Skip to main content
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Cited by
    This (lowercase (translateProductType product.productType)) has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Brown, Esther L. 2018. Functionalist and Usage-based Approaches to the Study of Language. Vol. 192, Issue. , p. 127.

    Jaeger, T. Florian and Weatherholtz, Kodi 2016. What the Heck Is Salience? How Predictive Language Processing Contributes to Sociolinguistic Perception. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7, Issue. ,

    Torre, Esteban 2016. Métrica, tropos y figuras en las <em>Anotaciones</em> de Fernando de Herrera. Revista de literatura, Vol. 78, Issue. 155, p. 37.

  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: July 2016

1 - Awareness, Salience, and Stereotypes in Exemplar-Based Models of Speech Production and Perception

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Awareness and Control in Sociolinguistic Research
  • Online ISBN: 9781139680448
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
Abbot-Smith, Kirsten and Tomasello, Michael 2006. Exemplar-learning and schematization in a usage-based account of syntactic acquisition. Linguistic Review 23:275–90.
Addington, David. W. 1968. The relationship of selected vocal characteristics to personality perception. Speech Monographs 35:492503.
Aronovitch, Charles D. 1976. The voice of personality: Stereotyped judgments and their relation to voice quality and sex of speaker. Journal of Social Psychology 99(2):207–20.
Babel, Molly 2010. Dialect divergence and convergence in New Zealand English. Language in Society 39(4):437–56.
Bell, Allan 1984. Language style as audience design. Language in Society 13(2):145204.
Bern, Daryl J. 1972. Self-perception theory, in Berkowitz, L. (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 6, pp. 162. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Boomershine, Amanda, Hall, Kathleen Currie, Hume, Elizabeth, and Johnson, Keith 2005. The impact of allophony versus contrast on speech perception, in Avery, P., Dresher, B. E., and Rice, K. (eds.), Contrast in Phonology: Theory, Perception, Acquisition. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Bourhis, Richard Y. and Giles, Howard 1977. The language of intergroup distinctiveness, in Giles, H. (ed.), Language, Ethnicity and Intergroup Relations, pp. 119–35. London: Academic.
Bowers, Kenneth 1984. On being unconsciously influenced and informed, in Bowers, K. S. and Meichenbaum, D. (eds.), The Unconscious Reconsidered, pp. 227–72. New York: Wiley.
Brooks, Lee R. 1978. Nonanalytic concept formation and memory for instances, in Rosch, E. and Lloyd, B. B. (eds.), Cognition and Concepts, pp. 169211. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bucholtz, Mary 1995. From Mulatta to Mestiza: Passing and the linguistic reshaping of ethnic identity, in Hall, K. and Bucholtz, M. (eds.), Gender Articulated: Language and Socially Constructed Self, pp. 351–74. New York: Routledge.
Bucholtz, Mary 1999. “Why be normal?”: Language and identity practices in a community of nerd girls. Language in Society 28(2):203–23.
Busby, Linda. J. 1976. Myths, symbols, stereotypes: The artist and the mass media. Paper presented at the national meeting of the Speech Communication Association. San Francisco, CA.
Busselle, Rick W. 2003. Television exposure, parents’ precautionary warnings, and young adults’ perceptions of crime. Communication Research 30(5):530–56.
Bybee, Joan 2001. Phonology and Language Use. Cambridge University Press.
Bybee, Joan 2002. Word frequency and context of use in the lexical diffusion of phonetically conditioned sound change. Language Variation and Change 14:261–90.
Bybee, Joan and Cacoullos, Rena Torres 2008. Phonological and grammatical variation in exemplar models. Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics 1(2):399413.
Campbell-Kibler, Kathryn 2007. Accent, (ING), and the social logic of listener perceptions. American Speech 82:3264.
Chabris, Christopher and Simons, Daniel 2009. The Invisible Gorilla: And Other Ways Our Intuitions Deceive Us. New York: Crown Publishing Group.
Coupland, Nikolas 1980. Style-shifting in a Cardiff work-setting. Language in Society 9(1):112.
Craik, Fergus I. M. and Kirsner, Kim 1974. The effect of speaker’s voice on word recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 26(2):274–84.
