Published online by Cambridge University Press: 05 June 2014
Introduction and Scope
This Annex presents a series of figures showing global and regional patterns of climate change computed from global climate model output gathered as part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5; Taylor et al., 2012). Maps of surface air temperature change and relative precipitation change (i.e., change expressed as a percentage of mean precipitation) in different seasons are presented for the globe and for a number of different sub-continental-scale regions. Twenty-year average changes for the near term (2016–2035), for the mid term (2046–2065) and for the long term (2081–2100) are given, relative to a reference period of 1986–2005. Time series for temperature and relative precipitation changes are shown for global land and sea averages, the 26 sub-continental SREX (IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation) regions (IPCC, 2012) augmented with polar regions and the Caribbean, two Indian Ocean and three Pacific Ocean regions. In total this Annex gives projections for 35 regions, 2 variables and 2 seasons. The projections are made under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios, which are introduced in Chapter 1 with more technical detail given in Section 12.3 (also note the discussion of near-term biases in Sections 22.214.171.124 and 126.96.36.199). Maps are shown only for the RCP4.5 scenario; however, the time series presented show how the area-average response varies among the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5 scenarios.