 228n3, 240

Hotel Rwanda (film) 92, 295

Htun, M. 197n24

Huggins, M. 252

human, “humane” as variant of 41, 43–44

humanitarianism

abolitionism and problem of slave redemption 118–136

Armenia, and politics and ideology of in early twentieth-century USA 140–154

boundaries of 1–4

children and narratives of suffering 202–219

and credibility of narratives in refugee resettlement 223–241

global and local issues in contemporary 58–84

global media and relief efforts after 2004 tsunami 108–116

historical origins of 9–18

interaction with concept of human rights 4–9

and international bystanders to Holocaust 156–172

and legitimacy of narratives about “disappeared” in Argentina 177–200

narratives and construction of concept of humanity 31–55

narratives and mobilization of empathy 18–26

and narratives of suffering in post-genocide Rwanda 285–302

role of literature and reading in 88–106

See also global humanitarianism, human rights

“Humanitarian Narratives of Inflicted Suffering” (conference) 2

humanitarian Office of the European Community (ECHO) 67

humanity

“law of humanity” and idea of 5–6

narratives and construction of concept 31–55

human rights

defenders of as category in refugee resettlement 232–234

and family in discourse of “disappeared” in Argentina 182

historical origins of 9–18

interaction with concept of humanitarianism 4–9

narratives of international suffering and legal language of 208

reports on and human rights movement 245–263

role of emotions in campaigns for 20–21

and witness testimony in Morocco and Algeria 265–282

See also humanitarianism

Human Rights Watch 65–66, 119, 225, 247, 255–256, 262

Hume, David 31

Hunt, Lynn 12, 31n1

Huron (Canada), and childhood in early New France 204

Hutchinson, J. F. 73n18

Hyndman, J. 228n3

Ibarra, Aníbal 192, 194

IC (individual case), and refugee resettlement procedures 227

ICRC.

See Red Cross

identity

children of “disappeared” in Argentina and restitution of 189–191

and credibility of refugee resettlement narratives 227–228, 231–232

ideology

Armenia and politics of humanitarianism in early twentieth-century USA 140–154

and construction of childhood 211–212

Iliad (Homer) 96–97

images

impact of on abolition of slavery 40

and narratives of children and suffering 208–209

natural disasters and metonymic power of 114

imagination

and models of sentimental reading 91–93

and role of humanitarian narratives in construction of concept of humanity 48

Indonesia.

See tsunami of 2004

information technology, and refugee resettlement narratives 230–231

innocence

association with vulnerability and childhood in humanitarian appeals 202, 204, 206, 219

role of in humanitarian narratives 23–24

as theme in Armenian relief in early twentieth-century USA 150, 151, 152–153

Instance Equité et Reconciliation (IER, Morocco) 268, 272, 273, 280–282

intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) 59

International Convention on the Rights of the Child 191

International Criminal Court 225

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 289

International Crisis Group 66

international humanitarianism, definition of 3

See also global humanitarianism

international humanitarian law (IHL) 72

International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation 90

International Rescue Committee 65, 70

International Tribunal on Crimes Against Women (Belgium 1976) 224

International Year of the Child 205

Iraq, and Red Cross 69

Israeli–Palestinian conflict, and human rights reports 247–263

Italy, unification of 93

Jackson, Michael 240–241

James, A. 205

Janis, Mark 5n8

Japan, national interests of and global humanitarianism 83

Jay’s Treaty (1796) 122

Jelin, Elizabeth 25, 182n4, 189n13, 211

Jews

and anti-Jewish violence in Eastern Europe of 1918–1921 165

and collapse of humanitarian intervention after World War I 170

Germany and financial reparations 272

tradition of humanitarian invention on behalf of 159

See also anti-Semitism, Holocaust

Joint Church Aid 63

Jones, Dorothy 167

Jonge, Klaas de 298

Jordan, Winthrop 135

justice, and transition to rule of law in Argentina 183–189, 199

Kagame, Paul 287, 288, 289, 293, 294, 295, 301

Kagan, Michael 229–230

Kant, Immanuel 2

Karekezi, U. A. 290, 294n18, 298

Karlan, Dean S. 119, 125n14

Keenan, J. 246

Keenan, Thomas 262

Kellenberger, Jacob 79

Kelley, Edmond 127–128, 130

Kellow, Margaret M. R. 4, 11, 152

Kennedy, D. 18n31, 248, 257

Keohane, Robert O. 18n31, 60n2, 64n6, 67n10

Keshgegian, Flora 9, 23, 130n26, 135

King, Henry Churchill 145

Kinyarwanda language, and narratives of suffering in post-genocide Rwanda 296–297

