Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2017
  • Online publication date: October 2017


Adajian, T. (2012) ‘The Definition of Art’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, available online at:
Adams, J. (1997) ‘Conversations with Jonathan Sheffer’, in Perceptual Processes: Minimalism and the Baroque. New York: Eos Music
Adams, N. H. (2006) ‘Visualization of Musical Signals’ in Simoni, M. (ed.) (2006) Analytical Methods of Electroacoustic Music. New York: Routledge, pp. 1328
Allen, J. (2005) ‘The Polarized Composer: Addressing the Conflict of Musical Upbringings of Today’s Young Composers’, Proceedings of the Third Annual Spark Festival of Electronic Music and Art, University of Minnesota
Andersen, P. B. (1997) A Theory of Computer Semiotics. New York: Cambridge University Press
Anderton, C. (1975) Electronic Projects for Musicians. New York: Amsco
Apel, W. (1961) The Notation of Polyphonic Music, 900–1600, 5th Edition. Cambridge, MA: The Medieval Academy of America
Archer, P. (2007) ‘Clip Art’, Leonardo Music Journal 17: 2930
Arns, I. (2004) ‘Read_me, run_me, execute_me. Code as Executable Text: SoftwareArt and its Focus on Program Code as Performative Text’, at
Assche, C., Ranciere, J., and Diederichson, R. (2003) Sonic Process. Barcelona: Actar
Attali, J. (2004) ‘Noise and Politics’, in Cox, C. and Warner, D. (eds.) Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music. New York: Continuum
Bacon, F. (2006) New Atlantis. New York: Dodo Press
Bailes, F. and Dean, R. T. (2012) ‘Comparative Time Series Analysis of Perceptual Responses to Electroacoustic Music’. Music Perception 29(4): 359–75
Bailey, C. (2004) ‘An Interface for “Flat Music”’, Organised Sound 9(3): 243–50.
Barbosa, Á. (2006) ‘Computer-Supported Cooperative Work for Music Applications’. PhD thesis, Universitat Pompeu Fabra. Available at
Baron-Cohen, S. and Harrison, J. (1997) Synaesthesia: Classic and Contemporary Readings. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers
Barrett, N. (2000) ‘A Compositional Methodology Based on Data Extracted from Natural Phenomena’, Proceedings of the 2000 International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: ICMA, 20–3
Barrett, N. (2002) ‘Spatio-Musical Composition Strategies’, Organised Sound 7(3): 313–23
Barrett, N. and Mair, K. (2014) ‘Aftershock: A Science-Art Collaboration Through Sonification’. Organised Sound 19(1): 416
Baudrillard, J. (1988) The Ecstasy of Communication, Schutze, B. and C. (trans.). New York: Semiotext(e)
Baumgärtel, T. (2005) ‘Immaterial Material: Physicality, Corporality and Dematerialization in Telecommunication Artworks’, in Chandler, A. and Neumark, N. (eds.) At a Distance: Precursors to Art and Activism on the Internet. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (Leonardo Books), pp. 60–71
Bernstein, D. W. (2002) ‘Cage and High Modernism’, in Nicholls, D. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to John Cage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Bicrophonic Research Institute (2016) Sonic Bike.
Bischoff, J., Gold, R. and Horton, J. (1978) ‘Music for an Interactive Network of Computers’, Computer Music Journal 2(3): 24–9
Bishop, C. (2006) Participation. London: Whitechapel
Blackmore, S., Hall, A. and Symons, S. (2016a) Owl Project.
Blackmore, S., Hall, A. and Symons, S. (2016b) ~Flow Instruments.
Blaine, T. (2006) ‘New Music for the Masses’, Adobe Design Center, Think Tank Online, at
Blaine, T. and Perkis, T. (2000) ‘Jam-O-Drum, a Study in Interaction Design’, Proceedings of the ACM DIS 2000 Conference. New York: ACM Press
Blom, G. and Winner, J. (2000) ‘Track Notes: Mining the Archives’, in Chusid, I. (ed.), Manhattan Research Inc.: Raymond Scott. Holland: BASTA Audio/Visuals, pp. 119–21
Bosma, H. (1996) ‘Authorship and Female Voices in Electrovocal Music’, Proceedings of the 1996 International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: ICMA
Böß, R. (1996) Verschiedene Canones … von J. S. Bach (BWV 1087). Munich: edition text + kritik
Boulanger, R. (ed.) (2000) The Csound Book. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Boulez, P. and Gerzso, A. (1988) ‘Computers in Music’, Scientific American 258(4)
Bourriaud, N. (2002) Relational Aesthetics. Translated by Simon Plaesance and Fronza Woods with the participation of Mathieu Copeland. Dijon: Les Presses Du Réel
Bowers, J. (2006) ‘Towards a Creative Research Practice: Combining Empirical Studies, Reflective Practice and Musical Design’, Creative Process Symposium, Music, Technology and Innovation Research Centre, De Montfort University, 18 October 2006
Bowers, J. and Yaremchuk, V. (2007) ‘The Priority of the Component, or in Praise of Capricious Circuitry’, Leonardo Music Journal 17: 39
Breadboard Band (2016)
Brentar, J. E., Neuendorf, K. A. and Armstrong, B. (1994) ‘Exposure Effects and Affective Responses to Music’. Communication Monographs 61(2): 161–82
Broening, B. (2006) ‘Alvin Lucier’s I am sitting in a room’, in Simoni, M. (ed.) (2006) Analytical Methods of Electroacoustic Music. New York: Routledge, pp. 89110
Brown, C. and Bischoff, J. (2002) ‘Indigenous to the Net: Early Network Music Bands in the San Francisco Bay Area’, at
Bullock, J., and Coccioli, L. (2005) ‘Modernising live electronics technology in the works of Jonathan Harvey’ in Proceedings of the 2005 International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: ICMA
Burk, P. (1998) ‘JSyn – a Real-Time Synthesis API for Java’, Proceedings of the 1998 International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: ICMA
Cabanne, P., and Duchamp, M. (1971) Dialogues with Marcel Duchamp. New York: Viking Press
Cadoz, C. (1979) ‘Synthèse sonore par simulation des mécanismes vibratoires’. Thesis, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble
Cage, J. (1959) ‘History of Experimental Music in the United States’, in Silence. London: Marion Boyars, 1978, pp. 6775
Cage, J. (1960a) Cartridge Music (score). New York: Henmar
Cage, J. (1960b) Fontana Mix. Material for tape music of that title … New York: Henmar Press
Cage, J. (1966) Silence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Cage, J. (1968) Silence. New York: Marion Boyars
Cage, J. (1995) Silence: Lectures and Writings. London: Marion Boyars
Cage, J. (2004) ‘The Future of Music: Credo’, in Cox, C. and Warner, D. (eds.) Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music. New York: Continuum
Cage, J. and Charles, D. (1981) For the Birds: John Cage in Conversation with Daniel Charles. Boston: Boyars
Cannam, C., Landone, C., and Sandler, M. (2015) Sonic Visualizer at
Cardiff, J., and Miller, G. B. (2007) The Killing Machine; Janet Cardiff & George Bures Miller.
