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The Cambridge Companion to Thomas More
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  • Page extent: 330 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.66 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 942.05/2092
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: DA334.M8 C19 2011
  • LC Subject headings:
    • More, Thomas,--Saint,--1478-1535
    • Great Britain--History--Henry VIII, 1509-1547--Biography
    • Henry--VIII,--King of England,--1491-1547--Relations with humanists
    • Great Britain--Politics and government--1509-1547
    • England--Intellectual life--16th century

Library of Congress Record

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 (ISBN-13: 9780521888622)

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The Cambridge Companion to Thomas More
Cambridge University Press
9780521888622 - The Cambridge Companion to Thomas More - Edited by George M. Logan
Index

Index*

* Front matter, back matter, and the ‘Further reading’ appendices to the essays are not indexed.

Ackroyd, Peter 46, 285 n. 11

Act of Supremacy 126

Alington, Alice (stepdaughter of TM) 58, 225

The Answer to a Poisoned Book 100, 103, 105

The Apology 95, 99, 107, 118–119

Audley, Thomas 122, 129, 131, 132, 225–226

Augustine, St

and More 162–163

and More's lectures on City of God 15, 27, 28

on unjust kingdoms as robber bands 160

The Barge in Bucklersbury (TM's house) 16, 29

Barnes, Robert 96, 99

Barton, Elizabeth (‘Nun of Kent’) 120

Bayly, Thomas 268

Beatus Rhenanus 141

Bilney, Thomas 99, 101, 105, 106, 192, 194–195, 205–206

relation to the Messenger of A Dialogue Concerning Heresies 192

Boleyn, Anne 96, 119

Bolt, Robert 113, 134, 269, 270–271

Brie, Germain de (Germanus Brixius) 44 n. 4, 271

Buck, George 269, 271–272

Budé, Guillaume 153, 157

Burnet, Bishop Gilbert 276–277

Cambrai, Treaty of 82

Cassian, St John 222, 253

Catherine of Aragon 80, 96, 119

Chambers, R. W. 97–98, 109–110, 134

Churchyard, Thomas 273

Clement, John (scholar-servant in TM's household) 221

Clement, Margaret (adopted daughter of TM) 133

Colet, John 11, 15, 27, 252

pro communism 153

Colt, Joanna (first wife of TM) 13, 16, 30–31

‘the comen corps of crystendome’ 81, 199, 200, 211–212, 244, 271

The Confutation of Tyndale's Answer 99, 100–101, 102, 103, 106, 203

Creighton, Bishop Mandell 269

Cromwell, Thomas

and More 120, 126–128, 134

rise of 85–86

Daniell, David 108

De Tristitia Christi

biblical exegesis in 245–248

date 239

and Erasmus on Gethsemane 252

holograph manuscript 239–240

humanity of Christ 249–251, 251–252, 255–256

on martyrdom 249, 254–258

and the meditative tradition 248–249

and Jean Gerson's Monotessaron 243–245, 251

More's process of composition of 239–240, 256

personal vs. public concerns 242–243, 248–249, 251, 258–259

polemical aspect 125

spiritual attentiveness in 252–254

structure 251

style 254, 256, 257–258

supposed link to A Treatise on the Passion 241–242

themes (overview) 251

title 251

The Debellation of Salem and Bizance 100, 118–119