Kirchner, Néstor 192, 194–196

Kitzinger, J. 208

Klarsfeld, Serge 53

Kleinman, Arthur 21

Knox, B. M. W. 101

Knudsen, J. C. 239n8

Koger, L. 129n23

Koskenniemi, Martti 168n19

Krauthammer, Charles 157

Kristof, Nicholas D. 18, 119

Krueger, Alan B. 119, 125n14

Ksentini, Mustapha Farouk 268

Lane, Lunsford 129

Laqueur, Thomas 15, 51n16, 210

Lauren, Paul 162

Lausanne Conference (1922–1923) 153

law and legal systems

and credibility of narratives in refugee resettlement 223–241

and human rights movement in Argentina 183–189

and Red Cross 72

and role of narrative in human rights 37

“law of humanity,” 5–6

League of Nations 62, 90, 165, 166, 167, 170

Leonard, Marilyn 208

Leopold II, Emperor (Austria) 7

Levi, Primo 46

Levy, Andrew 121n7

Liberator (newspaper) 122, 123

Liberia, and American slavery 121, 122

Lincoln, Abraham 53

Lingelbach, William 163

literature, connections between humanitarianism and 91

local roots, of global humanitarianism 79–82

Loescher, G. 63n4

Louis XVI, King (France) 14–15

Lyons, R. 292

MacGahan, J. A. 33–34

Madres de Plaza de Mayo (Mothers of Plaza de Mayo) 181, 182, 188, 192, 276

Magen David Adom (MDA) 72n17

Malarek, Victor 119n3

Malebranche, Nicolas 47

Malkki, Liisa 228n3, 237

Mamdani, Mahmood 257

Mandelstam, Andrei 163

Manumission Societies 121

Mardiganian, Aurora 146

Marrus, Michael R. 17, 18, 135, 152

Martens Clause (1899 Convention With Respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land) 6n9, 164

Martin, D. A. 231

Marx, Karl 90

Mayer, Wolfgang 11n23

Mazower, Mark 166n16, 167, 171n26

McEvoy, K. 249

McLagan, Meg 231

Médecins Sans Frontières.

See Doctors Without Borders

media

and Armenian relief in early twentieth-century USA 145–148

and international reporting in USA during Cold War 81

and relief efforts after 2004 tsunami 108–116

memory, family and politics of in Argentina 179–183, 199–200

Memory of Solferino, A (Un Souvenir de Solférino) (Dunant 1862) 90, 93–106

Menzel, Adoph von 52

migration, refugee resettlement in context of global 226

Miniter, Richard 119

minorities, problem of in post–World War I Europe 166–167, 171

See also ethnicity, Jews, race

missionaries

Catholic in early New France 204

and history of humanitarian efforts of American Protestants 141–152

modernity, and concept of childhood innocence in humanitarian appeals 204

Moore, Sally Falk 290

Moorehead, Caroline 237

morality

and complexity of child sponsorship 215, 216

and dualism in redemption drama of Armenian relief 151, 154

global humanitarianism and weakness of transnational 83–84

See also ethics

Moranian, Suzanne E. 144, 145n8, 148

Moroccan Documentation Center for Information and Formation of Human Rights 276n8