Cardiff, J., and Miller, G.B. (2007) The Killing Machine.
Cardiff, J., and Miller, G.B. (2001) The Forty Part Motet.
Cascone, K. (2004) ‘The Aesthetics of Failure: “Post-digital” Tendencies in Computer Music’, in Cox, C. and Warner, D. (eds.) Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music. New York: Continuum, pp. 392–8
Castle, J. (2013), ‘The Art of Sound: At the Moment of Being Heard’, Aesthetica 54 (August/September).
Chadabe, J. (1984) ‘Interactive Composing: an Overview’, Computer Music Journal 8(1): 22–8. Reprinted in Roads, C. (ed.) (1989), The Music Machine. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Chadabe, J. (1997) Electric Sound: The Past and Promise of Electronic Music. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Chadabe, J. (1999) ‘Raymond Scott: Inventor and Composer’, in Chusid, I. (ed.) CD booklet, Manhattan Research Inc.: Raymond Scott. Holland: BASTA Audio/Visuals, pp. 1722
Chafe, , et al. (2002) ‘Physical Model Synthesis with Application to Internet Acoustics’, in International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Orlando, FL, at DOI: 10.1109/ICASSP.2002.5745548
Chandler, A. and Neumark, N. (eds.) (2005) At a Distance: Precursors to Art and Activism on the Internet. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (Leonardo Books)
Channel 4 News (2010) ‘Susan Philipsz wins the 2010 Turner Prize’,
Chapman, C. (1981) Formant Music Synthesiser: Description, Design, Construction and Introduction to Playing Techniques. Canterbury: Elektor
Chion, M. (1994) Audio-vision: Sound on Screen. New York: Columbia University Press. Originally published in 1990, translated by Gorbman, C.
Chowning, J. M. (1973) ‘The Synthesis of Complex Audio Spectra by Means of Frequency Modulation’, Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 21(7): 526–34
Chusid, I. and Garland, D. (1994) ‘Reckless Nights and Turkish Twilights: the Genius of Raymond Scott’, Naras Journal 5(1): 6979
Clarke, E. and Cook, N. (2004) Empirical Musicology: Aims, Methods, Prospects. New York: Oxford University Press
Clarke, M. (2006) ‘Jonathan Harvey’s Mortuos Plango, Vivos Voco’ in Simoni, M. (ed.) (2006) Analytical Methods of Electroacoustic Music. New York: Routledge, pp. 111–44
Collins, K. (2005) ‘From Bits to Hits: Video Games Music Changes its Tune’, Film International 12: 419
Collins, Nicolas (2004) ‘Composers Inside Electronics: Music after David Tudor’, Leonardo Music Journal 14: 13
Collins, Nicolas (2006) Handmade Electronic Music: The Art of Hardware Hacking. New York: Routledge
Collins, N. (2003) ‘Generative Music and Laptop Performance’, Contemporary Music Review 22(4): 6779
Collins, Nick (2006) ‘Towards Autonomous Agents for Live Computer Music: Realtime Machine Listening and Interactive Music Systems’. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge
Collins, N. and Olofsson, F. (2006) ‘klipp av: Live Algorithmic Splicing and Audiovisual Event Capture’, Computer Music Journal 30(2): 818
Collins, N. McLean, A., Rohrhuber, J. and Ward, A. (2003) ‘Live Coding in Laptop Performance’, Organised Sound 8(3): 321–30
Cook, N. (1998) Analysing Musical Multimedia. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Cook, P. R. (ed.) (1999) Music, Cognition, And Computerized Sound: an Introduction to Psychoacoustics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Cook, P. R. (2002) Real Sound Synthesis for Interactive Applications. Wellesley, MA: AK Peters
Cook, P. R. and Scavone, G. (1999) ‘The Synthesis Toolkit (STK)’, Proceedings of the 1999 International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: ICMA
Cope, D. (1996) Experiments in Musical Intelligence. Madison: A-R Editions
Cornford, S. and Whitty, P. (2012) it pays my way and it corrodes my soul (2011–12), at
Cox, C. and Warner, D. (eds.) (2004) Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music. New York: Continuum
Cramer, F. (2005) Words Made Flesh. Codes, Culture, Imagination. Rotterdam: Piet Zwart Institute
Cutler, M., Robair, G. and Bean, (2000) ‘OuterLimits’, Electronic Musician Magazine (August): 4972
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990) Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Performance. New York: Cambridge University Press
Dannenberg, R. (1997) ‘Machine Tongues XIX: Nyquist, a Language for Composition and Sound Synthesis’, Computer Music Journal 21(3): 5060
Davies, H. (1992) ‘New Musical Instruments in the Computer Age: Amplified Performance Systems and Related Examples of Low-Level Technology’, in Paynter, J., Howell, T., Orton, R. and Seymour, P. (eds.) (1992) Companion to Contemporary Musical Thought, Vol. 2. London: Routledge, pp. 500–13
Davies, H. (2006) ‘Drawn Sound’ in Grove Music Online, at
Demers, J. (2010) Listening Through the Noise: The Aesthetics of Experimental Electronic Music. New York: Oxford University Press
Deutsch, H. A. (1976) Synthesis: An Introduction to the History, Theory, and Practice of Electronic Music. New York: Alfred Publishing Co
Dewey, J. (1934) Art as Experience. New York: Capricorn Books
Dhomont, F. (1995) ‘Acousmatic Update’, Contact! 8(2): 4954
Dickie, G. (1974) Art and the Aesthetic: An Institutional Analysis. Ithaca: Cornell University Press
Diderot, D. (1951) Oeuvres. Paris: La Pléiade, Gallimard
Dornbusch, P. (2005) The Music of CSIRAC – Australia’s First Computer Music. Melbourne: The Humanities, Common Ground Publishing
Doruff, S. (2006) ‘The Translocal Event and the Polyrhythmic Diagram’. PhD thesis, University of the Arts, London. Available at
Drucker, J. (2005) ‘Interactive, Algorithmic, Networked: Aesthetics of New Media Art’, in Chandler, A. and Neumark, N. (eds.) At a Distance: Precursors to Art and Activism on the Internet. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (Leonardo Books), pp. 26–33
Ebcioglu, K. (1990) ‘An Expert System for Harmonizing Chorales in the Style of J. S. Bach’, Journal of Logic Programming 8(1): 145–85
Eckel, G. (2003) ‘The LISTEN Vision’, in Beat Zoderer. Der doppelte Boden ist tiefer als man denkt. Bonn: Kunstmuseum Bonn, pp. 96–7
Eco, U. (1995) The Search for the Perfect Language. Malden: Blackwell
El-Dabh, H. (2001) Crossing Into the Electric Magnetic. Lakewood, OH: Without Fear Recordings
Eladhari, M., Nieuwdorp, R. and Fridenfalk, M. (2006) ‘The Soundtrack of Your Mind: Mind Music – Adaptive Audio for Game Characters’, in Proceedings of the 2006 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology. New York: ACM Press
Emmerson, S. (1998) ‘Aural Landscape: Musical Space’, Organised Sound 3(2): 135–40
Emmerson, S. (2007) Living Electronic Music. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Eno, B. (1975) [Liner notes] Discreet Music. Obscure no.3
Eno, B. (1978) [Liner notes] Ambient 1: Music for Airports. EG Records Ltd.