A Dialogue Concerning Heresies

overview 99

and Thomas Bilney 192, 194–196, 205–206

character of the ‘Messenger’ 192, 193–194

clerical combat of heresy 204

and the ‘comen consent’ of the Church 198–199

and the ‘comen corps of crystendome’ 81, 199, 200, 211–212

criticism of dissension of European rulers 81–82, 217

criticism of traditional religion 200–202

as dialogue 58, 192

on English and the Bible in English 51, 206–208

and Erasmus's Colloquies 201, 202–203

fictional circumstances of 193

and humanism 206–208

humour as a tool of argument in 200–204

justification of using force against heretics 210–211

and More's fondness for dialogue 58

occasion 194

opinions of 191–192, 204

parallel of heresy and the Turkish threat 210–211

and pilgrimage 199–200

publication 191

on the sack of Rome 80

and sola fide (‘by faith alone’) 100 207, 209–210

and sola scriptura (‘by scripture alone’) 100–1 195, 196–198

structure 195, 196, 198, 204, 209

on the Turkish threat 81–82, 210–211, 217

and Tyndale 192, 206–207

and Utopia 204–205

and veneration of saints 197–198

A Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation

as an ars moriendi 220

‘art of improvisation’ in 59, 223–224

against communism 227–228

consolatory anticipation of heaven 233

as dialogue 58–59, 216, 235

fable of ass, wolf and fox 225–226

fear of imprisonment 230–231

fear of painful death 231–233

and Jean Gerson 223

Harpsfield on 218, 235

historical setting 216–218, 218–219

humour 226

on martyrdom 234

meditation as preparation for tribulation 229

and More's circumstances 218, 235

and More's fondness for dialogue 58

persecution as a boon 234

polemical aspect of 125, 223

and Psalm 90 224–225

purposes of 218

reception 265

relation of ‘Antony’ to More 218

and sola fide (‘by faith alone’) 223

structure 220

temptations:

fear 224–225

outward compliance 232–233

tribulation 219

worldliness 228

Vincent/vincenti pun 224

world as prison 62, 230–231

dystopias 274, 280–281

Elton, G. R., on More

entry into the royal council 74

as lord chancellor 117

sexuality 102

supposed misuse of evidence 114 n. 17

supposed serenity in the Tower 124

Erasmus, Desiderius

biographical sketch of More 148, 169

and More 27, 29–30, 201, 202–203

More's defences of 31–32, 33–36, 203, 206

and publication of Utopia 148, 158

and the Reformation 203–204

on Utopia 39

writings

Adages ‘Amicorum communia omnia’ 152

‘Dulce bellum inexpertis’ 144–145, 153

De bello Turcis 217

Disputatiuncula de taedio, pavore, tristicia Iesu 252

edition of the Greek New Testament 33

Julius exclusus e coelis 35

Ciceronianus 51

Colloquies 201, 202–203, 203–204

The Praise of Folly 30–31, 142–143

Fabyan, Robert 175, 178

Farman, Thomas 106, 194–195

Field of Cloth of Gold 76

Fisher, Bishop John 77, 120, 122, 123, 128, 129

Fortescue, Sir John 12

Foxe, John 93, 255

Frith, John 106, 110

See also Letter against Frith

Gerson, Jean 223, 243–245

Giggs, Margaret (adopted daughter of TM) 221

Giles, Peter:

See Gillis, Pieter

Gillis, Pieter 31

and publication of Utopia 158

Graunger, Agnes (mother of TM)