Morocco, financial reparations and witness testimony in 265–282

Mortara Affair (1860) 159

mothers, public presence of in human rights movement in Argentina 182n5, 183

See also family

Mothers of Disappeared Children (SOS Disparus), Algeria 276–277

Moyn, S. 7n14

Muhammad VI, King (Morocco) 268

multilateralism, and contemporary global humanitarianism 66–70, 74–77

Mutamba, B. 290, 298

Mutua, Makau 102, 240

Muyart de Vouglans, Pierre Francois 14

names, development of commemorative use of in nineteenth century 52–54

Nari, M. 197n24

narratives

and construction of concept of humanity 31–55

credibility of in refugee resettlement 223–241

and “disappeared” victims of state repression in Argentina 177–200

and Dunant’s A Memory of Solferino 93–101

and human rights reports 245–263

and mobilization of empathy 18–26

and place of children in humanitarian appeals 202–219

post-genocide Rwanda and Gacaca courts 285–302

witness testimony and financial reparations in Morocco and Algeria 265–282

National Committee of the Right to Identity (CONADI) 190

National Compensated Emancipation Society 125

National Genetic Bank 190

nationalism

and cosmopolitanism in contemporary international humanitarianism 59–60

and Red Cross 73, 74

See also politics, sovereignty

National Socialism 37

National Unity and Reconciliation Commission (Rwanda) 299

Natsios, Andrew 69, 70

natural disasters, consequences of compared to war 110

See also tsunami of 2004

Ndebele, Njabulo 202, 209, 218

Near East Relief 140–141, 143–144, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152–154

Neff, Stephen 5n8, 6n12, 7

Nehamas, Alexander 39

“new humanitarianism,” 19, 89

Newman, Richard S. 123n11

New Near East (journal) 146, 151

Ni-Aolain, Fionnuala 251

Niemeyer, Lucian 118n1

Nietzsche, Friedrich 217

Nigerian-Biafran conflict (1967–1970) 62–63, 76

nongovermental organizations (NGOs)

and child sponsorship 212–216

critiques of from governments and nonstate actors 248

politics and neutrality of 70

role of in global humanitarianism 59, 65

and UN system 65–66

See also Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch

Nordstrom, C. 302

Nshimiyimana, A. 290, 298

Nuncas Más (Never Again) 184, 261–262

Nussbaum, Martha 90, 91, 92, 93, 102, 104, 105

Nye, Joseph P. 64n6

objectivity, and human rights reporting 250, 251

Office of the Coordinator of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) 63, 68, 71, 110

Ogata, Sadako 64–65

Olsen, G. R. 82n33

Onuf, Nicholas 159

Orentlicher, Diane 247, 249, 251

Ottoman Empire

and emergence of modern humanitarian intervention 159–160

and Red Crescent Societies 72n17

See also Armenia, Bulgaria, Turkey

Oxfam 65, 66

Pakistan, and 2004 Kashmir earthquake 109, 112

Paraguay: indigenous languages and political culture of 199

and military government 179n2

Paris, Treaty of (1783) 122

Payne, Francis 120

peace: and ideals of humanitarianism 89

and security in global humanitarianism 64

performance, and refugee resettlement narratives 231–232

Perl, Jed 39

Perrault, Gilles 276n7

personal testimonies: and financial reparations in Morocco and Algeria 280–282

and human rights reports 252–253, 261n7

Philip II (Macedonia) 91

Physicians for Human Rights 54

Picquet, Louisa 132

Pillnitz Declaration (1791) 7

Pinochet Ugarte, Augusto 189

Poland, and minority groups in post–World War I period 166

politics

Armenia and ideology of humanitarianism in early twentieth-century USA 140–154

and contexts of human rights reports 256–258

of family and memory in Argentina 179–183

independence of UN system from 68

and narratives of suffering in post-genocide Rwanda 290

and neutrality of Red Cross 69–70, 76, 79

of peace and security in global humanitarianism 64

and principles of neutrality and impartiality in humanitarianism 217

testimonies and witnessing in current Moroccan 281

See also nationalism, sovereignty

Postman, Neil 202

post-traumatic stress disorder, and natural disasters 112

Pottier, Johan 293, 294, 295n20

poverty, and children in Brazil 205–206

Powell, Colin 67, 69

Power, Samantha 4, 83n34, 157n3

power, in logic of narrative on Armenian relief 151–152

Price, R. 250

Prigioni Greco, María Isabel 194n18

private, and public under military dictatorship in Argentina 181

professionalization, of human rights activists 250

propaganda, and Armenian relief in early twentieth-century USA 145–146, 153

Prout, A. 205

public.

