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A Quietist Jihadi
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A Quietist Jihadi
Cambridge University Press
9781107022072 - A Quietist Jihadi - The Ideology and Influence of Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi - By Joas Wagemakers
Index

Index

ʿAbd al-Nasir, Jamal 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 193, 238

ʿAbduh, Muhammad 6, 56

abode of Islam

See dār al-Islām

abode of unbelief

See dār al-ḥarb, dār al-kufr

abode of war

See dār al-ḥarb, dār al-kufr

abrogating and the abrogated

See nāsikh wa-l-mansūkh, al-

Abu Qura, ʿAbd al-Latif 194

Abu ʿUmar, ʿUmar Mahmud

See Filastini, Abu Qatada al-

Abu Zaydan, Sami 200

advice

See naṣīḥa

Advice and Reform Committee (ARC) 101, 112

affection

See walāʾ wa-l-barāʾ, al-

Afghani, Jamal al-Din al- 6

Afghanistan 14–16, 17–18, 80, 109, 110, 182, 216, 217, 221

Afghan Arabs 14–16, 17, 18, 38, 40, 42, 45, 56, 57, 58, 102, 109, 110, 121, 125, 128, 137, 141, 176, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 206, 208, 212, 216, 217, 235, 238, 242, 245, 247

American invasion of 21, 45, 73, 74, 120, 125, 162, 180, 181, 217

Karzai, Hamid 182

Soviet invasion of 14–15, 18, 38, 56, 57, 199, 210, 216, 238, 247

See also Taliban

ahl al-ḥadīth 5, 122, 127

See also Salafism

ahl al-Sunna wa-l-jamāʿa 7, 141

Al al-Shaykh, ʿAbd al-Latif b. ʿAbd al-Rahman 152

Al al-Shaykh, ʿAbd al-Rahman b. Hasan 173

Al al-Shaykh, Muhammad b. ʿIbrahim 65, 70, 77, 106, 107, 136

Al al-Shaykh, Sulayman b. Abdallah 105, 151, 152, 154

Albani, Muhammad Nasir al-Din al- 9, 36, 57, 65, 76, 127, 195, 226

influence on al-Maqdisi 35, 239

Algeria 2, 17, 72, 204, 216, 227

ʿAli b. Abi Talib 66

ʿAli, Hamid b. ʿAbdallah al- 39

influence of al-Maqdisi on 182

America

See United States of America

amīr

See imāra

analogical reasoning

See under qiyās

Ansari, Abu l-Walid al- 40, 42, 182

influence of al-Maqdisi on 182

antisemitism 21, 33, 106

apostasy

See ridda

apostate

See murtadd

ʿaqīda 8–10, 24, 52–74, 75, 76, 78, 93, 122, 134, 141, 149, 157, 166, 180, 202, 213, 214, 228, 237, 238, 239, 240, 245, 246

Arab League 106

Arab Revolt 192

Arab world 2, 10, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 23, 34, 38, 100, 120, 162, 238

See also Middle East, Muslim world

Arab-Israeli conflict 13, 16, 21, 31, 33, 41, 86, 88, 193, 195, 196, 198, 238

ʿArafat, Yasir 41

Fatah 33

Hamas 21

Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) 31, 33, 193

Palestine mandate 194

Palestinian intifada 16, 196

Palestinian refugees 41

peace process 41, 198, 201, 210

Zionism 222

asking non-Muslims for help

See walāʾ wa-l-barāʾ, al-

Athari, Abu Humam Bakr b. ʿAbd al-ʿAziz al-

influence of al-Maqdisi on 175–176, 177

ʿAwda, Salman al- 9, 102, 103, 106, 107, 111, 115, 124

awliyāʾ

See walāʾ wa-l-barāʾ, al-

Ayyub, Hasan

influence on al-Maqdisi 33, 34

Azdi, Abu Jandal al- 86, 135, 136, 160

influence of al-Maqdisi on 177–178

Azhar, al- 86

ʿAzzam, ʿAbdallah 14–15, 38, 39, 56, 57, 70, 72, 137, 199, 247

Banna, Hasan al-

See Muslim Brotherhood

Barqawi, ʿIsam al-

See Maqdisi, Abu Muhammad al-

Battle of Uḥud (625) 151

Bayʿat al-Imam

See Jamaʿat al-Muwahhidin

Bayram, Nur al-Din 219, 220, 230

Bayt Shubrā 121–123, 127, 128, 138, 140, 142, 143, 242

Bedouin 127

Benford, Robert D. 20, 113, 138, 162

Berg, Nicholas 218

bidʿa (pl. bidaʿ) 4, 7, 8, 58, 149, 237, 247

Bin Laden, Osama 1, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 39, 45, 56, 72, 73, 74, 87, 93, 101, 112, 115, 121, 124, 125, 126, 137, 239, 241

