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    Bliss, Beth A. 2015. The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology. p. 1.

  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: July 2010

2.19 - Post-traumatic stress disorder

from Part II - Assessments


The concepts and empirical measurement of interrogative suggestibility and compliance are well established and validated in relation to identifying vulnerabilities relevant to assessing cases of disputed confession. 'Yield' and 'Shift', two distinct types of suggestibility, are incorporated into the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales (GSS), which are empirical tests of interrogative suggestibility. There are two parallel forms of the GSS, referred to as the GSS 1 and the GSS 2, which have been incorporated into a manual for researchers and practitioners, along with the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale (GCS). The GSS 1, the GSS 2 and the GCS are well-researched and validated instruments that are designed to measure individual differences and vulnerabilities that are relevant to some police interviews. They do not directly assess whether or not a confession is false; no psychological instruments are available for this purpose. Psychometric tests should only be used in conjunction with other assessment tools.
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Further reading

The DSM provides a formal definition of PTSD and Figley’s work details aspects of secondary victimization.


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Barlow, D. H. (ed.) (2001) Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders, 3rd edn. New York: Guilford Press.
Beckham, J. C., Vrana, S. R., Barefoot, J. C., Feldman, M. E., Fairbank, J., Moore, S. D. (2002) Magnitude and duration of cardiovascular responses to anger in Vietnam veterans with and without post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 20: 228–34.
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