See More, Agnes Graunger

Grocyn, William 11–12, 15, 25, 26–27

Guy, John, on More

dealings with heresy 214 n. 12

entry into the royal council 74–75

‘schizophrenia’ 93–94, 108–109

Harpsfield, Nicholas (16th-century biographer of TM) 13, 88, 124, 133–134

Henry VII 29

Henry VIII

and the Bible in English 208

character of 79–80

divorce 80–81, 85–87, 96–97, 121

and More 73, 74, 75–77, 79, 116–117

with respect to the divorce 80–81, 85–87, 121

More's poem on coronation of 29, 67 n. 29

late vindictiveness toward More 120–121, 126

heresy

as a capital crime 95

in England before Luther 94–95

See also A Dialogue Concerning Heresies, More, Thomas: and Lutheranism

The History of King Richard the Third

overview 36–38

authorship 187 n. 15

early audiences 170–171

best English text of 169

best Latin text of 172

duke of Buckingham in 168, 175, 178, 183

character portraits 177–178, 182, 183

choice of subject 170

classical imitation in 178–182

controversy over 169

date 171–172

didacticism 182–184

Edward IV's deathbed oration 182–183

enargia in 66 n. 22

and Erasmus's Praise of Folly 179

fictitious speeches 177–178, 182–183

historical accuracy 182, 188 n. 20

historiography 175–182

See under rhetoric: genres: histories

lacunae and errors in the texts 172

and Lucian's Menippus 179

metaphor of life as a play in 61–62

and Cardinal Morton 174

and the princes in the Tower 189 n. 31

publication 169

reception 169, 271–274

relation of Latin and English versions 52–53, 170–171, 172–174

Richard III

character 182

claim to the throne 179

usurpation 182–183

and Sallust 179, 180–181

and Shakespeare 169

Elizabeth (‘Jane’) Shore 178, 183

sources 174–175

style 178

and Suetonius 189 n. 36

and Tacitus's Annals 171, 179, 180, 181–182

themes 168, 169, 182–184

and tyranny 169–70 179–180

unfinished 168–169

as vituperatio 54

Hexter, J. H., on the composition of Utopia 148–149

Hoddesdon, John 267–268

Holt, Nicholas 8, 9

Holt, John 9, 15–16, 26

Houghton, John 13, 127

humanism 22–24

and history 170, 174, 175–177

and the Reformation 203–204

rhetoric in humanist education 48

and scholasticism 23

Humfrey, duke of Gloucester 22, 25

Hunne, Richard 95, 101

Hurdis, James 269

Huxley, Aldous 281

Inns of Chancery and of Court 12, 71

Kinney, Daniel 172

Lafferty, R. A. 271

The Last Things 62

Lee, Edward 28, 33–34

Lee, Joyce 28

Letter against Frith 100, 103, 118

Letter to Brixius 44 n. 40

Letter to Bugenhagen 98

letters (published) in defence of humanism

Letter to Dorp 31–32, 206

Letter to Lee 33–34

Letter to a Monk 34–36

Letter to Oxford 32–33, 72

Lewis, C. S. 191–192

The Life of John Picus (Pico della Mirandola) 28, 37, 49, 173, 186 n. 6

Lily, William 11, 15, 27, 28, 48

Linacre, Thomas 11, 15, 27

Lollardy 94–95, 110

Lucian 29–30, 49, 142–147, 179

Luther, Martin:

See More, Thomas: on Lutheranism

Machiavelli, Niccolò, relation of The Prince to Utopia 38–39, 40

Mantel, Hilary 93, 270

Marius, Richard 102, 109–110, 114 nn. 17, 18, 118, 123–124, 191–204

passim 269

Marshall, Johanna (first stepmother of TM) 15, 21 n. 68

Medwall, Henry 10

Middleton, Alice (second wife of TM) 126, 163, 221

Miller, Clarence H., on De Tristitia Christi

choice of language 258

More's habits of composition in 239–240, 256

style 254, 256, 257

Milton, John 277

Mirandola, Pico della 28, 49

See also The Life of John Picus

More, Abel (uncle of TM) 6, 15

More, Agnes Graunger (mother of TM) 4–5, 14–15

More, Alice Middleton (second wife of TM):

See Middleton, Alice

More, Cresacre (great-grandson and biographer of TM) 10, 13, 15

More, Joanna Colt (first wife of TM):

See Colt, Joanna

More, Johanna Marshall (first stepmother of TM) 15, 21 n. 68

More, John (father of TM) 3, 4, 6–8, 9, 12, 14–15

hostility to Thomas More's liberal studies 26, 72

as a source for The History of King Richard the Third 174

More, Margaret (daughter of TM):

See Roper, Margaret More

More, Thomas

attitudes to

heresy and heretics 97–98, 104–105, 111–112

‘custom’ 144–148

kingship 98

the papacy 101, 134–135

and St Augustine 162–163

See under lectures on Augustine's City of God

and Elizabeth Barton (‘Nun of Kent’) 120

on the Bible in English 51, 206–208

and biblical exegesis 100, 244–245, 245–248

biographers:

See Ackroyd, Peter, Chambers, R. W., Guy, John, Harpsfield, Nicholas, Marius, Richard, More, Cresacre, Roper, William, Stapleton, Thomas:

see also 290–291

birth 7

and Anne Boleyn 119

career

as chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster 79, 106

as diplomat 73, 76–77, 78–79, 80, 82

early career 72–74

entry into royal council 74–75

as judge 72–73, 79, 85

as lawyer 71, 72, 73, 129

as lord chancellor 83–87, 106–108, 117

in parliament 72, 73, 89 n. 10

as royal secretary 75–76, 77

as speaker of the House of Commons 77–78

as undersheriff of London 72–73, 107

as under-treasurer of the exchequer 76

character, various assessments of 10, 79, 93, 102, 112, 191, 265–271

and the London Charterhouse 13–14, 27, 225

children 30–31, 48–49

See also Clement, Margaret, Giggs, Margaret, Roper, Margaret More

on Christendom 81, 83, 199, 211, 244, 259

and Colet:

See Colet, John

on conscience 134

death 133

defences of humanism 30–36, 206

and dialogue 58, 191, 216, 235, 243

and the drama 10, 26, 44 n. 33, 61–63, 71, 228–229

education

at Inns of Court 12–13, 26, 71

in Cardinal Morton's household 9–10, 70–71

at Oxford 10–11, 25–26

at St Anthony's School 8–9

and education for women 48

educational theory and practice 48–49

epitaph 3, 69, 98, 105

and Erasmus;

See Erasmus, Desiderius

and Evil May Day 73

family xxiv–xxv

children:

See under children

father:

See More, John

forebears 3–8

mother:

See More, Agnes Graunger

siblings 7

first stepmother:

See Marshall, Johanna

wives:

See Colt, Joanna, Middleton, Alice

finances 73, 126

and Bishop John Fisher 77, 120, 122–123, 128, 129

and freedom of speech 77–78

and Greek studies 11–12, 25, 26, 28, 30, 40

health 69–70

and Henry VII 29

and Henry VIII:

See under Henry VIII: and More

and heresy:

See under and Lollardy, and Lutheranism

See also A Dialogue Concerning Heresies

and historical studies 169, 170

houses 16, 76

and humanism 11–12, 25ff.

and Raphael Hythlodaeus 163

imprisonment 123–126

interrogations of 60, 127–128

irony and wit 31–32, 102–103, 133, 142, 181–182, 200–204, 221–222, 225–226, 243

posthumous reputation for 266–269

knighthood 76

and Latin 51–52, 170

lectures on Augustine's City of God 15, 27, 28

and Lollardy 106, 110

and Lucian 29–30, 49, 142–147, 179

and Lutheranism

assists Henry VIII against Luther 77, 95, 98

attitude to heresy and heretics 97–98, 104–105, 111–112

basis of More's opposition to 97–98, 110–112, 209

justification of use of force against 97–98, 209–211

licensed to read and answer heretical books 81, 99, 194

on Lutheran doctrines:

predestination 209–211

sola fide (‘by faith alone’) 100, 207, 209–210, 223

sola scriptura (‘by scripture alone’) 100–101, 195, 196–198

on Luther's marriage 103, 209

on parallel of heresy and the Turkish threat 210–211

proceedings against heretics 105–109, 194–195

See also A Dialogue Concerning Heresies

and A Man for All Seasons 113 n. 7, 134, 270–271

as martyr 133–136

on martyrdom 226–227, 234, 254–258

and the Mercers' Company 72

and John Cardinal Morton 9–11

See also Morton, John, Cardinal:

See under in The History of King Richard the Third; in Utopia

and music 8–9

and Oath of Succession 121–123

on the papacy 101, 134–135

as poet (according to Erasmus) 65 n. 65

as religious reformer 29–30

on republicanism vs. monarchism 29, 186 n. 4

posthumous reputation 265–271

resignation of lord chancellorship 69–70, 87, 116–117

in retirement 117

and rhetoric:

See under rhetoric: of More's writings

and Richard Rich 128–129, 130–131

his sexuality 101–103

and Christopher St German 99–100, 104–105, 118–119

siblings 7

as statesman 87–88, 112

his ‘three wishes’ 81

as translator 49, 173

trial 129–132

and the Turkish threat 81–82, 210–211, 216–218

on tyranny 29, 30, 169

vocation 13–14, 28

wives:

See Colt, Joanna, Middleton, Alice

and Thomas Wolsey:

See Wolsey, Thomas, Cardinal

writings

collected editions (16th century) 134

early writings 48–49, 65 n. 12

devotional writings

The Last Things 62

Tower Works

overviews 123–126, 241–243

annotations in prayer book 125, 219–220

and Jean Gerson 223, 243–245

and the meditative tradition 248–249

personal vs. public concerns 242–243, 248–251

prayer composed in Tower 135–136

reception 265

writing materials 240

See also De Tristitia Christi, A Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation, A Treatise on the Passion

See under The Last Things

dialogues 58, 216

Dyaloge . . . of these Lutheran faccyons (authorship uncertain) 99

English vs. Latin 49–53, 170–171, 258

More's English 51

English poetry: ‘Pageant Verses’ 52

humanist writings

overview 28–40

declamation responding to Lucian's Tyrannicida 30

Letter to Brixius 44 n. 40

Letter to Dorp 31–32, 206

Letter to Lee 33–34

Letter to a Monk 34–36

Letter to Oxford 32–33, 72

translations of Lucian 29–30, 49

See also The History of King Richard the Third, The Life of John Picus, Utopia

Latin poetry 48

Epigrams 28, 62, 67, 186 n. 4, 265

epigrams in John Holt's Lac puerorum 9, 26, 48

Progymnasmata 48

translations from Greek Anthology 28, 29

letters

overview 59–60

to Alice Alington 58, 225–226

to Thomas Cromwell 121

to Erasmus 59–60

to John Fisher 74

to John Holt 9, 26

to Margaret More Roper 59–60, 122, 124–125, 226

personal letters 46, 59

prison letters 124–125, 226, 240, 258

See also Letter against Frith, Letter to Brixius, Letter to Bugenhagen, letters (published) in defence of humanism

polemical writings

overview 98–105

invective and scatology 103

polemical aspects of Tower Works 125–126, 223

reception 101–104, 191–192, 204, 265

See also The Answer to a Poisoned Book, The Apology, The Confutation of Tyndale's Answer, The Debellation of Salem and Bizance, A Dialogue Concerning Heresies, Letter against Frith, Letter to Bugenhagen, Responsio ad Lutherum, The Supplication of Souls

style 59, 178, 254, 256, 257–258

See under rhetoric: of More's writings

Tower Works:

See under devotional writings

translations 28, 29–30, 48, 49, 172–174

writing and oratory of More's professional life 64 n. 2

Morton, John, Cardinal 9–11, 70–71

in The History of King Richard the Third 70–71, 187

as supposed author of the History 187 n. 15

in Utopia 160, 163

Moynahan, Brian 93, 108

Munday, Anthony 269

Oath of Succession 121–122

Pace, Richard 75, 80

Paris News Letter 132, 133

Peasants' War 96

Petrarca, Francesco 23

Pico della Mirandola 28, 49

See also The Life of John Picus

Polydore Vergil 175

Rastell, John (brother-in-law of TM) 28, 110

Rastell, William (nephew of TM) 120, 123, 134, 169

Responsio ad Lutherum 77, 98, 100, 101, 103–104

Rhenanus, Beatus 141

rhetoric

overview 47–48

enargia 52, 55, 66 n. 22

ethos 55

and humanism 23–24, 48

of More's writings

litotes 61

metaphor 61–63

ornamentation 60–63

the polemical works 102–103, 104

rhetoric of particular works, including

Letter to Dorp 31–32

Letter to Lee 33–34

The History of King Richard the Third 54, 175–182

Utopia 54–57

and public life 72

theory of, including

the five faculties 47

imitation 51

ornamentation 60

topics (topoi) 47

See also rhetoric, genres of

rhetoric, genres of

declamations 49, 65 n. 13

dialogues 55

histories

causality 177

didacticism 176

evidence 176

rhetorical theory of 175–177

set pieces (battles, characters, fictitious speeches) 176–177

sources 174

style 178

letters 59

orations (demonstrative, deliberative, judicial) 47, 55

vituperatio 52, 54

Rich, Richard 128–129, 130–131

Richard III

character 182

claim to the throne 179

process of usurpation 182–183

as tyrant 179–180

See also The History of King Richard the Third

Ridley, Jasper 94, 108, 269

Roper, Margaret More (daughter of TM) 48, 110, 123, 133, 226

Roper, William (son-in-law and biographer of TM) 13, 14–15, 73, 110, 130, 133–134