See private

public commemoration, and “disappeared” in Argentina 191–196

See also names

Pugin, Augustus 52

Pupavac, Vanessa 218

Quakers: and notion of “bearing witness,” 262

and slave redemption 121

race, and Armenian relief in early twentieth-century USA 146

See also ethnicity

Rael, Patrick 123n11, 133

rationale, of human rights reporting 250–251

Ravished Armenia (film 1919) 146

recognition, and authenticity in refugee resettlement narratives 239–241

reconciliation, and humanitarian responses to narratives of suffering in Rwanda 297–299

See also financial reparations, truth commissions

reconstruction, and relief efforts after natural disasters 113–114

Red Crescent Societies 72

See also Red Cross

Red Cross

politics and neutrality of 69–70, 76, 79

and relief efforts after 2004 tsunami 109

role of in contemporary global humanitarianism 71–79

and UN system 62–63

Redfield, Peter 228

refugee resettlement, and credibility of narratives 223–241

and coaching 230

refugee status determination (RSD) 229

religion

and history of missionary and humanitarian efforts in USA 141–152

and World Vision’s child sponsorship program in Canada 215

See also Catholic Church, Jews, Quakers

retaliation, and survivor narratives in post-genocide Rwanda 291

Reynolds, Kimberly 203, 218

Reyntjens, F. 289, 300

Robinson, J. 80n30

Robinson, Mary 276

Robson, Elsbethe 206

Rorty, Richard 2, 20–21, 25, 31–32, 35, 48, 54, 55, 90, 91, 92, 93, 102, 104, 105, 209, 256

Rose, F. A. 144

Rosenbloom, S. R. 205

Rougier, Antoine 163

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 9, 12–13, 203, 204

Rubenstein, William D. 156n1

Rühe, Volker 3

Rusesabagina, Paul 295–296

Russo, Henri 277

Rwanda, and narratives of suffering in post-genocide Gacaca courts 285–302

Sabato, Ernesto 261

Sandvik, Kristin 8, 22, 219

Save the Children 65, 70, 214

Scarry, Elaine 32–33, 36–37, 90, 92, 302

Schmitt, Carl 17, 25, 37

Schorr, Esther 38n6

Scott, James C. 294

Sebald, W. G. 285

Sennet, R. 179

sentiment

and imaginative models of reading 91–93

sentimentalist thesis and concept of humanity 31–55

See also emotions, empathy, sympathy

September 11 2001 terrorist attack, and financial reparations 274–275, 278, 279

Serpell, Robert 205

Seu, B. 254

Seville Agreement (1997) 73–74

sexual violence, and refugee resettlement 234–237

Sharon, Ariel 157

Sharpe, Granville 42–43

Sheeran, Josette 3

Sibley, E. 144

silence, and children in narratives of suffering 207–209

Slaughter, Joseph 15–16

slavery

abolition and problem of slave redemption 118–136

and history of human rights 10, 11

impact of engraving of slave ship on public image of 40, 41f

and role of narrative in construction of concept of humanity 42, 44, 45, 48–49

Slovic, D. 20

Slyomovics, Susan 24, 267n2

Smith, Adam 1, 38, 46, 48, 92–93, 210

Smulovitz, C. 184n7, 188n12

Social Gospel movement 148

society

and family in Argentina under military rule 180

increasing globalization of in USA 81–82

Somalia, and Red Cross 77–78

Sontag, Susan 9n19, 22

SOS Disparus (Mothers of Disappeared Children), Algeria 276–277

South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission 225, 252, 257, 271, 289, 293

Southey, Robert 49

sovereignty, and modern emergence of humanitarian intervention 158

See also nationalism

Spain, and legislation on “crimes against humanity,” 189

Sprinzak, Joseph 272

Stead, W. T. 34–35

Stedman, J. G. 41–42

Stephens, Sharon 217, 218

stockpiling format, of human rights reports 252–256

Stowell, Ellery C. 163, 164

Strange, Julie-Marie 51n16

Straus, S. 286n2, 292, 294n16, 296, 297n23

Sudan, and modern slavery 118–119

Sumatra.