Docherty, Gerard J. and Foulkes, Paul 2014. An evaluation of usage-based approaches to the modelling of sociophonetic variability. Lingua 142:4256.
Drager, Katie 2005. The influence of social characteristics on speech perception. Unpublished MA thesis. University of Canterbury.
Drager, Katie 2009. A sociophonetic ethnography of Selwyn Girls’ High. Unpublished PhD dissertation. University of Canterbury.
Drager, Katie 2010. Sensitivity to grammatical and sociophonetic variability in perception. Laboratory Phonology 1(1):93120.
Drager, Katie 2011a. Sociophonetic variation and the lemma. Journal of Phonetics 39(4):694707.
Drager, Katie 2011b. Speaker age and vowel perception. Language and Speech 54(1):99121.
Drager, Katie and Hay, Jennifer 2012. Exploiting random intercepts: Two case studies in Sociophonetics. Language Variation and Change 24(1):5978.
Drager, Katie, Hay, Jennifer, and Walker, Abby 2010a. Pronounced rivalries: Attitudes and speech production. Te Reo 53:2753.
Drager, Katie, Salter, Carly, and Macinkowicz, Megan 2010b. Perceived style, sexuality, and pitch: An experimental approach. Paper presented at New Ways of Analyzing Variation (NWAV) 39. San Antonio, TX.
Eagly, Alice H., Mladinic, Antonio, and Otto, Stacey 1994. Cognitive and affective bases of attitudes toward social groups and social policies. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 30:113–37.
Erker, Daniel and Guy, Gregory R. 2012. The role of lexical frequency in syntactic variability: Variable subject personal pronoun expression in Spanish. Language 88(3):526–57.
Fazio, Russell H. 1990. Multiple processes by which attitudes guide behavior: The MODE model as an integrative framework, in Zanna, M. P. (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 23, pp. 75109. New York: Academic Press.
Foster, Michele 1995. “Are you with me?”: Power and solidarity in the discourse of African American women, in Hall, K. and Bucholtz, M. (eds.), Gender Articulated: Language and the Socially Constructed Self, pp. 329–50. New York: Routledge.
Foulkes, Paul and Docherty, Gerard 2006. The social life of phonetics and phonology. Journal of Phonetics 34(4):409–38.
Fridland, Valerie, Bartlett, Kathryn, and Kreuz, Roger 2004. Do you hear what I hear? Experimental measurement of the perceptual salience of acoustically manipulated vowel variants by Southern speakers in Memphis, TN. Language Variation and Change 16:116.
Gahl, Susanne 2008. “Time” and “thyme” are not homophones: The effect of lemma frequency on word durations in a corpus of spontaneous speech. Language 84(3):474–96.
Giles, Howard 1973. Accent mobility: A model and some data. Anthropological Linguistics 15:87105.
Giles, Howard, Coupland, Nikolas, and Coupland, Justine 1991. Accomodation theory: Communication, context, and consequence, in Giles, H., Coupland, N., and Coupland, J. (eds.), Contexts of Accommodation: Developments in Applied Sociolinguistics. Cambridge University Press.
Gobl, Christer and Chasaide, Ailbhe Ní 2003. The role of voice quality in communicating emotion, mood and attitude. Speech Communication 40(1):189212.
Goldinger, Stephen D. 1997. Words and voices: Perception and production in an episodic lexicon, in Johnson, K. and Mullennix, J. W. (eds.), Talker Variability in Speech Processing, pp. 3366. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Goldinger, Stephen D. 2007. A complementary-systems approach to abstract and episodic speech perception. Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences.
Greenberg, Bradley S., Mastro, Dana, and Brand, Jeffrey E. 2002. Minorities and the mass media: Television into the 21st century, in Jennings, B. and Zillmann, D. (eds.), Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research, pp. 333–51. 2nd edn. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Greenwald, Anthony G. and Banaji, Mahzarin R. 1995. Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review 102(1):427.
Haddock, Geoffrey, Zanna, Mark P., and Esses, Victoria M. 1993. Assessing the structure of prejudicial attitudes: The case of attitudes toward homosexuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65:1105–18.
