Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-c97xr Total loading time: 1.319 Render date: 2022-05-28T02:21:25.925Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

Chapter 19 - Acute Treatment of Transient Ischemic Attack and Minor Stroke

from Section 4 - Treatment of Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 August 2018

Gary K. K. Lau
Affiliation:
University of Oxford
Sarah T. Pendlebury
Affiliation:
University of Oxford
Peter M. Rothwell
Affiliation:
University of Oxford
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke
Diagnosis, Investigation and Treatment
, pp. 282 - 295
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2018

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Amarenco, P, Bogousslavsky, J, Callahan, A III for the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) Investigators (2006). High-dose atorvastatin after stroke or transient ischemic attack. New England Journal of Medicine 355:549559Google ScholarPubMed
Amarenco, P, Albers, GW, Denison, H et al. (2017). Efficacy and safety of ticagrelor versus aspirin in acute stroke or transient ischemic attack of atherosclerotic origin: A subgroup analysis of SOCRATES, a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Lancet Neurology 16:301310CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Antithrombotic Trialists Collaboration (2002). Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. British Medical Journal 324:7186CrossRef
Bath, PM, Robson, K, Woodhouse, LJ et al. (2015). Statistical analysis plan for the ‘Triple Antiplatelets for Reducing Dependency after Ischemic Stroke’ (TARDIS) trial. International Journal of Stroke 10:449451CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bath, PM, Woodhouse, LJ, Appleton, JP et al. (2017). Antiplatelet therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, and dipyridamole versus clopidogrel alone or aspirin and dipyridamole in patients with acute cerebral ischemic (TARDIS): A randomized, open-label, phase 3 superiority trial. Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32849-0 [Epub ahead of print]CrossRef
Burke, JF, McDermott, M (2016). Pursuing “model care” of transient ischemic attacks. Neurology 86:888889CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
CAPRIE Steering Committee (1996). A randomised, blinded, trial of clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischaemic events (CAPRIE). Lancet 348:13291339CrossRef
Carroll, C, Hobart, J, Fox, C et al. (2004). Stroke in Devon: Knowledge was good, but action was poor. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 75:567571CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Castaldo, JE, Nelson, JJ, Reed, JF III et al. (1997). The delay in reporting symptoms of carotid artery stenosis in an at-risk population. The Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study experience: A statement of concern regarding watchful waiting. Archives of Neurology 54:12671271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chandratheva, A, Lasserson, DS, Geraghty, OC et al. (2010a). Population-based study of behavior immediately after transient ischemic attack and minor stroke in 1000 consecutive patients: Lessons for public education. Stroke 41:11081114CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chandratheva, A, Geraghty, OC, Luengo-Fernandez, R et al. (2010b). ABCD2 score predicts severity rather than risk of early recurrent events after transient ischemic attack. Stroke 41:851856CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Diener, HC, Cunha, L, Forbes, C et al. (1996). European secondary prevention study 2: Dipyridamole and acetylsalicylic acid in the secondary prevention of stroke. Journal of Neurology Science 143:113CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evenson, KR, Rosamond, WD, Morris, DL (2001). Prehospital and in-hospital delays in acute stroke care. Neuroepidemiology 20:6576CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Giles, MF, Flossman, E, Rothwell, PM (2006). Patient behaviour immediately after transient ischemic attack according to clinical characteristics, perception of the event, and predicted risk of stroke. Stroke 37:12541260CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hackam, DG, Spence, JD (2007). Combining multiple approaches for the secondary prevention of vascular events after stroke: A quantitative modeling study. Stroke 38:18811885CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Halkes, PH, van Gijn, J for the ESPRIT Study Group (2006). Aspirin plus dipyridamole versus aspirin alone after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin (ESPRIT): Randomised controlled trial. Lancet 367:16651673Google ScholarPubMed