See tsunami of 2004

Suski, Laura 9, 16, 23–24, 25

Switzerland, and Red Cross 75–76

sympathy, definition of in context 2n2

Sznaider, Natan 212

Szymborska, Wislawa 263

Tazmamart (Morocco) 275–276

Teitel, Ruti 5, 6n9, 8n18

Tesón, Fernando 6n13

Thailand.

See tsunami of 2004

theatrical metaphors, in narratives of suffering 101–103

theology.

See religion

Thirty Years’ War 15

Ticktin, Miriam 8, 22–23, 238

Tilly, Charles 252, 255

Todorov, T. 199

Trebek, Alex 215

Tronto, Joan 217

truth, and transition to rule of law in Argentina 183–189

truth commissions 21, 261–262, 270–271

See also Gacaca courts, South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission

tsunami of 2004 70, 71, 84, 108–116

Turkey, Ataturk and politics of in 1920s 153–154

See also Ottoman Empire

Turner, J. M. W. 49–51, 50f

Uganda, and credibility of narratives in refugee resettlement programs 223–241

United Nations

and Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1989 206–207

and development program 63

global humanitarianism and system of 61–71

See also UNESCO, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNRWA, UNSC, Universal Declaration on Human Rights

UNESCO (UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) 90

UNHCR (UN High Commissioner for Refugees)

creation of 62

and credibility of narratives in refugee resettlement 223–241

role of in contemporary global humanitarianism 64, 65, 66, 67, 68

UNICEF (UN International Children’s Emergency Fund) 63, 66, 67, 68, 77, 119

Universal Declaration on Human Rights (United Nations 1948) 10, 16, 89, 266

UNRWA (UN Relief and Works Agency) 62, 63

UNSC (UN Security Council) 63–64

Uruguay, and military government 179n2

US Agency for International Development (USAID) 67

USA

abolitionism and problem of slave redemption in 118–136

human rights report on incarceration of children in 255–256

and local roots of global humanitarianism 80–82

and politics of global humanitarianism 69

Protestantism and history of missionary and humanitarian efforts 141–152

and September 11 2001 terrorist attack and financial reparations 274–275, 278

“war against terrorism” and coercive or abusive interrogation 78–79

and weakness of transnational morality 83–84

Utas, Mats 236, 240

Valéry, Paul 90

Vandeginste, S. 289

Vattel, Emerich de 158

Vattimo, Gianni 90

Vickrey, Charles V. 143, 145, 147

victimhood, hierarchies of in financial reparations programs 275–277

Vidal, C. 295n21

Ville de Goyet, Claude de 111

Voltaire 13–14

vulnerability, childhood and innocence in humanitarian appeals 202

Waldorf, Lars 25, 289n7

Walker, David 122–123

war

and children as combatants 204–205

consequences of natural disasters compared to 110

and demand to name dead 53

and history of Red Cross 72

“war against terrorism,” and Red Cross 78–79

Weeks, Stephen B. 121n8

Weil, Simone 96

Weiss, T. G. 61–62, 63n5, 67, 68n12

Wells, H. G. 88–89, 104

Wheaton, Henry 160

Wheller, N. J. 18n31

Whitehead, N. L. 285n1

Wievorka, Annette 265

Williams, Bernard 46

Wilson, Richard Ashby 36, 224, 239, 249, 252, 293

Wilson, Woodrow 153

Wolf, Eva Sheppard 120n5, 135

Wollaston, William 47–48

women.

See gender, mothers, sexual violence

Women-at-Risk (AWR), and refugee resettlement 234–237

Woolf, Virginia 9n19

World Food Program (WFP) 63, 67, 68

World Health Organization (WHO) 63, 110, 116

World Vision 65, 70, 203, 212–216

World War I

and commitments to humanitarian intervention 164–168

and naming of dead 53

and Red Cross 72

World War II, and Red Cross 72, 76

See also Germany, Holocaust

Wright, Elizur, Jr. 134

Yale Cambodian Genocide Project 53

Zalaquett, José 270–271

Zambia, and concept of childhood 205

Zelizer, Viviana 271, 274




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