Essl, K. (1989) ‘Zufall und Notwendigkeit. Anmerkungen zu Gottfried Michael Koenigs Streichquartett 1959 vor dem Hintergrund seiner kompositionstheoretischen Untersuchungen’, in Metzger, H.-K. (ed.), Musik-Konzepte 66. Munich: edition text + kritik, pp. 3576
Essl, K. (1996) ‘Strukturgeneratoren. Algorithmische Musik in Echtzeit’, in Höldrich, R. (ed.), Beiträge zur Elektronischen Musik 5. Graz: IEM, pp. 2948
Essl, K. (2000) ‘Lexikon-Sonate. An Interactive Realtime Composition for Computer-controlled Piano’, in Enders, B. and Stange-Elbe, J. (eds.), Musik und Neue Technologie 3. Osnabrück: Universitätsverlag Rasch, pp. 311–28
Filmer, P. (2004) ‘Songtime: Sound Culture, Rhythm and Sociality’, in The Auditory Culture Reader (Sensory Formations). Gordonsville: Berg Publishers
Fischer, G. H. (1922) ‘Concerning “Canned Music” Now Broadcasted’ at
Fischinger, O. (1932) ‘Sounding Ornaments’, in The Fischinger Archive Originally published in the Deutsche allgemeine Zeitung, 8 July 1932
Fischinger, O. (1942) ‘Radio Dynamics’, in Oskar Fischinger: Ten Films. Los Angeles: Center for Visual Music DVD
Friz, A. (2009) ‘Transmission Art in the Present Tense’, PAJ: A Journal of Performance and Art 31(3): 46–9
Gerzso, A. (1984) ‘Reflexions on Répons’, Contemporary Music Review 1(1): 2334
Ghazala, Q. R. (2004) ‘The Folk Music of Chance Electronics: Circuit-Bending the Modern Coconut’, Leonardo Music Journal, 14: 97104
Ghazala, Q. R. (2005) Circuit-Bending: Build Your Own Alien Instruments. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley
Giannetti, C. (2004) ‘Cybernetic Aesthetics and Communication’, at
Gilje, H. C. (2005) ‘Within the Space of an Instant’, HC Gilje Texts, at
Gluck, B. (2005) ‘Conversation with Halim El-Dabh’, EMF Institute, at
Goethe, J. W. (1982) ‘Letter to Herder: 17 May 1787’, in Trunz, E. (ed.), Italienische Reise (= Hamburger Ausgabe 11) Munich: C. H. Beck, pp. 323–4
González-Arroyo, R. (2003) ‘Sound, Time, Form, and Movement in a Structured Space’, in Beat Zoderer. Der doppelte Boden ist tiefer als man denkt, Bonn: Kunstmuseum Bonn, pp. 101–2
Goodman, N. (1979) ‘Metaphor as Moonlighting’, Critical Inquiry 6(1)
Gould, G. (2004) ‘The Prospects of Recording’, in Cox, C. and Warner, D. (eds.) Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music. New York: Continuum, pp. 115–26
Grant, M. J. (2001) Serial Music, Serial Aesthetics: Compositional Theory in Post-War Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Grodal, T. (2003) ‘Stories for Eye, Ear and Muscles: Video Games, Media and Embodied Experiences’, in Wolf, M. J. P. and Perron, B. (eds.), The Video Game Theory Reader. London: Routledge
Guthrie, K. S. (trans.) and Fideler, D. (ed.) (1987) The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library. Grand Rapids: Phanes Press
Hajdu, G. (2005) ‘ An Environment for Composing and Performing Music on the Internet’, Leonardo 38(1): 2330
Ham, B. (2002) ‘History’, Bill Ham Lights. 24 January 2002: 14.