Hamilton, David L. and Trolier, Tina K. 1986. Stereotypes and stereotyping: An overview of the cognitive approach, in Gaerner, S. L. and Dovidio, J. F. (eds.), Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism, pp. 127–57. New York: Academic Press.
Harms, L. Stanley 1961. Listener judgments of status cues in speech. Quarterly Journal of Speech 47(2):164–8.
Hay, Jennifer and Drager, Katie 2010. Stuffed toys and speech perception. Linguistics 48(4):865–92.
Hay, Jennifer, Drager, Katie, and Thomas, Brynmor 2013. Using nonsense words to investigate vowel merger. English Language and Linguistics 17(2):241–69.
Hay, Jennifer, Drager, Katie, and Warren, Paul 2010. Short-term exposure to one dialect affects processing of another. Language and Speech 53(4):447–71.
Hay, Jennifer and Maclagan, Margaret 2010. Social and phonetic conditioners on the frequency and degree of “intrusive/r/” in New Zealand English, in Preston, D. R. and Niedzielski, N. A. (eds.), A Reader in Sociophonetics, pp. 4170. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Hay, Jennifer, Nolan, Aaron, and Drager, Katie 2006a. From fush to feesh: Exemplar priming in speech perception. Linguistic Review 23(3):351–79.
Hay, Jennifer, Warren, Paul, and Drager, Katie 2006b. Factors influencing speech perception in the context of a merger-in-progress. Journal of Phonetics 34(4):458–84.
Hintzman, Douglas L. 1984. MINERVA 2: A simulation model of human memory. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 16(2):96101.
Hintzman, Douglas L. 1986. “Schema abstraction” in a multiple-trace memory model. Psychological Review 93:411–28.
Hintzman, Douglas L. and Ludlam, Genevieve 1980. Differential forgetting of prototypes and old instances: Simulation by an exemplar-based classification model. Memory & Cognition 8(4):378–82.
Hogg, Michael and Vaughan, Graham 2008. Social Psychology. 5th edn. Harlow: Pearson Education.
Honeybone, Patrick and Watson, Kevin 2013. Salience and the sociolinguistics of Scouse spelling. English World-Wide 34(3):305–40.
Johnson, Keith 1997. Speech perception without speaker normalization: An exemplar approach, in Johnson, K. and Mullennix, J. W. (eds.), Talker Variability in Speech Processing, pp. 145–66. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Johnson, Keith 2005. Speaker normalization, in Remez, R. E. and Pisoni, D. B. (eds.), The Handbook of Speech Perception, pp. 363–89. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Johnson, Keith 2006. Resonance in an exemplar-based lexicon: The emergence of social identity and phonology. Journal of Phonetics 34(4):485–99.
Johnson, Keith 2007. Decisions and mechanisms in exemplar-based phonology, in Sole, M.-J., Beddor, P., and Ohala, M. (eds.), Experimental Approaches to Phonology. In Honor of John Ohala. pp. 2540. Oxford University Press.
Johnstone, Barbara 2009. Stance, style, and the linguistic individual, in Jaffe, A. (ed.), Stance: Sociolinguistic Perspectives, pp. 2952. Oxford University Press.
Kiesling, Scott 2009. Style as stance: Can stance be the primary explanation for patterns of sociolinguistic variation?, in Jaffe, A. (ed.), Stance: Sociolinguistic Perspectives, pp. 171–94. Oxford University Press.
Kirtley, M. Joelle 2010. Speech in the US military: A sociophonetic perception approach to identity and meaning. MA thesis. University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa.
Klatt, Dennis H. 1979. Speech perception: A model of acoustic-phonetic analysis and lexical access. Journal of Phonetics 7(312):126.
Koops, Christian, Gentry, Elizabeth, and Pantos, Andrew 2008. The effect of perceived speaker age on the perception of PIN and PEN vowels in Houston, Texas. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 34(2):93101.
Kristiansen, Tore and Jørgensen, Jens Normann 2005. Subjective factors in dialect convergence and divergence, in Auer, P., Hinskens, F., and Kerswill, P. (eds.), Dialect Change: Convergence and Divergence in European Languages, pp. 287302. Cambridge University Press.