See also Qaʿida, al-

blind emulation

See taqlīd

bughāt (sing. bāghin) 59, 60

Bush, George W. 74

Central Asia 74

Chechnya 125

Christianity 43, 55, 56, 61, 67, 108, 150, 152, 154, 157, 158, 166, 170, 231

Aquinas, Thomas 56

Augustine 56

Jesus Christ 170

civil strife

See fitna

Cloward, Richard A. 116, 117

Cold War 14, 16

collective duty, performed by limited number of fighters

See jihad

colonialism 11, 16, 55, 56, 157, 192

Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, New York 1

Committee for the Defence of Legitimate Rights (CDLR) 103, 111, 115, 118

confession of faith

See shahāda

consensus

See ijmāʿ

consultation

See shūrā

consultative council

See majlis al-shūrā

conviction

See iʿtiqād

creed

See ʿaqīda

‘Crusaders’ 73, 182

Crusades 55, 157

Daghlas, ʿAbd al-Hadi 214, 216

Dallal, Sami 35

dār al-ḥarb 55, 59, 63, 239

See also dār al-kufr

dār al-īmān 70, 239

See also dār al-Islām

dār al-Islām 54, 55, 59, 63, 70, 72, 128, 150, 167, 180, 228, 239

See also dār al-īmān

dār al-kufr 58, 70, 71, 239

dār al-kufr al-aṣliyya 58

dār al-kufr al-ḥāditha 58

See also dār al-ḥarb

daʿwa 9, 38, 45, 46, 53, 58, 75, 76, 78, 103, 180, 202, 203, 204, 206, 207, 210, 214, 215, 217, 221, 223, 226, 228, 237, 239, 240, 245, 247

as opposed to jihad 10, 40, 42, 49, 50, 75, 76, 78, 93, 203, 206, 207, 211, 213, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 235, 239, 240, 241, 246

descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.

See sharīf

Dhayidi, Mishari al- 249

Dr. Fadl

See Ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAziz, ʿAbd al-Qadir

Egypt 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 62, 68, 72, 73, 152, 155, 195, 204, 216, 227, 238, 247

emigration

See hijra

enmity

See walāʾ wa-l-barāʾ, al-

Erickson Nepstad, Sharon 117

Europe 68, 154

exchange

See tabdīl

excommunication

See takfīr

Fahd, Nasir b. Hamd al- 86, 158–159

faith

See īmān

Faqih, Saʿd al- 103, 111, 115

far enemy

See jihad

Faraj, Muhammad ʿAbd al-Salam 62, 63, 68, 140, 142, 166, 185

Fawzan, Salih b. Fawzan al- 8, 65, 70, 150

fighting

See qitāl

Filastini, Abu Qatada al- 39, 202

fiqh 58, 82, 221, 238

firqa nājiya 3

fitna 34, 54, 76, 77, 78

Fox Piven, Francis 116, 117

Freemasonry 108

fuqahāʾ (sing. faqīh) 58, 59, 60, 82, 85, 86

See also fiqh

Futrell, Robert 117

general interest

See maṣlaḥa

giving help to unbelievers

See walāʾ wa-l-barāʾ, al-

Great Britain 11, 41, 99, 108, 179, 192, 193, 195, 202, 222

greater unbelief

See kufr

Groupe Islamique Armée 17

Groupe Salafiste pour la Prédication et le Combat (GSPC) 17

Gulf Co-operation Council 106

Gulf War 16–17, 25, 31, 41, 97, 104, 109, 112, 120, 140, 155, 162, 194, 198, 199, 200, 201, 238, 241, 243

Wahhabi opposition in Saudi Arabia after 97, 101–104, 110–113, 118, 123

ḥadīths 3, 4, 5, 7, 55, 58, 66, 85, 103, 122, 151, 160, 174, 222, 237, 238

Hajiri, Riyad al- 121

ḥajj 36

ḥākimiyya 12, 61, 205

Halabi, ʿAli b. Hasan al- 40, 195, 226

Hami, Abu Qudama Salih al- 221, 222

Hanafi school of Islamic law 4

See also madhhab

Hanbali school of Islamic law 4, 5, 6, 30, 60, 127, 149

See also madhhab

Harakat Ahl al-Sunna wa-l-Jamaʿa 202

Hawali, Safar al- 9, 102, 103, 106, 107, 111, 115, 124

Hegghammer, Thomas 112, 123, 124, 125, 128, 129

helpers of the idols

See ṭāghūt

Hijaz 193

hijra 53, 108, 150, 153, 167, 180, 220

Hilali, Salim al- 195

Hizb al-Tahrir 112, 195, 215

Hizbullah in Saudi Arabia 125

Hudayf, ʿAbdallah al- 124

ḥukm (pl. aḥkām) 66, 86, 88, 121, 154, 171, 182, 187, 223, 225, 226

Husayn b. ʿAli (amīr of Mecca) 192

Husayn b. ʿAli b. Abi Talib 91

hypocrites

See munāfiqūn

ʿibāda 4, 8, 61, 63, 66, 67, 106, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 173, 183, 184, 187, 244

Ibadites

See Ibāḍiyya

Ibāḍiyya 148

Ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAziz, ʿAbd al-Qadir 137

revisionism of 81

views on jihad strategy 81–82, 84

Ibn ʿAbd al-Khaliq, Abu ʿAbdallah ʿAbd al-Rahman 9, 35

Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, Muhammad 5, 6, 34, 98, 105, 127, 131, 142, 151, 154, 168, 187, 238

influence on al-Maqdisi 171

See also Wahhabism

Ibn ʿAtiq, Hamd 37, 105, 152, 163

Ibn Baz, ʿAbd al-ʿAziz 9, 36, 57, 65, 127, 143, 150, 247

influence on al-Maqdisi 35, 239

Ibn Hanbal, Ahmad 5, 238

See also Hanbali school of Islamic law

Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Shams al-Din 5, 150

influence on al-Maqdisi 171

Ibn Taymiyya, Taqi l-Din Ahmad 5, 60–61, 62, 66, 67, 68, 152, 153, 166, 177, 200, 223, 238

influence on al-Maqdisi 67, 68, 171

on al-walāʾ wa-l-barāʾ 149–150

ʿId, Yusuf

influence on al-Maqdisi 35

ideology viii, 21, 104, 113, 129, 131, 136, 143, 191, 200, 201, 202, 203, 210, 211, 214, 217, 225, 231, 234, 237, 239, 248