Hansen, K. F. (2002) ‘The Basics of Scratching’, Journal of New Music Research 31(4): 357–67
Hanson, J., (2010) ‘Morton Subotnick’s Ghost Scores: Interaction and Performance with Music Technology’. MA Thesis, San Jose State University. Online at
Hanson, S. (1993) ‘Text-sound Composition in the Sixties’, in Hultberg, T. (ed.), Literally Speaking: Sound Poetry & Text-sound Composition. Sweden: Bo Ejeby Edition, pp. 23–9
Harrison, John (2001) Synaesthesia: The Strangest Thing. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Harrison, Jonty (1989) ‘Denis Smalley, EMAS and (Electro-acoustic) Music’, Musical Times 130: 1759
Harrison, Jonty (1998) ‘Sound, Space, Sculpture: Some Thoughts on the ‘What’, ‘How’ and ‘Why’ of Sound Diffusion’, Organised Sound 3(2): 117–27
Harrison, Jonty (1999) ‘Diffusion: Theories and Practices, with Particular Reference to the BEAST System’, eContact! 2(4), at
Harvey, J. (2000) ‘Spectralism’, Contemporary Music Review 19(3): 1114
Hayward, P. (2004) ‘Sci-Fidelity: Music, Sound and Genre History’, in Hayward, P. (ed.), Off The Planet: Music, Sound and Science Fiction Cinema. Eastleigh: John Libbey
Hegarty, P. (2007) Noise/Music: A History. New York: Continuum
Henriques, J. (2004) ‘Sonic Dominance and the Reggae Sound System’, in The Auditory Culture Reader (Sensory Formations). Gordonsville: Berg
Henry, T. (2009) The Noise Generator Cookbook. n.p.: Magic Smoke Electronics
Hettergott, A. (1999) ‘Human Voice Treatment in Various Types of Electroacoustic Music’, Proceedings of the 1999 International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: ICMA
Hewett, I. (2008) ‘Jonathan Harvey: how I gave voice to an orchestra’ in The Telegraph 18.8.2008, at
Hiller, L. A. (1981) ‘Composing with Computers: a Progress Report’, Computer Music Journal 5(4), in Roads, C. (ed.) (1989), The Music Machine. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 75–89
Hiller, L. A. and Isaacson, L. M. (1959) Experimental Music: Composition with an Electronic Computer. New York: McGraw-Hill
Holmes, T. (2002) Electronic and Experimental Music. New York: Routledge
Holzer, D. (2011) ‘Schematic as Score: Uses and Abuses of the (In)Deterministic Possibilities of Sound Technology’, Vague Terrain 19. Retrieved 5 May 2011, from
Holzmann, G. J. (1990) Design And Validation Of Computer Protocols, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Available at
Hopkin, B. (1996) Gravikords Whirlies & Pyrophones: Experimental Musical Instruments. New York: Ellipsis Art
Hornbostel, E. M. von (1925) ‘Die Einheit der Sinne’, Melos (Zeitschrift für Musik) 4: 290–7
Horst, B. van der (1974) ‘Introduction’, Elektor December 1974. Canterbury: Elektor Publishers, p. 5
Howse, M. (2015) Earthvoice at
Ikeshiro, R. (2014) ‘Audification and Non-Standard Synthesis in Construction of Self’. Organised Sound 19(1): 7889
Inglis, S. (2002) ‘Marcus Popp: Music as Software’, Sound on Sound October 2002, at
International MIDI Association (1983) MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface Specification 1.0. North Hollywood: International MIDI Association
Jaeger, T. (2005) Live Cinema Unravelled. Self-published at
Jaffe, D. A. and Smith, J. O. (1983) ‘Extensions of the Karplus-Strong Plucked String Algorithm’, Computer Music Journal 7(2): 5669
James, D. (2005) ‘Expanded Cinema in Los Angeles: the Single Wing Turquoise Bird’, Millennium Film Journal 43(44): 931
Johnson, S. (1999) Interface Culture: How New Technology Transforms the Way We Create and Communicate. Jackson: Perseus Book Group
Jones, M. (1975) ‘Editorial’, PAiA Polyphony. Oklahoma City: PAIA Electronics, p. 3
Jordà, S. (2002) ‘Improvising with Computers: a Personal Survey (1989–2001)’, Journal of New Music Research 31(1): 110
Jordà, S. (2005) ‘Digital Lutherie: Crafting Musical Computers for New Musics’ Performance and Improvisation’. PhD thesis, Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Jordà, S. Kaltenbrunner, M., Geiger, G. and Bencina, R. (2005) ‘The reacTable’, Proceedings of the 2005 International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco, CA: ICMA
Kaç, E. (1992) ‘Aspects of the Aesthetics of Telecommunications’, in Siggraph Visual Proceedings. New York: ACM, pp. 4757
Kagel, M. (1971) [Liner notes] Acustica: For Experimental Sound-Producers and Loud-Speakers. Deutsche Grammophon
Kahn, D. (1999) Noise, Water, Meat: A History of Voice, Sound, and Aurality in the Arts. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Karplus, K. and Strong, A. (1983) ‘Digital Synthesis of Plucked-string and Drum Timbres’, Computer Music Journal 7(2): 4355
Kay, A. C. (1993) The Early History of Smalltalk, at
Kelly, C. (2009) Cracked Media: The Sound of Malfunction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Kemp, J. (2011) nohup:documentation at
Kennedy, C. (2010) ‘Anna Friz: Sending and Receiving’, Musicworks for Curious Ears 106 (Spring 2010)
van ’t Klooster, A. (2011) ‘Balancing Art and Technology: The Aesthetic Experience in Body and Technology Mediated Artworks’. PhD thesis, University of Sunderland
Koch, H. W. (1996) computermusik I – exploded view at
Koch, H. W. (2012) Silicon Spirits at
Koenig, G. M. (1978) ‘Kompositionsprozesse’, in Fricke, and Frobenius, (ed.) (1993) Gottfried Michael Koenig. Ästhetische Praxis. Texte zur Musik, vol. III. Saarbrücken: Pfau Verlag, pp. 191210 (English translation as ‘Composition Processes’, in Computer Music: Report on an International Project, Ottawa: Canadian Commission for Unesco, 1981)
Koenig, G. M. (1979) ‘Projekt 1 – Modell und Wirklichkeit’, in Texte, vol. III (1993), pp. 223–30
Koenig, G. M. (1986) ‘Zu Funktionen’, in Texte, vol. V (2002), p. 166
Koenig, G. M. (1997) ‘PROJECT 1 Revisited. On the Analysis and Interpretation of PR1 Tables’, in Tabor, Jerry (ed.) (1999), Otto Laske. Navigating New Musical Horizons. Westpoint, CT: Greenwood Press
Kolber, D. (2002) ‘Hildegard Westerkamp’s Kits Beach Soundwalk: Shifting Perspectives in Real World Music’. Organised Sound 7(1): 413
Kostelanetz, R. (1970) John Cage, An Anthology. New York: Da Capo Press
Kuivila, R. (2004) ‘Open Sources: Words, Circuits and the Notation-Realization Relation in the Music of David Tudor’, Leonardo Music Journal 14: 1723
Kuoppala, V. (2010) [Score] A piece for one, two and three Sudophones
Labelle, B. (2006) Background Noise: Perspectives on Sound Art. New York: Continuum
Labelle, B. (2015) Background Noise: Perspectives on Sound Art, 2nd edition. New York: Bloomsbury Academic
Lalitte, P. (2005) ‘Drama and Temporality of the Electroacoustics in Roger Reynolds’ The Angel of Death’. In McAdams, S. and Battier, M. (Eds.) Creation and perception of a contemporary musical work: The Angel of Death by Roger Reynolds (E-Book). At
Lancaster, D. (1977) CMOS Cookbook. Indianapolis: H.W. Sams
Large, E. W. and Kolen, J. F. (1994) ‘Resonance and the Perception of Musical Meter’, Connection Science 6(2–3): 177208
Le Grice, M. (1977) Abstract Film and Beyond. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Lerman, R. (2007) ‘A Sony Walkman Pro Cassette Tape Delay’, Leonardo Music Journal 17: 3435
Leydon, R. (2004) ‘Forbidden Planet: Effects and Affects in the Electro-avant-garde’, in Hayward, P. (ed.), Off The Planet: Music, Sound and Science Fiction Cinema. Eastleigh: John Libbey, pp. 68–9
Licht, A. (2007) Sound Art: Beyond Music, Between Categories. New York: Rizzoli International Publications Inc.