Harraf, F, Sharma, AK, Brown, MM et al. (2002). A multicentre observational study of presentation and early assessment of acute stroke. British Medical Journal 325:1722CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hart, RG, Pearce, LA, Aguilar, MI (2007). Meta-analysis: Antithrombotic therapy to prevent stroke in patients who have nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Annals of Internal Medicine 146:857867CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huang, Y, Cheng, Y, Wu, J et al. (2008). Cilostazol as an alternative to aspirin after ischemic stroke: A randomized, double-blind, pilot study. Lancet Neurology 7:494499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Husted, S, Emanuelsson, H, Heptinstall, S et al. (2006). Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and safety of the oral reversible P2Y12 antagonist AZD6140 with aspirin in patients with atherosclerosis: A double-blind comparison to clopidogrel with aspirin. European Heart Journal 27:10381047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnston, SC, Fayad, PB, Gorelick, PB et al. (2003). Prevalence and knowledge of transient ischemic attack among US adults. Neurology 60:14291434CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnston, SC, Nguyen-Huynh, MN, Schwarz, ME et al. (2006). National Stroke Association guidelines for the management of transient ischemic attacks. Annals of Neurology 60:301313CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnston, SC, Rothwell, PM, Nguyen-Huynh, MN et al. (2007). Validation and refinement of scores to predict very early stroke risk after transient ischaemic attack. Lancet 369:283292CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnston, SC, Easton, JD, Farrant, M et al. (2013). Platelet-oriented inhibition in new TIA and minor ischemic stroke (POINT) trial: Rationale and design. International Journal of Stroke 8:479483CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnston, SC, Amarenco, P, Albers, GW et al. (2016). Ticagrelor versus aspirin in acute stroke or transient ischemic attack. New England Journal of Medicine 375:3543CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Joshi, JK, Ouyang, B, Prabhakaran, S (2011). Should TIA patients be hospitalized or referred to a same-day clinic?: A decision analysis. Neurology 77:20822088CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kennedy, J, Hill, MD, Ryckborst, KJ et al. (2007). Fast Assessment of Stroke and Transient Ischaemic Attack to Prevent Early Recurrence (FASTER): A randomised controlled pilot trial. Lancet Neurology 6:961969CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kernan, WN, Ovbiagele, B, Black, HR et al. (2014). Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack: A guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 45:21602236CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kidwell, CS, Starkman, S, Eckstein, M et al. (2000). Identifying stroke in the field. Prospective validation of the Los Angeles prehospital stroke screen (LAPSS). Stroke 31:7176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kothari, RU, Pancioli, A, Liu, T et al. (1999). Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale: Reproducibility and validity. Annals of Emergency Medicine 33:373378CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lacy, CR, Suh, DC, Bueno, M et al. (2001). Delay in presentation and evaluation for acute stroke: Stroke Time Registry for Outcomes Knowledge and Epidemiology (STROKE). Stroke 32:6369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lavallée, PC, Meseguer, E, Abboud, H et al. (2007). A transient ischaemic attack clinic with round-the-clock access (SOS-TIA): Feasibility and effects. Lancet Neurology 6:953960CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lecouturier, J, Murtagh, MJ, Thomson, RG et al. (2010). Response to symptoms of stroke in the UK: A systematic review. BMC Health Services Research 10:157CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, L, Wang, Z, Gong, L et al. (2009). Blood pressure reduction for the secondary prevention of stroke: A Chinese trial and a systematic review of the literature. Hypertension Research 32:10321040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2017). Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack in Over 16s: Diagnosis and Initial Management. London: NICE
Nedeltchev, K, Fischer, U, Arnold, M et al. (2007). Low awareness of transient ischemic attacks and risk factors of stroke in a Swiss urban community. Journal of Neurology 254:179184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nor, A, Mc Allister, C, Louw, S et al. (2004). Agreement between ambulance paramedicand physician-recorded neurological signs using the Face Arm Speech Test (FAST) in acute stroke patients. Stroke 35:13551359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nor, AM, Davis, J, Sen, B et al. (2005). The Recognition of Stroke in the Emergency Room (ROSIER) scale: Development and validation of a stroke recognition instrument. Lancet Neurology 4:727734CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olivot, JM, Wolford, C, Castle, J et al. (2011). Two aces: Transient ischemic attack work-up as outpatient assessment of clinical evaluation and safety. Stroke 42:18391843CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pancioli, A, Broderick, J, Kothari, R et al. (1998). Public perception of stroke warning signs and knowledge of potential risk factors. Journal