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    Clement, Matt 2016. A People’s History of Riots, Protest and the Law. p. 21.

    Stroup, Sarah Culpepper 2012. The Encyclopedia of Ancient History.

  • Print publication year: 1994
  • Online publication date: March 2008

9 - The Senate and the populares, 69–60 b.c.

from PART I
In 69 BC the Roman citizen body was ritually purified. The citizens assembled at dawn in the Campus Martius, each in the property-class and century to which he had been assigned. Sixteen years had passed since the last lustrum, more than three times the regular interval, and much had happened in the mean time to make the restoration of divine approval particularly urgent. Two of the ingredients in the constitutional mixture Polybius admired had been removed by Sulla - the tribunes' rights to prosecute political criminals before the people, and to carry out the people's will by legislation. The element of democracy was weakened, to the advantage of the elements of kingship and aristocracy, the consuls and the Senate. A constitutional crisis was avoided by the arrival of Pompey himself, on a flying visit between the Ligurian harbours and Brundisium, where his fleet was assembling for the great sweep eastwards.
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