Ligeti, G. (1958) ‘Pierre Boulez. Entscheidung und automatik in der Structure 1a’, in Eimert, (ed.) Die Reihe 4, Vienna: Universal Edition, pp. 3863
Ligeti, L. (2006) ‘The Burkina Electric Project … and Some Thoughts about Electronic Music in Africa’, Leonardo Electronic Almanac 15(1)
Liminal Product (Fran Dyson and Douglas Kahn) (2000) ‘Sound Music’, Artbyte 82 (September–October) with online video at
Lippit, T. M. (2016) ‘Ensembles Asia: Mapping Experimental Practices in Music in Asia’, Organised Sound 21(1): 7282
Lipscomb, S. and Tolchinsky, D. (2005) ‘The Role of Music Communication in Cinema’, in Miell, D., MacDonald, R. and Hargreaves, D. (eds.), Music Communication. New York: Oxford University Press
Loy, G. (1985) ‘Musicians Make a Standard: the MIDI Phenomenon’, Computer Music Journal 9(4): 826
Loy, G. (1989) ‘Composing with Computers – a Survey of Some Compositional Formalisms and Programming Languages for Music’, in Mathews, M. and Pierce, J. (eds.), Current Directions in Computer Music Research. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Loy, G. (2002) ‘The CARL System: Premises, History, and Fate’, Computer Music Journal 26(4): 5260
Lozano-Hemmer, R. (2015) Sphere Packing,
Lucier, A. (1998) ‘Origins of a Form: Acoustical Exploration, Science and Incessancy’, Leonardo Music Journal 8(1): 511
Lyon, E. (2002) ‘Dartmouth Symposium on the Future of Computer Music Software: a Panel Discussion’, Computer Music Journal 26(4): 1330
Mac Minute (2006) ‘Nine Inch Nails Offers New Single in Garage Band Format’, viewed at No longer available
Machover, T. (1992) ‘Hyperinstruments – a Composer’s Approach to the Evolution of Intelligent Musical Instruments’, in Jacobson, L. (ed.), Cyberarts: Exploring Arts and Technology. San Francisco: MillerFreeman, pp. 6776
Maconie, R. (2005) Other Planets: The Music of Karlheinz Stockhausen. Oxford: Scarecrow
Manning, P. (1985) Electronic and Computer Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Manning, P. (2004) Electronic and Computer Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Mathews, M. V. (1963) ‘The Digital Computer as a Musical Instrument’, Science 142(11): 553–7
Mathews, M. V. (1991) ‘The Radio Baton and the Conductor Program, or: Pitch, the Most Important and Least Expressive Part of Music’, Computer Music Journal 15(4): 3746
Mathews, M. V. Miller, J. E., Moore, F. R., Pierce, J. R. and Risset, J. C. (1969) The Technology of Computer Music. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Maur, K. von (1999) The Sound of Painting: Music in Modern Art. Munich: Prestel
McCartney, J. (2002) ‘Rethinking the Computer Music Language: SuperCollider’, Computer Music Journal 26(4): 61–8
McCartney, S. (1999) Eniac. New York: Walker Publishing
McLean, A. (2004) ‘Hacking Perl in Nightclubs’, at
Mead, P. (2013) ‘In and out of exactitude: Jonathan Harvey’s Tombeau de Messiaen’ in RFIM Numéros 3 (Automne), Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris Nord.
Meyer-Eppler, W. (1955) ‘Statistische und Psychologische Klangprobleme’, in Eimert, H. (ed.), die reihe 1, Vienna: Universal Edition, pp. 22–9
Mims, F. M. (1983) Getting Started in Electronics. Fort Worth: Radio Shack
Mims, F. M. (1984) Engineer’s Mini-Notebook. Fort Worth: Radio Shack
Moholy-Nagy, L. (1922) ‘Production – Reproduction’, De Stijl 7: 97101
Moles, A. A. (1984) Kunst und Computer. Ostfildern: DuMont Verlag
Moorer, J. A. (1979) ‘The Use of Linear Prediction of Speech in Computer Music Applications’, Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 27(3): 134–40
Moritz, W. (1997) ‘The Dream of Color Music, and Machines that Made It Possible’, Animation World Magazine 2(1). Available from
Moritz, W. (2004) Optical Poetry: The Life and Work of Oskar Fischinger. Bloomington: Indiana University Press
Moritz, W. (2004b) ‘Oskar Fischinger Biography’, at the William Moritz Archive, at
Mullane, M. (2010) ‘The Aesthetic Ear: Sound Art, Jacques Rancière and the Politics of Listening’, Journal of Aesthetics and Culture 2
Mumma, G. (1975) ‘Live-Electronic Music’, in Appleton, J. and Perera, R. (eds.), The Development of Electronic Music. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, pp. 286335
Nakamura, K. (2006) ‘Fieldnotes: Edirol R-09 Digital Recorder’, at
Nexus 6, Y. (1998) ‘The Alternative Scene or Japanese Kotatsutop Computer Music’, Sound Arts 11 (XEBEC SoundCulture Membership Magazine)
Nicholls, D. (2002) ‘Cage and America’, in Nicholls, D. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to John Cage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
van Nort, D. (2013) ‘Electro/Acoustic Improvisation and Deeply Listening Machines’, Journal of New Music Research 42(4): 303–24. DOI: 10.1080/09298215.2013.860465
O’Brien, C. (2004) Cinema’s Conversion to Sound: Technology and Film Style in France and the U.S. Bloomington: Indiana University Press
O’Mahony, J. (2013) ‘Hear, Hear: Artangel Sound Comes to Radio 4’, The Guardian, at
Oliveros, P. (1984) ‘Tape Delay Techniques for Electronic Music Composition’ (1969), in Software For People. Baltimore, MD: Smith Publications
Oliveros, P. (2013) Anthology of Text Scores. Kingston, N.Y.: Deep Listening Publications
Ostertag, B. (2001) ‘Why Computer Music Sucks’, Resonance Magazine 5(1)
Osthoff, S. (2005) ‘From Mail Art to Telepresence: Communication at a Distance in the Works of Paulo Bruscky and Eduardo Kaç’, in Chandler, A. and Neumark, N. (eds.) At a Distance: Precursors to Art and Activism on the Internet. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (Leonardo Books), pp. 260–81
Paradiso, J. A. (1997) ‘Electronic Music: New Ways to Play’, IEEE Spectrum 34(12): 1830
Patrício, P. (2012) ‘From the Shepard Tone to the Perpetual Melody Auditory Illusion’, Proceedings of Sound and Music Computing, Copenhagen
Patten, J., Recht, B. and Ishii, H. (2006) ‘Interaction Techniques for Musical Performance with Tabletop Tangible Interfaces’, in ACE 2006 Advances in Computer Entertainment, Hollywood, CA
Peacock, K. (1988) ‘Instruments to Perform Color-music: Two Centuries of Technological Experimentation’, Leonardo 21(4): 397406
Pearce, M., Meredith, D. and Wiggins, G. (2002) ‘Motivations and Methodologies for Automation of the Compositional Process’, Musicae Scientiae 6(2): 119–47
Peirce, C. S. (1894) ‘What is a Sign?’, in Peirce, C. S. (1931–58), Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Perec, G. and Klippert, W. (1972) Die Maschine. Hörspiel. Stuttgart: Reclam
Philipsz, S. (2010) Lowlands, at
Philipsz, S. (2012) ‘Study for Strings’, Documenta.