dynamics in 248–249

idol

See ṭāghūt

ijmāʿ 160

ijtihād 5, 6, 237

imam 59, 60, 78, 79, 81, 82

imams of the Najdi daʿwa

See Wahhabism

īmān 10, 67, 68, 150, 152, 157, 173, 176, 184

imāra 81, 82, 192, 202, 213, 214, 215, 216, 218, 219

independent interpretation

See ijtihād

India 121

individual duty incumbent upon all Muslims

See jihad

Indonesia 2

International Court of Justice 106

International Monetary Fund (IMF) 196, 209

Iran 13, 16, 18

Islamic Revolution in 13, 18, 196, 238

Iran-Iraq war 16, 32, 196

Iraq 3, 7, 16, 18, 32, 33, 36, 45, 46, 47, 87, 181, 182, 192, 200, 204, 217, 218, 220, 229, 235, 238, 243

ʿAllawi, Iyad 182

American invasion of (2003) 18, 21, 45, 48, 126, 162, 217, 219

Husayn, Saddam 16, 31, 41, 101, 179, 182, 198

Jaʿfari, Ibrahim al- 182

Maliki, Nuri al- 182

University of Mosul 32, 36

irjāʾ 64, 225, 226

See also Murjiʾa

Islam 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 32, 34, 47, 55, 60, 63, 64, 67, 69, 70, 71, 76, 90, 91, 92, 93, 99, 105, 106, 107, 108, 115, 122, 140, 148, 149, 154, 157, 160, 162, 166, 170, 180, 184, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 201, 215, 219, 225, 228, 231, 238, 240, 245, 247, 248

as a tool for framing 21

early history of 3, 51, 151

history of 55, 63, 71, 147, 158, 171, 194

image of 47, 83, 90, 218

Islamic theology vii

Islamism 1, 124, 128, 130, 142, 163, 174, 191, 197, 199, 200, 202, 210, 213, 214, 215, 216, 227, 239

Islamist ideology vii, 32, 35

Islamist movements 2, 10–12, 14, 16, 17–18, 20, 21, 32, 52, 72, 79, 112, 194, 196, 200, 201, 202, 210, 211, 215, 227, 228, 245

radical Islam vii, viii, 1, 2, 10–20, 23, 24, 45, 211, 216, 225, 245

Shiite Islam 47, 90–91, 99, 141, 148, 170, 218

sources of 3, 8

Sufism 55, 99, 195

Sunni Islam 2, 4, 5, 87, 90, 141, 149, 150, 180, 192, 238

See also Salafism

Islamic Action Front (IAF) 198, 200, 210

Islamic Jihad 12, 81

Islamic law

See sharīʿa

Israel 71, 73, 74, 87, 88, 91, 101, 107, 162, 198, 207, 214, 238

istiḥlāl 64, 65, 69, 240

iʿtiqād 64, 65, 69, 226, 240

Jaʿfari school of Islamic law 90

See also madhhab

jaḥd 64, 65, 69, 226, 240

jāhiliyya 12, 61, 147, 148, 243, 248

Jamaʿa al-Islamiyya, al- 12, 17, 73

Jamaʿat al-Daʿwa ila l-Qurʾan wa-l-Hadith 109, 110

Jamaʿat al-Muslimin 12, 222

Jamaʿat al-Muwahhidin 42, 201, 203–207, 214–216, 245

ʿAbdallah b. ʿAbbas mosque 204

attack against Israel 42, 204, 207, 214, 245

release from prison of 216

Jamaʿat al-Tabligh 195

Jamaʿat al-Tawhid

See Jamaʿat al-Muwahhidin

Jasper, James M. 209

Jaysh Muhammad 200

Jazira, al- (satellite channel) 47

jihad 9, 12, 14, 15, 17, 34, 45, 46, 47, 48, 51, 52, 75, 77, 126, 128–137, 138, 140, 141, 143, 161, 204, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 228, 229, 230, 231, 235, 237, 239, 240, 241, 244, 246, 247, 248, 249

against Muslim rulers

See under jihad, revolutionary

against the Saudi regime 108, 114, 115, 128, 129, 135, 138

as farḍ ʿalā l-ʿayn 55, 57, 71

as farḍ ʿalā l-kifāya 55

as just war 56

as spiritual struggle 55

as opposed to daʿwa 10, 49, 50, 75, 76, 78, 203, 206, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 239, 240, 245, 246

classical jihad 9, 52–59, 63, 70, 72, 81, 82, 84, 128

collateral damage 85–93

combatants/non-combatants 85–93

global jihad 18, 52, 56, 71, 72–74, 79, 80, 81, 82, 128, 217

in the Qurʾān 52–55

in the sharīʿa 55–57

jihad fighters

See jihad, mujāhidūn

martyrdom in 51, 219

mujāhidūn 14, 15, 38, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 57, 74, 79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 89, 90, 91, 109, 131, 141, 199, 204, 218, 220, 221, 229, 230, 234, 242, 246

revolutionary jihad 52, 58, 59–71, 72, 75, 77, 81, 82, 127, 128, 129, 135, 138, 144, 165–188, 203, 204, 208, 213, 217, 239, 240, 244

spoils of 51, 79

strategy 75, 78–84, 131

targets of 85–93

weapons of mass destruction 86

Jolen, Judith 193

Jordan 17, 24, 25, 29, 31, 34, 41, 121, 169, 176, 191–198, 213, 239, 247, 248, 249

