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Introduction

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 March 2013

Michael N. Schmitt
Affiliation:
Project Director
Michael N. Schmitt
Affiliation:
US Naval War College
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Summary

In 2009, the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (NATO CCD COE), an international military organization based in Tallinn, Estonia, and accredited in 2008 by NATO as a ‘Centre of Excellence’, invited an independent ‘International Group of Experts’ to produce a manual on the law governing cyber warfare. In doing so, it followed in the footsteps of earlier efforts, such as those resulting in the International Institute of Humanitarian Law’s San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea and the Harvard Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research’s Manual on International Law Applicable to Air and Missile Warfare. The project brought together distinguished international law practitioners and scholars in an effort to examine how extant legal norms applied to this ‘new’ form of warfare. Like its predecessors, the Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare, or ‘Tallinn Manual’, results from an expert-driven process designed to produce a non-binding document applying existing law to cyber warfare.

Cyber operations began to draw the attention of the international legal community in the late 1990s. Most significantly, in 1999 the United States Naval War College convened the first major legal conference on the subject. In the aftermath of the attacks of 11 September 2001, transnational terrorism and the ensuing armed conflicts diverted attention from the topic until the massive cyber operations by ‘hacktivists’ against Estonia in 2007 and against Georgia during its war with the Russian Federation in 2008, as well as cyber incidents like the targeting of the Iranian nuclear facilities with the Stuxnet worm in 2010.

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Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2013

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References

HM Government, A Strong Britain in an Age of Uncertainty: The National Security Strategy 11 (2010)
The White House, National Security Strategy 27 (2010)
Department of Defense, Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace (2011)
Government of Canada, Canada’s Cyber Security Strategy (October 2010)
HM Government, The UK Cyber Security Strategy: Protecting and Promoting the UK in a Digitized World (2011)
Russian Federation, Conceptual Views Regarding the Activities of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in Information Space (2011)
NATO, Active Defence, Modern Engagement: Strategic Concept for the Defence and Security of the Members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization: Active Engagement, Modern Defence 16–17 (2010)
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  • Introduction
  • General editor Michael N. Schmitt
  • Book: Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare
  • Online publication: 05 March 2013
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139169288.001
Available formats
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  • Introduction
  • General editor Michael N. Schmitt
  • Book: Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare
  • Online publication: 05 March 2013
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139169288.001
Available formats
×

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

  • Introduction
  • General editor Michael N. Schmitt
  • Book: Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare
  • Online publication: 05 March 2013
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139169288.001
Available formats
×