of the American Medical Association 279:12881292CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parahoo, K, Thompson, K, Cooper, M et al. (2003). Stroke: Awareness of the signs, symptoms and risk factors – a population-based survey. Cerebrovascular Diseases 16:134140CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ranta, A, Dovey, S, Weatherall, M et al. (2015). Cluster randomized controlled trial of TIA electronic decision support in primary care. Neurology 84:15451551CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ranta, A, Barber, PA (2016). Transient ischemic attack service provision: A review of available service models. Neurology 86:947953CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reeves, MJ, Hogan, JG, Rafferty, AP (2002). Knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs among Michigan adults. Neurology 59:15471552CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rothwell, PM, Gutnikov, SA, Eliasziw, M for the Carotid Endarterectomy Trialists’ Collaboration (2003). Pooled analysis of individual patient data from randomised controlled trials of endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis. Lancet 361:107116CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rothwell, PM, Eliasziw, M, Gutnikov, SA for the Carotid Endarterectomy Trialists Collaboration (2004a). Effect of endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis in relation to clinical subgroups and to the timing of surgery. Lancet 363:915924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rothwell, PM, Coull, A, Giles, MF for the Oxford Vascular Study (2004b). Change in stroke incidence, mortality, case-fatality, severity, and risk factors in Oxfordshire, UK from 1981 to 2004 (Oxford Vascular Study). Lancet 363:19251933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rothwell, PM, Giles, MF, Flossman, E et al. (2005). A simple score (ABCD) to identify individuals at high early risk of stroke after transient ischaemic attack. Lancet 366:2936CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rothwell, PM, Giles, MF, Chandratheva, A et al. (2007). Effect of urgent treatment of transient ischaemic attack and minor stroke on early recurrent stroke (EXPRESS study): A prospective population-based sequential comparison. Lancet 370:14321442CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rothwell, PM, Algra, A, Chen, Z et al. (2016). Effects of aspirin on risk and severity of early recurrent stroke after transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke: Time-course analysis of randomized trials. Lancet 388:365375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruff, CT, Giugliano, RP, Braunwald, E et al. (2014). Comparison of the efficacy and safety of new oral anticoagulants with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Lancet 383:955962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salisbury, HR, Banks, BJ, Footitt, DR et al. (1998). Delay in presentation of patients with acute stroke to hospital in Oxford. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 97:635640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanders, LM, Srikanth, VK, Jolley, DJ et al. (2012). Monash transient ischemic attack triaging treatment: Safety of a transient ischemic attack mechanism-based outpatient model of care. Stroke 43:29362941CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shinohara, Y, Katayama, Y, Uchiyama, S et al. (2010). Cilostazol for prevention of secondary stroke (CSPS 2): An aspirin-controlled, double-blind, randomized non-inferiority trial. Lancet Neurology 9:959968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, MA, Doliszny, KM, Shahar, E et al. (1998). Delayed hospital arrival for acute stroke: The Minnesota Stroke Survey. Annals of International Medicine 129:190196CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Storey, RF, Husted, S, Harrington, RA et al. (2007). Inhibition of platelet aggregation by AZD6140, a reversible oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist, compared with clopidogrel in patient with acute coronary syndromes. Journal of American College of Cardiology 50:18521856CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, Y Wang, Y, Zhao, X et al. (2013). Clopidogrel with aspirin in acute minor stroke or transient ischemic attack. New England Journal of Medicine 369:1119CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wasserman, J, Perry, J, Dowlatshahi, D et al. (2010). Stratified, urgent care for transient ischemic attack results in low stroke rates. Stroke 41:26012605CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolters, FJ, Paul, NL, Li, L et al. (2015). Sustained impact of UK FAST-test public education on response to stroke: A population-based time-series study. International Journal of Stroke 10:11081114CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wong, KS, Wang, Y, Leng, X et al. (2013). Early dual versus mono antiplatelet therapy for acute non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation 128:16561666CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×