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  • Print publication year: 1994
  • Online publication date: March 2008

2 - The Roman empire and its problems in the late second century

from PART I
Polybius claimed in passages probably written between 167 and 146 that the Romans had become masters of the world with which his history dealt. The area of direct Roman administration was increased, with Punic Africa, Macedonia and parts of Greece now directly subjected to Roman magistrates. In the territories administered by Rome in the West the focus was the Roman magistrate or pro-magistrate in whose province the territory was. The spread of Roman administration to Africa in 146 and to Asia in 13 3 onwards is clearly relevant. There is solid evidence for the settlement of Romans and Italians in Sicily and Spain; the evidence for their presence in other regions of the Mediterranean is more scattered but equally important. The southern part of Transalpine Gaul was the land-link between Italy and Spain. The provisions of the lex agraria of 111 to consolidate land-assignments in Africa into a permanent pattern coincide with the beginning of military operations against Jugurtha.
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The Cambridge Ancient History
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