Hashimites 192, 193, 194, 231, 245

influence of al-Maqdisi on Jihadi-Salafi community in 198–212, 214–236, 245–246, 247

King ʿAbdallah II of 44, 216

King ʿAbdallah of 192, 193, 194

King Husayn of 44, 193, 194, 195, 197, 198, 200, 216

King Talal of 193

mīthāq al-waṭanī, al- 197

National Charter

See under Jordon, mīthāq al-waṭanī, al-

Palestinians in 41–42, 193, 194, 198, 199, 202, 203, 210, 237, 247

peace agreement with Israel 194, 198, 210

Judaism 61, 66, 69, 71, 73, 74, 91, 106, 150, 152, 154, 157, 158, 166

juḥūd

See jaḥd

jurisprudence

See fiqh

kabāʾir (sing. kabīra) 63, 64, 66

kāfir (pl. kuffār) 4, 10, 34, 35, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 69, 70, 71, 80, 82, 86, 93, 100, 107, 108, 134, 135, 141, 147, 150, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 163, 166, 168, 169, 172, 175, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182, 186, 208, 218, 226, 234, 240, 241, 242

See also kufr, murtadd, mushrik, ridda; shirk, takfīr

Kelsay, John 87

Khalayila, Ahmad Fadil Nazzal al-

See Zarqawi, Abu Musʿab al-

Khan, Sayyid Ahmad 56

Khashuqji, Jamal 130

Khawārij 66, 148, 219, 226

as a label applied to Jihadi-Salafis 220, 225, 230, 235

khiṭāb al-maṭālib 102, 103, 111, 114, 118

Khudayr, ʿAli b. Khudayr al- 159

knowledge seeker

See ṭālib ʿilm

Kosovo 125

kufr 4, 37, 58, 61, 63–70, 71, 75, 77, 82, 90, 91, 92, 93, 107–108, 114, 115, 133, 134, 136, 138, 149, 154, 158, 159, 160, 162, 165, 166, 169, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 178, 181, 183, 184, 187, 205, 219, 223, 224, 225, 240, 248

kufr akbar 63, 64, 65, 66, 69, 70, 107, 180, 225, 240

kufr aṣghar 63, 64, 65, 66, 69, 70, 240

See also kāfir, murtadd, mushrik, ridda; shirk, takfīr

Kuwait 16, 29, 31, 34, 38, 39, 41, 46, 67, 68, 101, 105, 110, 169, 171, 182, 198, 202, 207, 210, 224, 241

Palestinians in 31, 33, 41

Lacroix, Stéphane 123

leadership

See imāra

Lebanon 24, 174

legal scholars

See fuqahāʾ

legal schools

See madhhab

legislation

See taḥkīm; tashrīʿ

lesser unbelief

See kufr

Letter of Demands

See khiṭāb al-maṭālib

Lia, Brynjar 176

loyalty

See walāʾ wa-l-barāʾ, al-

loyalty and disavowal

See walāʾ wa-l-barāʾ, al-

madhhab (pl. madhāhib) 4, 5, 56, 127, 237

maḥabba

See walāʾ wa-l-barāʾ, al-

Mahdi 100

Majallat al-Ansar 131

majlis al-shūrā 103

major sins

See kabāʾir

major unbelief

See kufr

Maktab al-Khidmat 14, 15, 18

Maliki school of Islamic law 4

See also madhhab

manhaj 7–10, 24, 50, 52, 66, 74, 75–93, 202, 206, 211, 212, 213, 214, 216, 217, 218, 219, 221, 222, 223, 228, 230, 231, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 245, 246

man-made laws

See qawānīn waḍʿiyya

Maqdisi, Abu Muhammad al- vii, viii, 1, 2, 8, 10, 23, 24, 62, 63, 76, 79, 121, 165, 213, 237, 239, 247, 249

Abu l-Baraʾ al-Najdi as a pseudonym of 141

alleged revisionism of 49, 83, 134, 135, 205, 229–231

as a quietist Jihadi-Salafi 10, 24, 25, 26, 30, 33–41, 49–50, 52, 66, 75, 93, 97, 115, 120, 143–144, 147, 153, 164, 165, 188, 191, 202, 206, 211, 213, 214, 216, 217–222, 223, 227–231, 233–236, 237, 238, 239, 241, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 249

childhood of 29, 30–33, 239

criticism of al-Zarqawi 46–48, 218, 222

descent of 29, 30

earlier publications on 19–20

Iʿdad al-Qada al-Fawaris bi-Hajr Fasad al-Madaris (1986/7) 37

ideology of 24, 51–52, 201, 205, 206, 210, 211, 224, 225, 237, 248

in Afghanistan 29, 38, 39, 40, 57, 70, 109, 176, 182, 191, 201, 206, 216, 221, 239

in Iraq 191

in Jordan 25, 41–49, 191, 192, 198

in Kuwait 31–32, 40–41, 191, 239

in Pakistan 29, 38–40, 191, 201, 239

in prison 42–49, 191, 207, 213, 214–216, 217, 218, 219, 224, 226, 227

in Saudi Arabia 36–37, 43, 191, 201, 239, 243

influence of 1, 2, 10, 15, 20, 22–23, 24, 25–26, 51, 165, 191, 246–247, 248, 249

influence on al-istiʿāna bi-l-kuffār 147, 153–164, 165, 167, 168, 174, 175, 179–188, 243–245

influence on Jordanian Jihadi-Salafi community 191, 196, 198–212, 213, 214–236, 245–246

influence on legislative interpretation of al-walāʾ wa-l-barāʾ 165, 166–179, 183–188, 244, 249

influence on Saudi post–Gulf War Wahhabi opposition 20, 109–119, 120, 121, 122, 124, 127–144, 241–243