Labov, William 1966. The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington, DC: Center for Applied linguistics.
Labov, William 1972. Sociolinguistic Patterns. Pittsburg, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Labov, William 1974. Linguistic change as a form of communication, in Silverstein, A. (ed.), Human Communication: Theoretical Explorations, pp. 221–56. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Labov, William 2001. Principles of Linguistic Change: Social factors. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Labov, William, Ash, Sharon, Ravindranath, Maya, Weldon, Tracey, Baranowski, Maciej, and Nagy, Naomi 2011. Properties of the sociolinguistic monitor. Journal of Sociolinguistics 15:431–63.
Lacerda, Francisco 1995. The perceptual-magnet effect: An emergent consequence of exemplar-based phonetic memory. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences 2.
Lamme, Victor A. F. 2003. Why visual attention and awareness are different. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7(1):1218.
Levon, Erez 2011. Teasing apart to bring together: Gender and sexuality in variationist research. American Speech 86(1):6984.
Lewicki, Pawel 1986. Nonconscious Social Information Processing. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Lieberman, Matthew D. 2003. Reflexive and reflective judgment processes: A social cognitive neuroscience approach, in Forgas, J. P., Williams, K. D., and von Hippel, W. (eds.), Social Judgments: Implicit and Explicit Processes, pp. 134. Cambridge University Press.
McClelland, James L. and Elman, Jeffrey L. 1986. The TRACE model of speech perception. Cognitive Psychology 18(1):186.
McLennan, Conor. T. 2007. Challenges facing a complementary-systems approach to abstract and episodic speech perception. Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, pp. 67–70. Saarbrücken, Germany.
McQueen, James M., Cutler, Anne, and Norris, Dennis 2006. Phonological abstraction in the mental lexicon. Cognitive Science 30(6):1113–26.
Morton, J. Bruce and Trehub, Sandra E. 2001. Children’s understanding of emotion in speech. Child Development 72(3):834–43.
Niedzielski, Nancy 1999. The effect of social information on the perception of sociolinguistic variables. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 18(1):6285.
Nielsen, Kuniko 2011. Specificity and abstractness of VOT imitation. Journal of Phonetics 39(2):132–42.
Norris, Dennis, McQueen, James M., and Cutler, Anne 2003. Perceptual learning in speech. Cognitive Psychology 47(2):204–38.
Nosofsky, Robert M. 1986. Attention, similarity, and identification- categorization relationship. Journal of Experimental Psychology 115(1):3957.
Nosofsky, Robert M. 1991. Stimulus bias, asymmetric similarity, and classification. Cognitive Psychology 23:94140.
Nosofsky, Robert M. 1992. Exemplars, prototypes, and similarity rules, in Healy, A. F. and Kosslyn, S. M. (eds.), Essays in Honor of William K. Estes, Vol. 1: From Learning Theory to Connectionist Theory; Vol. 2: From Learning Processes to Cognitive Processes, pp. 149–67. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Nosofsky, Robert M., Little, Daniel R., Donkin, Christopher, and Fific, Mario 2011. Short-term memory scanning viewed as exemplar-based categorization. Psychological Review 118(2):280315.
Nosofsky, Robert M., Palmeri, Thomas J., and McKinley, Stephen C. 1994. Rule-plus-exception model of classification learning. Psychological Review 101(1):5379.
Nygaard, Lynne C. and Lunders, Erin R. 2002. Resolution of lexical ambiguity by emotional tone of voice. Memory and Cognition 30(4):583–93.
O’Regan, J. Kevin and Noё, Alva 2001. A sensorimotor account of vision and visual consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24:9391031.
Palmeri, Thomas J., Goldinger, Stephen D., and Pisoni, David B. 1993. Episodic encoding of voice attributes and recognition memory for spoken words. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 19(2):309–28.
Pierrehumbert, Janet 2001. Exemplar dynamics: Word frequency, lenition and contrast, in Bybee, J. and Hopper, P. (eds.), Frequency Effects and Emergent Grammar, pp. 137–58. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Pierrehumbert, Janet 2006. The next toolkit. Journal of Phonetics 34(6):516–30.