Philipsz, S. (2013) ‘Susan Philipsz’, in London, B. (ed.) Soundings: A Contemporary Score. New York: MoMa, pp. 6265
Pinch, T., and Trocco, F. (2004) Analog Days: the Invention and Impact of the Moog Synthesizer. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Polansky, L. (2006) ‘Panel on Electronic and Computer Music beyond Europe and North America’, International Computer Music Conference Program, Tulane: Tulane University
Poole, J. (2003) ‘242.PILOTS’, Blog de JeanPoole: Some Words ++, viewed at No longer available.
Poole, S. (2000) Trigger Happy: The Inner Life of Videogames. London: Fourth Estate
Pope, S. T. (1993) ‘Machine Tongues XV: Three Packages for Software Sound Synthesis’, Computer Music Journal 17(2): 2554
Posner, M., Nissen, M. and Klein, R. (1976) ‘Visual Dominance: an Information-processing Account of its Origins and Significance’, Psychological Review 83(2): 157–71
Pressing, J. (1990) ‘Cybernetic Issues in Interactive Performance Systems’, Computer Music Journal 14(1): 1225
Prieberg, F. K. (1960) Musica ex machina: Über das Verhältnis von Musik und Technik. Berlin: Ullstein, pp. 113–17
Pritchett, J. (1993) The Music of John Cage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Pritchett, J. (1996) ‘“Something Like a Hidden Glimmering”: John Cage and Recorded Sound’, Contemporary Music Review 15(1): 103–8
Puckette, M. (1991) ‘Combining Event and Signal Processing in the MAX Graphical Programming Environment’, Computer Music Journal 15(3): 6877
Puckette, M. (1996) ‘Pure Data’, in Proceedings of the 1996 International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: ICMA, pp. 269–72
Puckette, M. (2002) ‘Max at 17’, Computer Music Journal 26(4): 3143
Puckette, M. and Settel, Z. (1993) ‘Non-obvious Roles for Electronics in Performance Enhancement’, in Proceedings of the 1993 International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: ICMA, pp. 134–7
Rafaeli, S. (1988) ‘Interactivity: from New Media to Communication’, in Hawkins, R. P., Wieman, J. M. and Pingree, S. (eds.), Advancing Communication Science: Merging Mass and Interpersonal Processes. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, pp. 110–34
Ramachandran, V. S. and Hubbard, E. M. (2001) ‘Synaesthesia – a Window into Perception, Thought and Language’, Journal of Consciousness Studies 8: 334
Rancière, J. (2004) The Politics of Aesthetics: The Distribution of the Sensible. London, New York: Continuum
Rich, R. (1991) ‘Buchla Lightning MIDI Controller’, Electronic Musician 7(10): 102–8
Richards, J. (2013) ‘Beyond DIY in Electronic Music’, Organised Sound 18(3): 274–81
Richards, J. (2015) [Score] Hidden Sine
Richards, J. (2016) ‘Shifting Gender in Electronic Music: DIY and Maker Communities’, Contemporary Music Review 35(1): 4052
Risset, J. C. (1969) An Introductory Catalogue of Computer Synthesised Sounds (with sound examples on disc). Murray Hill, NJ: Bell Laboratories
Risset, J. C. (1996) ‘Real-world Sounds and Simulacra in My Computer Music’, Contemporary Music Review 15(1): 2947
Risset, J. C. (2005) ‘Horacia Vaggione: Towards a Syntax of Sound’, Contemporary Music Review 24(4): 287–93
Risset, J. C. and Wessel, D. L. (1999) Exploration of Timbre by Analysis and Synthesis. In Deutsch, D. (ed.) The Psychology of Music, 2nd Edition. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 113–69
Roads, C. (1978) ‘Granular Synthesis of Sound’, Computer Music Journal 2(2): 61–2
Roads, C. (1996) The Computer Music Tutorial. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Roads, C. (2001) Microsound. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Roads, C. (2005) ‘The Art of Articulation: the Electroacoustic Music of Horacio Vaggione’, Contemporary Music Review 24(4): 295309
Rodgers, T. (2010) Pink Noises: Women on Electronic Music and Sound. Durham, NC: Duke University Press
Rogalsky, M. R. (2006) ‘Idea and Community: The Growth of David Tudor’s Rainforest, 1965–2006’. PhD thesis, City University, London
Rohrhuber, J. (2007) ‘Artificial, Natural, Historical’, in Deutsch, S., Power, D. and Sider, L. (eds.) The Soundtrack, vol. I. Bristol: Intellect Books
Rohrhuber, J. and De Campo, A. (2004) ‘Waiting and Uncertainty in Computer Music Networks’, in Proceedings of the 2004 International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: ICMA
Rohrhuber, J. De Campo, A. and Wieser, R. (2005) ‘Algorithms Today – Notes on Language Design for Just in Time Programming’, in Proceedings of the 2005 International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: ICMA
Rowe, R. (1993) Interactive Music Systems. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Rowe, R. (2001) ‘The Aesthetics of Interactive Music Systems’, Contemporary Music Review 18(3): 83–8
Rowe, R. (2001) Machine Musicianship. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Rudi, J. (2005) ‘From a Musical Point of View, the World is Musical at Any Given Moment: an Interview with Bill Fontana’, Organised Sound 10(2): 97101
Russcol, H. (1972) The Liberation of Sound: An Introduction to Electronic Music. Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Russolo, L. (1913) The Art of Noises. Published as a booklet by Direzione del Movimento Futurista, Milan, reprinted in Apollonio, U. (ed.) (1973) Futurist Manifestos. London: Thames and Hudson
Ryan, J. (1991) ‘Some Remarks on Musical Instrument Design at STEIM’, Contemporary Music Review 6(1): 317
Saariaho, K. (1987) ‘Timbre and harmony: interpolations of timbral structures’, Contemporary Music Review 2(1): 93133
Sakr, L. S. ‘Home |’, at