Kashf al-Niqab ʿan Shariʿat al-Ghab (1988) 37, 223

Kawashif al-Jaliyya fi Kufr al-Dawla al-Saʿudiyya, al- (1989) 37, 38, 104, 105, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 118, 122, 128, 130, 132–133, 134, 136, 137, 140, 141, 153, 155, 156, 158, 159, 160, 161, 174, 179, 181, 182, 183, 186, 221, 241, 242

life of 24, 29–50, 239

manhaj of 77–78

Mashruʿ al-Sharq al-Awsat al-Kabir (2004) 74

Millat Ibrahim (1984) 37, 38, 104, 105, 109, 122, 130, 136, 137, 169, 171, 172, 174, 175, 223, 224

Palestinian identity of 33

religious authority of 216, 217–222, 227–231, 232–236, 246

Risala al-Thalathiniyya fi l-Tahdhir min al-Ghuluw fi l-Takfir, al- (1998/1999) 135, 142, 227, 229

ties with al-Qaʿida 39–40

ties with al-Zarqawi 40, 42–45, 46–48, 215–222

views of Maqdisi 66–71

on classical jihad 57–59, 239

on combatants/noncombatants 91–93, 240–241

on democracy 68, 74, 205–206, 223, 224

on extremism in takfīr 70, 213, 227–228, 241, 246

on global jihad 73–74, 88, 239

on indiscriminate violence 88–93, 170, 240

on jihad strategy 82, 84

on Jordan 213, 222–225, 235, 246

on Jordanian quietist Salafis 213, 225–227, 235, 246

on nature of the sharīʿa 58

on revolutionary jihad 66–71, 72, 239, 240

on Saudi Arabia 97, 104–108, 120, 121, 154, 155, 241

on Shiites 90–91

on suicide bombings 89–90

on takfīr of Muslim rulers 59, 66–70, 240

on targets of jihad 86, 88, 93, 240–241

on ‘un-Islamic’ legislation 58

Waqfat maʿa Thamarat al-Jihad (2004) 47

Marxism 157

Masʿari, Muhammad al- 103, 111, 112, 114, 115, 121, 163, 222

maṣlaḥa 78, 86

Mauritania 122

Mawdudi, Abu l-Aʿla 61, 62

McAdam, Doug 116, 117, 208, 209

Meijer, Roel vii, 123, 124

Memorandum of Advice

See mudhakkirat al-naṣīḥa

method

See manhaj

Midad al-Suyuf 221, 234

Sinaʾ 222

Middle East vii, 1, 49, 55, 60, 74, 192, 196

See also Arab world, Muslim world

Mihdar, al- 221

millat Ibrāhīm 167, 168, 169, 170–172, 177

Minbar al-Tawhid wa-l-Jihad (al-Maqdisi's website) vii, 1, 2, 22, 23, 46, 49, 130, 221

minor unbelief

See kufr

Mohammed, Omar Bakri

See Muhammad, ʿUmar Bakri

Mongols 60, 62, 68, 92, 223

monotheism

See tawḥīd

Morocco 17, 247

muʿādāt

See walāʾ wa-l-barāʾ, al-

Muʿaskar al-Battar 130, 131

Muʿaththam, ʿAbd al-ʿAziz al- 121, 122

Muʿawiya b. Abi Sufyan 66

mudhakkirat al-naṣīḥa 102, 103, 111, 114, 118

Muhammad, ʿUmar Bakri 174

Muhammad's Army

See Jaysh Muhammad

mujaddid 174

munāfiqūn 173

Muqrin, ʿAbd al-ʿAziz al- 123

Murjiʾa 64, 66, 225, 226, 227

as a label applied to quietist Salafis 225, 226, 232, 234

See also irjāʾ

murtadd (pl. murtaddūn) 59, 61, 62, 80, 127, 129, 130, 134, 153, 173, 182, 187, 243, 244

apostate rulers 9, 71, 172, 173, 184, 185, 187, 237, 239

See also kāfir, kufr, mushrik, ridda; shirk, takfīr

mushābaha li-l-kuffār, al- 151

See also walāʾ wa-l-barāʾ, al-

mushrik (pl. mushrikūn) 4, 152, 154, 157, 169, 170, 173, 180

See also kāfir, kufr, murtadd, ridda; shirk, takfīr

Muslim Brotherhood 10–13, 14, 15, 21, 33, 34, 56, 100, 115, 239, 241

Banna, Hasan al- 11

in Jordan 194–195, 197, 198, 200, 201, 206, 210, 211, 215, 224, 245, 247

Wasaṭiyya 11

Muslim community

See umma

Muslim world 2, 13, 21, 24, 34, 38, 48, 58, 60, 68, 70, 73, 80, 82, 91, 125, 165, 169, 170, 201, 208, 225, 239, 241

See also Arab world, Middle East

Muslim World League 13

muwālāt

See walāʾ wa-l-barāʾ, al-

Najd 6, 30, 36, 98, 141, 143, 238

Najdi, Abu Muhammad al- 160

Najib, Muhammad 11

naṣīḥa 77, 121, 205, 225

nāsikh wa-l-mansūkh, al- 54

Nasr, Mustafa b. ʿAbd al-Qadir Sitt Maryam

See Suri, Abu Musʿab al-

Nasser, Gamal Abdul Nasser

See ʿAbd al-Nasir, Jamal

near enemy

See jihad

negation

See jaḥd

Neguib, Muhammad

See Najib, Muhammad

neo-Murjiʾa

See Murjiʾa

‘9/11’