Pattabhiraman, Thiyagarajasarma and Cercone, Nick 1990. Selection: Salience, relevance and the coupling between domain-level tasks and text planning, in McKeown, K., Moore, J., and Nierenburg, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Natural Language Generation, pp. 7986. Dawson, PA: Association for Computational Linguistics.
Plug, Leendert 2005. Phonetic reduction and categorisation in exemplar-based representation. Proceedings of ConSOLE 13, pp. 287–311.
Podesva, Robert 2008. Three sources of stylistic meaning, in Edwards, T., Shaw, K., Wagner, S., and Yasui, E. (eds.), Proceedings of SALSA15. Texas Linguistic Forum 51. Austin, TX: University of Texas.
Podesva, Robert 2011. Salience and the social meaning of declarative contours: Three case studies of gay professionals. Journal of English Linguistics 39(3):233–64.
Preston, Dennis 2010. Variation in language regard, in Gilles, P., Scharloth, I., and Zeigler, E. (eds.), Empirische Evidenzen und theoretische Passungen sprachlicher Variation, pp. 727. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Preston, Dennis 2011. The power of language regard: Discrimination, classification, comprehension and production. Dialectologia Special Issue II:9–33.
Prince, Ellen F. 1988. Accommodation theory and dialect shift: A case study from Yiddish. Language and Communication 8(3):307–20.
Racz, Peter 2013. Salience in Sociolinguistics: A Quantitative Approach. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Rickford, John and McNair-Knox, Faye 1994. Addressee- and topic-influenced style shift: A quantitative sociolinguistic study, in Biber, D. and Finegan, E. (eds.), Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Register, pp. 235–76. Oxford University Press.
Schacter, Daniel L., Eich, James Eric, and Tulving, Endel 1978. Richard Semon’s theory of memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 17(6):721–43.
Schmidt, Richard W. 1990. The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics 11(2):129–58.
Schneider, Walter and Shiffrin, Richard M. 1977. Controlled and automatic human information processing: Detection, search, and attention. Psychological Review 84(1):127–90.
Shapiro, Michael A. 1991. Memory and decision processes in the construction of social reality. Communication Research 18(1):324.
Shastri, Lokendra and Ajjanagadde, Venkat 1993. From simple associations to systematic reasoning: A connectionist representation of rules, variables and dynamic bindings using temporal synchrony. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16(3):417–51.
Sherman, Jeffrey W. 1996. Development and mental representation of stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70(6):1126–41.
Smith, Eliot R. 1998. Mental representation and memory, in Gilbert, D. T., Fiske, S. T., and Lindzey, G. (eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology, Vol. 1, pp. 391445. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Smith, Eliot R. and Zárate, Michael A. 1992. Exemplar-based model of social judgement. Psychological Review 99(1):321.
Staum Casasanto, Laura 2008. Does social information influence sentence processing? 30th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Washington, DC.
Strand, Elizabeth 1999. Uncovering the role of gender stereotypes in speech perception. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 18(1):8699.
Sumner, Meghan, Kim, Seung Kyung, King, Ed, and McGowan, Kevin 2014. The socially weighted encoding of spoken words: A dual-route approach to speech perception. Frontiers in Psychology 4:1015. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.01015.
Trudgill, Peter 1981. Linguistic accommodation: Sociolinguistic observations on a sociopsychological theory, in Masek, C. S., Hendrick, R. A., and Miller, M. F. (eds.), Papers from the Parasession on Language and Behavior, pp. 218–37. Chicago, IL: Chicago Linguistic Society.
Walker, Abby 2008. Phonetic detail and grammaticality judgments. Unpublished MA thesis. University of Canterbury.
Wedel, Andrew B. 2006. Exemplar models, evolution and language change. Linguistic Review 23(3):247–74.
Yaeger-Dror, Malcah 1993. Linguistic analysis of dialect “correction” and its interaction with cognitive salience. Language Variation and Change 5:189224.
Zhang, Qing 2005. A Chinese yuppie in Beijing: Phonological variation and the construction of a new professional identity. Language in Society 34(3):431–66.
Zillmann, Dolf and Brosius, Hans-Bernd 2000. Exemplification in communication. Zeitschrift fur Medien-psychologie 13(3):155–6.