Russell, John, Bishop 13–14

Ruthall, Thomas 30

St Anthony's School 8–9

St German, Christopher 99–100, 104, 118–119

Sallust, and More's History of King Richard the Third 38, 179, 180–1

Selling, William 11

Serbopoulos, John 26

Shakespeare, William, and More's History of King Richard the Third 169

Shore, Elizabeth (‘Jane’) 178, 183, 273–274

Simpson, James, on A Dialogue Concerning Heresies passim 191–210

Skelton, John 192

Skinner, B. F. 281

Skinner, Quentin, on Utopia 40

sola fide 100, 207, 209–210, 223

sola scriptura 100–101, 195, 196–198

Stapleton, Thomas 117, 169

Staverton, Richard (brother-in-law of TM) 12

Submission of the Clergy 87, 116, 119

The Supplication of Souls 99

Tacitus, and More's History of King Richard the Third 38, 171, 179, 180, 181–182

Tey, Josephine (Elizabeth Macintosh) 273

Treasons Act 126

A Treatise on the Passion 125, 244

Treaty of Cambrai 82

‘Tudor myth’ 175, 273

Tunstall, Cuthbert 73, 99, 194

tyrant, senses of the word in classical culture and early modern England 179–180

Tynbygh, William 14

Tyndale, William 96, 99, 192, 202, 203, 208

English translation of the Bible 96, 98–99, 193, 194, 206–207

See also The Confutation of Tyndale's Answer

Universal Peace Treaty 75, 76

Utopia (the book)

overview 36, 38–40

action vs. contemplation 158

ancillary materials (‘parerga’) 57, 142, 148, 153

and Augustine's City of God 150, 160, 162–163

choice of Latin 50

and communism 161–162

See under Utopia (the country): communism

compositional sequence 148–149

and the condition of England 159–160

and ‘custom’ 144–148

date of composition 148–149

as dialogue 55, 162

and A Dialogue Concerning Heresies 204–205

‘Dialogue of Counsel’ 55–56, 149, 158–161

early translations into English

Ralph Robinson 275–276

Bishop Gilbert Burnet 276–277

enargia in 55

and enclosure 159

ethos in 55

as a fiction 157

J. H. Hexter on its composition 148–149

Hythlodaeus 143–144

importance of institutions in 145–148, 150

and Lucian 142–147

metaphor of life as a play in 61–62

as meta-utopia 55–57

and monasticism 150

More and Hythlodaeus 163

Cardinal Morton in 160, 163

as Nusquama 143

and oratorical form 55–57

and Plato

Laws 149

Republic 142, 143, 149, 158

the Polylerites 160

prefatory letter to Pieter Gillis 57, 142

and the problem of theft 159–160

reception and influence 141, 162, 274–282

rhetoric of 54–57

second letter to Gillis (1517 edition) 57

Quentin Skinner on 40

title, variants after More's time 275–277

as traveller's tale 55

Utopia (the country)

Anemolian ambassadors 62–63, 145–147

colonialism 156–157

communal meals 153–154

communism 152–154, 157, 161–162

education 151

and England 150

gold and silver 145–146

and the Greek city-state 150

and Greek culture 155

hedonism 154, 155

and humanism 155

and the ideal commonwealth 157

labour 151–152

and monasticism 150

nature followed 154

and New World indigenes 152–153

and Platonism 155

religion 97, 155

religious toleration 155

scholars 150–151

slavery 156

social and political organization 150–152

warfare 156

utopia (the word) 143, 274

utopias (Anglophone) 279–280

Utopus 149

Valla, Lorenzo 24

van Dorp, Maarten 31

More's Letter to Dorp 31–32, 206

Vergil, Polydore 175

Vives, Juan Luis 80, 88, 217

Walpole, Horace 271, 272–273

Warham, William, Archbishop 13

Wells, H. G. 280

Wolsey, Thomas, Cardinal

fall of 82–83

and More 74, 75, 76–77, 78

More as furtherer of his reforms 85

More on 84–85

Wood, James 270

Wycliffe, John 94

Zamiatin, Yevgeny 280–281




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