See terrorism

North Caucasus 2, 229

oil 13, 16, 31, 107, 196, 238

Okruhlik, Gwenn 118

Ottoman Empire 56, 152, 155, 156, 159, 161, 183, 192

Pakistan 14, 18, 42, 79, 109, 110, 163, 176, 181, 216, 221, 239, 247

Palestinian territories 30, 125, 204

Gaza Strip 2

West Bank 29, 31, 41, 193, 198, 207

parliamentary participation 9, 11, 176, 198, 224

period of pre-Islamic ignorance

See jāhiliyya

pious predecessors

See salaf al-ṣālīḥ, al-

politicos

See Salafism

polytheism

See shirk

polytheist

See mushrik

positive laws

See qawānīn waḍʿiyya

postponement

See irjāʾ

Poulson, Jane D. 209

propagation of Islam

See daʿwa

Prophet Muhammad 3, 5, 30, 52, 53, 54, 55, 63, 68, 69, 83, 85, 90, 91, 141, 149, 157, 172, 192, 238, 245

purist Salafism

See Salafism

Qahtani, Muhammad b. ʿAbdallah al- 100

Qaʿida, al- 1, 2, 15, 18, 29, 39–40, 45, 52, 72, 73, 79, 112, 120, 125, 131, 137, 159, 160, 179, 180, 181, 217, 238, 239

Qaʿida in Iraq, al- 1, 18, 40, 218, 219, 246

Qaʿida in the Islamic Maghrib, al- 18

Qaʿida on the Arabian Peninsula, al- 18, 19, 25, 86, 88, 113, 119, 120–144, 158, 160, 161, 177, 242

See also terrorism

Qaradawi, Yusuf al- 87, 180

Qarni, ʿAʾid al- 118

qawānīn waḍʿiyya 37, 64, 65, 66–71, 91, 92, 93, 105, 106, 108, 112, 133, 134, 140, 165, 166, 169, 170, 171, 173, 175, 178, 183, 184, 201, 207, 223, 224, 240, 244, 249

qitāl 15, 17, 21, 52, 53, 54, 55, 58, 59, 63, 72, 75, 77, 78, 79, 81, 82, 84, 85, 88, 108, 134, 135, 138, 167, 173, 180, 199, 210, 212, 216, 219, 220, 221, 222, 228, 235, 237, 239, 240, 245, 249

qitāl al-nikāya 84, 228, 229, 240

qitāl al-tamkīn 84, 228, 240

Qurʾān 5, 52, 54, 58, 61, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 71, 90, 103, 108, 122, 148, 151, 152, 154, 157, 160, 166, 168, 169, 171, 172, 173, 177, 184, 187, 194, 206, 237

Qutb, Sayyid 12, 14, 17, 18, 61–63, 66, 67, 140, 142, 143, 163, 166, 185, 187, 200, 238, 240

influence on al-Maqdisi 34–35, 38, 66–68, 239

radicalisation viii, 127, 128, 136, 196, 198, 199, 211, 242

role of ideology in 248

Rāfiḍa/Rawāfiḍ

See Islam

Rahman, Jamil al- 109, 110

Rasheed, Madawi al- 100, 137, 159, 163

Rashid, ʿAbdallah al- 131

rāshidūn 5, 149

Rashud, ʿAbdallah al- 132

raʾy, 5

Rayyis, Ibrahim al- 123

rebels

See bughāt

Reconquista 55

regarding something permissible

See istiḥlāl

religion of Abraham

See millat Ibrāhīm

religious innovation

See bidʿa

renewer

See mujaddid

Rida, Rashid 6, 11, 56

ridda 71, 108, 138, 162, 201

rightly guided caliphs

See rāshidūn

Roy, Olivier 247

ruling

See ḥukm

Sada l-Jihad 131

Sadat, Anwar al- 62, 84, 238

ṣaḥwa 100–104, 106, 107, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113–116, 118, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 138, 141, 163, 241, 242, 247

Saʿid, Khalid al- 121

salaf al-ṣāliḥ, al- 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 141, 237

Salafism 2–3, 6, 10, 34, 35, 64, 71, 122, 134, 140, 142, 143, 147, 150, 153, 154, 163, 165, 166, 167, 173, 183, 185, 187, 188, 195, 234, 239, 244

‘cultures’ within 247–248

central tenets of 4–5, 237

comparison with Wahhabism 6

definition of 3–4, 237

divisions within 8–10, 237–238

history of 5–7, 238

Jihadi-Salafism vii, viii, 2, 9–10, 15, 17, 18–20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 51, 52, 57, 63, 66, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 79, 81, 90, 97, 130, 165, 175, 179, 182, 183, 184, 187, 188, 202, 203, 204, 206, 208, 211, 212, 215, 216, 219, 220, 222, 225, 226, 228, 229, 234, 235, 237, 238, 241, 244, 245, 246, 249

labelling of 7–8

political Salafism 9–10, 35, 237

quietist Salafism 9–10, 24, 25, 35, 36, 40, 50, 57, 63, 64, 65, 66, 69, 76–77, 78, 93, 97, 114, 120, 143, 144, 147, 150, 153, 155, 164, 165, 173, 187, 188, 195, 201, 202, 206, 211, 222, 223, 225–227, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 243, 245, 246