Salzman, E. (1974) Twentieth-Century Music: An Introduction. London: Prentice-Hall
Schaeffer, P. (1998) [liner notes] L’Oeuvre Musicale. New York: Electronic Music Foundation
Schillinger, J. (1946) The Schillinger System of Musical Composition. New York: Carl Fischer
Schillinger, J. (1948) The Mathematical Basis of the Arts. New York: Philosophical Library
Schonfeld, V. (1972) ‘From Piano to Electronics’, Music and Musicians 20 (August)
Schwarz, D. (2004) ‘Data-driven Concatenative Sound Synthesis’. PhD thesis, Université Paris 6,
Serra, X. (1989) ‘A System for Sound Analysis/Transformation/Synthesis Based on a Deterministic Plus Stochastic Decomposition’. PhD thesis, Department of Music, Stanford University
Sethares, W. A. (2005) Tuning, Timbre, Spectrum, Scale, 2nd edition. London: Springer
Shannon, C. E. (1948) ‘A Mathematical Theory of Communication’, The Bell System Technical Journal 27: 379423
Shapiro, P. (2002) ‘Deck Wreckers, the Turntable as Instrument’, in Young, R. (ed.), Undercurrents, the Hidden Wiring of Modern Music. London: The Wire – Continuum, pp. 163–76
Shimazu, T. (1994) ‘The History of Electronic and Computer Music in Japan: Significant Composers and Their Works’, Leonardo Music Journal 4: 102–6
Simner, J., Mulvenna, C., Sagiv, N., Tsankanikos, E., Witherby, S. A., Fraser, C., Scott, K. and Ward, J. (2006) ‘Synaesthesia: the Prevalence of Atypical Cross-modal Experiences’, Perception 35: 1024–33
Simoni, M. (2017) ‘The Audience Reception of Algorithmic Music’ in McLean, A. and Dean, R. (eds.) (2016) Oxford Handbook of Algorithmic Music. New York: Oxford University Press
Smalley, D. (1986) ‘Spectro-morphology and Structuring Processes’ in Emmerson, S. (ed.) The Language of Electroacoustic Music. London: Macmillan Press. pp. 6193
Smalley, D. (1992) ‘The Listening Imagination: Listening in the Electroacoustic Era’, in Paynter, J. et al. (eds.), Companion to Contemporary Musical Thought, vol. I. London: Routledge
Smalley, D. (1994) ‘Defining Timbre – Refining Timbre’. Contemporary Music Review 10(2): 3548
Smalley, D. (1997) ‘Spectromorphology: Explaining Sound-shapes’, Organised Sound 2(2): 107–26
Smith, J. O. (1991) ‘Viewpoints on the History of Digital Synthesis’, in Proceedings of the 1991 International Computer Music Conference, San Francisco: ICMA
Spiegel, L. (1987) ‘A Short History of Intelligent Instruments’, Computer Music Journal 11(3): 79
Spiegel, L. (1998) ‘Graphical GROOVE: Memorial for the VAMPIRE, a Visual Music System’, Organised Sound 3(3): 187–91
Spiegel, L. (2000) ‘Music as Mirror of Mind’, Organised Sound 4(3): 151–2
Spinrad, P. (2005) The VJ Book. Los Angeles: Feral House
Stein, B. E. and Meredith, M. A. (1993) The Merging of the Senses. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Steiner, H. C. (2005) ‘[hid] toolkit: a Unified Framework for Instrument Design’, in International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME05), Vancouver, BC, Canada, pp. 140–3
Stern, J. (2003) The Audible Past. Durham: Duke University Press
Stockhausen, K. (1957) ‘… wie die Zeit vergeht …’, in Eimert, (ed.), die reihe 3, pp. 1342
Stockhausen, K. (2004) ‘Electronic and Instrumental Music’, in Cox, C. and Warner, D. (eds.) Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music. New York: Continuum
Strandh, S. (1979) The History of the Machine. New York: Dorset Press
Tanaka, A. (2000) ‘Musical Performance Practice on Sensor-based Instruments’, in Wanderley, M. and Battier, M. (eds.), Trends in Gestural Control of Music. Paris: IRCAM – Centre Pompidou
Tascón, R., and Trigueros, F. (2008) ‘An Interview with Jonathan Harvey’ in Society for Electro-Acoustic Music in the United States Newsletter, Issue 1 (January 2008): 39
Taylor, T. (2001) Strange Sounds. London: Routledge
The Longplayer Trust (2016) ‘Where to find Longplayer’
Theremin, L. S. (1996) ‘The Design of a Musical Instrument Based on Cathode Relays’, reprinted in Leonardo Music Journal 6: 4950
Tobenfeld, E. (1992) ‘A System for Computer Assisted Gestural Improvisation’, in Proceedings of the 1992 International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: ICMA, pp. 93–6
Toiviainen, P. (1998) ‘An Interactive MIDI Accompanist’, Computer Music Journal 22(4): 6375
Toiviainen, P. (2000) ‘Symbolic AI versus Connectionism in Music Research’, in Miranda, E. (ed.), Readings in Music and Artificial Intelligence. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, pp. 4768
Toop, D. (2004) ‘The Generation Game: Experimental Music and Digital Culture’, in Cox, C. and Warner, D. (eds.) Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music. New York: Continuum
Toop, D. (2005) ‘The art of noise’, Tate Etc. 3 (Spring)
Traub, P. (2005) ‘Sounding the Net: Recent Sonic Works for the Internet and Computer Networks’, Contemporary Music Review 24: 459–81
Truax, B. (1992) ‘Electroacoustic Music and the Soundscape: the Inner and Outer World’, in Paynter, J. et al. (eds.), Companion to Contemporary Musical Thought, vol. I. London: Routledge
Truax, B. (2002) ‘Genres and Techniques of Soundscape Composition as Developed at Simon Fraser University’, Organised Sound 7(1): 514
Trueman, D. (2006) ‘My Violin, My Laptop, Myself’, Chamber Music Magazine (October 2006): 117–21
Trueman, D. and Cook, P. (1999) ‘BoSSA: the Deconstructed Violin Reconstructed’, in Proceedings of the 1999 International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: ICMA
Turner, T. (2003) ‘The Resonance of the Cubicle: Laptop Performance in Post-digital Musics’, Contemporary Music Review 22(4): 8192