Salafi ideology 2, 3, 17, 178, 237

scholars of 57, 63, 75, 127, 149, 150, 151, 165, 187, 195

sources of 34, 35, 153, 183, 200, 239

See also Islam

Saudi Arabia 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 24, 25, 29, 30, 34, 35, 38, 73, 76, 77, 97–113, 114–116, 117–119, 120–138, 153, 155, 157, 158, 159, 161, 162, 163, 167, 169, 184, 185, 186, 196, 199, 203, 204, 225, 231, 236, 238, 239, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 247, 248, 249

Al Saʿud 98, 101, 108, 128, 134, 142, 152, 156, 163, 183, 186

Al Saʿud, ʿAbdallah b. Faysal 152

Al Saʿud, Saʿud b. Faysal 152

American military presence in 16, 101, 117, 118, 141, 155, 179, 241, 243

Battle of Sibilla (1929) 142

Ibn Saʿud, Muhammad 98, 142

Ikhwan 99, 100, 104, 142

Islamic University of Medina 32, 36

King ʿAbd al-ʿAziz b. ʿAbd al-Rahman Al Saʿud of 99, 100, 142

King ʿAbd al-ʿAziz University 14

King Fahd b. ʿAbd al-ʿAziz Al Saʿud of 101, 108, 142

liberal oppostion in 101

ties with United States

See United States of America

saved sect

See firqa nājiya

Sawt al-Jihad 130, 131, 132, 135

Sayyid Imam

See Ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAziz, ʿAbd al-Qadir

scholars’ own legal opinions

See raʾy

Services Bureau

See Maktab al-Khidmat

Shafiʿi school of Islamic law 4, 30

See also madhhab

shahāda 170, 171, 240

Shamrani, Muslih al- 121

sharīʿa 4, 5, 11, 38, 47, 52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 65, 70, 71, 78, 79, 80, 85, 90, 102, 105, 106, 107, 108, 134, 135, 140, 166, 169, 180, 181, 207, 224, 239, 240

sharīf (pl. ashrāf) 192, 194

Shinqiti, Muhammad al-Hasan Walad al-Didu al- 122

shirk 4, 8, 37, 53, 54, 58, 68, 140, 149, 152, 153, 162, 167, 168, 170, 171, 173, 178, 184, 224, 240

See also kāfir, kufr, murtadd, mushrik, ridda, takfīr

Shuʿaybi, Humud b. ʿUqalaʾ al- 88, 156–158

shūrā 206

Sibaʿi, Hani al- 39

ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm, al- 149

smaller pilgrimage

See ʿumra

Snow, David A. 20, 113, 138, 162

Social Movement Theory 20, 123

cognitive liberation 113, 116–119, 208–212

cycle of contention 123, 124

framing 20–22, 23, 25, 87, 93, 103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 113–116, 120, 127–144, 147, 154, 155, 160–164, 165, 171, 178, 181, 183–188, 191, 192, 201, 208, 211, 213, 225, 227, 231–236, 248

political opportunities 116–118, 208

resource mobilisation 116

social movements 20, 116, 117, 118, 123, 138, 208, 209, 241, 248

sovereignty of God

See ḥākimiyya

Soviet Union, former 14, 15, 16, 17, 38, 57, 102

Spain 55

straight path

See ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm, al-

Sudan 17, 18

Sunna

See ḥadīths

Suri, Abu Musʿab al- 19, 39, 81, 82, 83

influence of al-Maqdisi on 176–177, 181

views on jihad strategy 79–81, 82, 83, 84

Surur, Muhammad 34, 77

influence on al-Maqdisi 32, 34, 239

Syria 7, 32, 34, 39, 60, 77, 79, 176, 179, 192, 195

Asad, Hafiz al- 195

tabarruʾ

See walāʾ wa-l-barāʾ, al-

tabdīl 65, 69, 70, 71, 166, 240

ṭāghūt (pl. ṭawāghīt) 37, 61, 63, 66–68, 91, 106, 108, 112, 133, 134, 135, 140, 142, 165, 166, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 175, 178, 184, 187, 223, 224, 227, 240, 248

anṣār al-ṭawāghīt 91–93, 135, 241

taḥkīm 171

See also tashrīʿ

ṭāʾifa manṣūra, 3

takfīr 4, 25, 34, 36, 37, 38, 40, 50, 70, 74, 77, 78, 90, 93, 109, 140, 165, 171, 172, 173, 205, 215, 218, 220, 226, 229, 230, 241

extremism in 25, 46, 47, 48, 70, 93, 134, 135, 205, 218, 219, 222, 223, 227–228, 229, 230, 232

of the Jordanian regime 195, 207, 214, 222–225

of Muslim rulers 35, 59, 63–70, 71, 75, 107–108, 109, 121, 127, 153, 174, 187, 207, 208, 225, 239, 240, 244

of the Saudi regime 35, 107–108, 121, 129, 133, 141, 143

Takfīrīs 225, 226, 230, 235

See also kāfir, kufr, murtadd, mushrik, ridda, shirk

Takfir wa-l-Hijra, al-

See Jamaʿat al-Muslimin

ṭālib ʿilm 143

Taliban 18, 176

See also Afghanistan

taqlīd 4, 7, 237

Tartusi, Abu Basir al- 39, 186

influence of al-Maqdisi on 179–180

tashabbuh al-kuffār 151

See also walāʾ wa-l-barāʾ, al-

tashrīʿ 61, 63, 66–71, 77, 91, 92, 93, 101, 106, 140, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 171, 175, 176, 177, 178, 184, 187, 214, 223, 224, 240, 241

people engaged in 171, 172, 173, 176, 178, 183, 184, 187

See also taḥkīm

tawallī

See walāʾ wa-l-barāʾ, al-

Tawba, Gharib

influence on al-Maqdisi 33

tawḥīd 4, 7, 58, 61, 62, 66, 67, 68, 71, 78, 92, 93, 99, 104, 105, 106, 108, 131, 140, 142, 152, 153, 154, 162, 166, 167, 170, 171, 172, 173, 178, 180, 184, 201, 205, 214, 216, 224, 226, 237, 240, 242, 243

tawḥīd al-asmāʾ wa-l-ṣifāt, 4

tawḥīd al-ʿibāda

See under tawḥīd al-ulūhiyya

tawḥīd al-rubūbiyya, 4

tawḥīd al-ulūhiyya 4, 166

terrorism viii, 1, 18, 42, 45, 48, 52, 79, 80, 112, 136, 202

counter-terrorism 126, 136

indiscriminate violence 85–93

‘Millennium Plot’ 45

suicide bombings 46, 47, 52, 85, 86, 89

terrorist attack on Palestinians by Baruch Goldstein (1994) 206, 210, 214

terrorist attacks in Nairobi and Dar es-Salaam (1998) 45

terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 viii, 1, 2, 18, 45, 58, 73, 74, 83, 84, 87, 88, 109, 120, 125, 141, 158, 159, 163, 179, 180, 181, 186, 217, 218, 239, 241, 244

war on terror 18, 45, 57, 73, 74, 120, 125, 126, 159, 163, 179, 181, 182, 185, 217

See also Qaʿida, al-

traditions

See ḥadīths

ʿUbaykan, ʿAbd al-Muḥsin al- 160

ʿUlwan, Sulayman b. Nasir al- 88

umma 3, 59, 74, 76, 78, 86, 102, 149, 174, 181, 221

ʿumra 36, 110

unbelief

See kufr

unbeliever

See kāfir

United Nations 106, 112

United States of America 14, 16, 17, 18, 45, 46, 57, 58, 71, 72, 73, 87, 88, 91, 101, 107, 116, 120, 125, 128, 154, 157, 159, 162, 180, 182, 185, 209, 217, 239, 241

military presence in Saudi Arabia 16–17, 73, 101, 102, 104, 107, 111, 117, 118, 121–142, 155, 179, 241, 242, 243

Roe v. Wade (1973) 209

ties with Saudi Arabia 102, 106, 107, 111, 112, 114, 126, 136, 140, 154, 155, 159, 162, 163, 184, 186, 187, 241, 242

U.S. Supreme Court 209

unity of God

See tawḥīd

ʿUtaybi, Juhayman al- 37, 104, 108, 122, 127, 154

Bayt al-Ikhwan 127

influence on al-Maqdisi 35, 100, 167–169, 239

occupation of the Grand Mosque of Mecca in 1979 35, 77, 99–100, 104–108, 167

ʿUtaybi, Saʿud al- 123

ʿUthaymin, Muhammad b. Salih al- 9, 57, 65, 127, 150

ʿUyayri, Yusuf al- 19, 88, 124, 125, 126, 158

victorious group

See ṭāʾifa manṣūra

violence 9, 11, 12, 47, 48, 52, 73, 76, 85, 88, 93, 120, 123, 124, 128, 137, 195, 225, 240, 246

Wahhabism 6, 13–14, 17, 18, 25, 34, 36, 109, 114, 115, 120, 128, 140, 141, 143, 154, 155–160, 163, 164, 171, 173, 183, 238, 239, 243, 244, 245, 247

aʾimmat al-daʿwa al-Najdiyya 36, 143

Al al-Shaykh 98

Durar al-Saniyya fi l-Ajwibat al-Najdiyya, al- 36, 154

in opposition to Saudi regime 99–104, 121, 122, 141–144, 159, 241

in Saudi Arabia 97–99, 241

scholars of 34, 37, 76, 143, 150, 151, 152, 165, 167, 168, 170, 171, 173, 174, 179, 182, 184, 243

See also Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, Muhammad

walāʾ wa-l-barāʾ, al- 24, 25, 36, 37, 38, 69, 131, 142, 144, 147–151, 165, 183, 205, 208, 223, 229, 236, 247, 248, 249

iʿānat al-kuffār 156, 158, 159, 160, 161, 163, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182

in Salafism 149–151, 153

in Wahhabism 147, 151–153, 155–160

influence of al-Maqdisi on 25, 153–164, 165–188

istiʿāna bi-l-kuffār, al- 25, 147, 151–164, 167, 168, 174, 179–188, 243–245

legislative interpretation of 25, 153, 155, 164, 166–179, 183–188, 201, 207, 223, 244

walī l-amr 9, 106

Wansharisi, Ahmad b. Yahya al- 150

Wiktorowicz, Quintan 9–10, 209, 232

wilāya

See walāʾ wa-l-barāʾ, al-

World Islamic Front

See Qaʿida, al-

World War I 56, 192

worship

See ʿibāda

yāsa

See yāsiq

yāsiq 60, 68, 91, 92, 224

Yemen 3, 30, 45, 126

Yugoslavia, former 32

University of Sarajevo 32

Zahrani, Faris al-

See Azdi, Abu Jandal al-

Zarqawi, Abu Musʿab al- 1, 19, 30, 41, 90, 176, 182, 206, 228, 229, 230, 235, 245, 246

as leader of Jamaʿat al-Muwahhidin 215–216

ties with al-Maqdisi 215–222

Zawahiri, Ayman al- 1, 15, 39, 72, 73, 74, 137, 183, 186

influence of al-Maqdisi on 180–181

See also Qaʿida, al-




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