Tutschku, H. (2011) ‘Using the iPhone for live-electronics in my composition Irrgärten for two pianos’ in Proceedings of the 2011 International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: ICMA
Tutschku, H. (2014) ‘The use of iOS devices in recent compositions of my music’, Journal of the Japanese Society for Sonic Arts 6(1): 1215
Twombly, K. (2002) ‘Oppositional Dialects in Joji Yuasa’s The Sea Darkens.’ in Licata, (ed.) Electroacoustic Music Analysis: Analytical Perspectives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, pp. 21736
Ullmer, B. and Ishii, H. (2001) ‘Emerging Frameworks for Tangible User Interfaces’, in Carnoll, J. M. (ed.), Human Computer Interaction in the New Millenium. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, pp. 579601
Vaggione, H. (2001) ‘Composing Musical Spaces by Means of Decorrelation of Audio Signals’, Addendum of the COST G-6 Conference on Digital Audio Effects
Varèse, E. (1971) ‘The Liberation of Sound’, in Boretz, B. and Cone, E. (eds.), Perspectives on American Composers. New York: Norton
von Békésy, G. (1963) ‘Hearing Theories and Complex Sounds’, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 35(4): 588601
von Ehrenfels, C. (1890) ‘Über Gestaltqualitäten’, Vierteljahresschrift Wiss. Philos. 14: 249–92
Walker, W., Hebel, K., Martirano, S. and Scarletti, C. (1992) ‘Improvisation Builder: Improvisation as Conversation’, in Proceedings of the 1992 International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: ICMA, pp. 190–3
Wanderley, M. M. (2001) ‘Performer-Instrument Interaction: Applications to Gestural Control of Music’. Ph.D thesis. Paris: University Pierre et Marie Curie – Paris VI
Wang, G. and Cook, P. R. (2003) ‘ChucK: a Concurrent, On-the-fly, Audio Programming Language’, Proceedings of the 2003 International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: ICMA
Washington, S. (2007) ‘The Art of the Gremlin: Inventive Musicians, Curious Devices’, Leonardo Music Journal 17: 7071
Weibel, P. (2005) ‘Die algorithmische Revolution. Zur Geschichte der interaktiven Kunst’, in Weibel, (ed.), Die Algorithmische Revolution. Karlsruhe: ZKM
Weinberg, G. (2003) ‘Interconnected Musical Networks – Bringing Expression and Thoughtfulness to Collaborative Group Playing’. PhD thesis, MIT. Available at
Welch, R. B. and Warren, D. H. (1986) ‘Intersensory Interaction’, in Boff, K. R., Kaufman, L. and Thomas, J. P. (eds.), Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, vol. I, Sensory Processes and Perception. New York: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 2536
Wellhausen, J. and Höynck, M. (2003) ‘Audio Thumbnailing Using MPEG-7 Low-Level Audio Descriptors’, Internet Multimedia Management Systems IV, Bellingham WA: SPIE.
Wessel, D. and Wright, M. (2002) ‘Problems and Prospects for Intimate Musical Control of Computers’, Computer Music Journal 26(3): 1122
Westerkamp, H. (1999) ‘Hildegard Westerkamp – Lighthouse Park Soundwalk (1977)’, at
Westerkamp, H. (2002) ‘Linking Soundscape Composition and Acoustic Ecology’, Organised Sound 7(1): 51–6
Whipple, H. (1983) ‘Beasts and Butterflies: Morton Subotnick’s Ghost Scores’, The Musical Quarterly 69(3): 42541
Whittington, W. (2007) Sound Design and Science Fiction. Austin: University of Texas Press
Wierzbicki, J. (2005) Louis and Bebe Barron’s Forbidden Planet, a Film Score Guide. Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press
Wieser, R. and Rohrhuber, J. (2006) The Invisible Hand. Readme 100. Temporary Software Art Factory. Norderstedt: BoD
Wilson, R. (2013) Make: Analog Synthesizers. n.p.: Maker Media
Wishart, T. (1986) ‘Sound Symbols and Landscapes’, in Emmerson, S. (ed.), The Language of Electroacoustic Music. London: Macmillan
Wishart, T. (1996) On Sonic Art. London: Routledge
Wolf, M. J. P. (2003) ‘Abstraction in the Video Game’, in Wolf, M. J. P. and Perron, B. (eds.) The Video Game Theory Reader. New York: Routledge
Wooller, R., Brown, A., Diederich, J., Miranda, E. R. and Berry, R. (2005) ‘A Framework for Comparison of Process in Algorithmic Music Systems’, Proceedings of the Generative Arts Practice – A Creativity & Cognition Symposium, Broadway, NSW: Creativity & Cognition Studio Press
Wright, M. and Freed, A. (1997) ‘Open Sound Control: a New Protocol for Communicating with Sound Synthesizers’, in Proceedings of the 1997 International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: ICMA
Xenakis, I. (1955) ‘La crise de la musique sérielle’, Gravesaner Blätter No. 1: 2–4 (reprinted in Kéleütha. Ecrits, L’Arche, Paris, 1994, pp. 40–2) – not published in English
Xenakis, I. (1961) ‘La musique stochastique: éléments sur les procédés probabilistes de composition musicale’, Revue d’Esthétique 14 (4–5): 294318 (English translation: Formalized Music, pp. 1–42)
Xenakis, I. (1965) ‘Freie stochastische Musik durch den Elektronenrechner’, Gravesano Review 26 (English translation: Formalized Music, pp. 131–54)
Xenakis, I. (1971) Formalized Music. Bloomington: Indiana University Press
Xenakis, I. (1992) Formalized Music: Thought and Mathematics in Music (rev. edn). Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press
Yavelow, C. (1986) ‘MIDI and the Apple Macintosh’, Computer Music Journal 10(3): 1147
Young, G. (1989) The Sackbut Blues: Hugh Le Caine, Pioneer in Electronic Music. Ottawa: National Museum of Science and Technology
Zahorik, P. (2002) ‘Direct-to-reverberant Energy Ratio Sensitivity’, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 112(5): 2110–7
Zicarelli, D. (1987) ‘M and Jam Factory’, Computer Music Journal 11(4): 1329