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    The Cambridge History of American Poetry
    • Online ISBN: 9780511762284
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9780511762284
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Book description

The Cambridge History of American Poetry offers a comprehensive exploration of the development of American poetic traditions from their beginnings until the end of the twentieth century. Bringing together the insights of fifty distinguished scholars, this literary history emphasizes the complex roles that poetry has played in American cultural and intellectual life, detailing the variety of ways in which both public and private forms of poetry have met the needs of different communities at different times. The Cambridge History of American Poetry recognizes the existence of multiple traditions and a dramatically fluid canon, providing current perspectives on both major authors and a number of representative figures whose work embodies the diversity of America's democratic traditions.

Reviews

'… a physically imposing fifty-chapter book, consisting of more than 1300 densely packed pages and weighing almost four pounds. But this rather daunting volume turns out to be not just an essential addition to any serious poetry library but an exciting and absorbing reconceptualization of American poetry … The History has a lot of possible uses. Individual chapters could be very helpfully assigned to students in American literature classes. It will make a valuable reference work for when you suddenly need to figure out who the Connecticut Wits were. Scholars will find new ideas in the chapters dealing with their areas of expertise (or at least I did in Robin Schulze’s discussion of Marianne Moore’s cosmopolitanism). The book’s greatest value, however, is in providing a series of orientations - detailed but manageable - to fifty different permutations of American poetry. For readers with the time, it is enormously satisfying to read it cover to cover: even the most knowledgeable reader will gain insight into the richness, variety, and surprising harmony of American poetry.'

Rachel Trousdale Source: Twentieth-Century Literature

'… all a student would need to gain working knowledge of American poetry through the end of the last millennium. … Those looking for a roundup of the best late twentieth- and early twenty-first-century literary criticism on American poetry will find more gathered here than in any other single volume.'

Elisa New Source: Modern Philology

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Page 1 of 3


  • Chapter 6 - Poetry in the Time of Revolution
    pp 129-152
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9780511762284.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The oral tradition's various tribal creation accounts invariably link the generative word, the resulting narrative, earth, animals, and people into one great chain of Native being. The poetics of the oral tradition, which governs Native orality, also informs modern Native writings to the extent that there's no clear demarcation between old and new, oral and written. American Indian literature is creative power controlled and propelled by a specialized vocabulary. American Indian medicine texts incorporate prose accounts, songs, poetry, dance, and sacred objects in ritual form. Works in the oral tradition fall into four major categories: the ancient tradition that existed before contact, the nineteenth- and twentieth-century works collected by ethnologists, the modern oral tradition, and current written works, which are closely informed by the oral tradition. Once Musquash, or Muskrat, is invoked by the power of the Algonquian word, Prospect becomes an example of American Indian poetics at work.
  • Chapter 7 - Asserting a National Voice
    pp 155-176
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9780511762284.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    More than two hundred American Puritans wrote poetry that is still extant. In their worldview, the physical world was itself a book written by God to connect this world with the next, to link the lowly creatures with their creator, because that, which may be known of God, is manifest in them. Standardized prayer was criticized as a papist and Anglican ritual, because any good minister could and should pray in the spirit. The practice of meditation, of making abstract doctrine real and true to human experience through an intense focus, was itself a poetics, away of channeling thought and feeling in language. Anne Bradstreet, Roger Williams, Michael Wigglesworth, Edward Taylor and Jane Colman Turell, wrote poetry, as a part of their religion, an unending struggle to connect transient life and lasting truth, to work out the meanings of life, to connect the natural and supernatural orders.
  • Chapter 8 - The Emergence of Romantic Traditions
    pp 177-191
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9780511762284.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Benjamin Franklin's parodic ingredients summarize the artistic failings of the Puritan elegy as post-Enlightenment critics have defined them. The paradox of observing a death in time by invoking the supposed timelessness of art helps explain why critics have never known quite what to do with occasional poems like elegies. Most elegists during sixteenth century took an approach to verbal mourning that drew on Elizabethan patriotism and patronage and, later, Jacobean melancholy and popular devotional traditions. The New England elegy began to separate from its English counterparts by laying greater stress on the commemoration of what William Scheick has called a collective self that enabled survivors to absorb the deceased's piety. With social and political themes pervading the full range of elegiac verse, the chief distinction in American elegy became and largely remains between poems designed for popular audiences and those written for a more traditionally literary readership.
  • Chapter 9 - Linen Shreds and Melons in a Field
    pp 192-216
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9780511762284.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    People from a range of social positions wrote poetry in colonial Georgia, Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas. Poets wrote about social relations between the sexes, but they also wrote about the trials and tribulations of forming social bonds between men and the manners appropriate to forming productive social bonds within a community. Ballads, one of the most popular poetic forms in early seventeenth-century England, served the purposes of colonial propagandists particularly well. The periodicals' inclusion of poetry by colonial authors marks the beginning of a poetic tradition in which the colonists themselves composed at least part, if not always all, of the imagined audience. Much of the poetry published in the major periodicals of the region deals with the relations between the sexes: many poems concern courtship or take-up the problems faced by lovers, spurned and otherwise.
  • Chapter 10 - Edgar Allan Poe’s Lost Worlds
    pp 217-237
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9780511762284.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The story of poetry in the time of the American Revolution is a story of the interaction between manuscript, print, and oral culture. From the Stamp Act crisis through the Revolutionary War, colonists used poetry to vent their anger, express their political beliefs, and articulate the principles that defined the new nation. Many women began writing poetry during the Revolutionary era. Boston historian and playwright Mercy Otis Warren is one of the best known female poets of the time. Throughout the eighteenth century, many readers considered Milton's biblical epic Paradise Lost the single greatest poem in the English language. The long poem has become one of the defining features of American poetry, as Walt Whitman's Song of Myself and Herman Melville'sClarel testify. Even the poets Harriet Monroe championed in Poetry turned to long poems to prove their poetic mettle.
  • Chapter 12 - Whittier, Holmes, Lowell, and the New England Tradition
    pp 259-281
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9780511762284.015
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The noblest literary pedigree rested in poetry, and the eighteenth century, true to its penchant for taxonomic hierarchies, exalted the epic as its highest form. Only the emergence of an American epic would certify the poet's credibility as a literary power and, more important, fortify their sense of nationhood. Richard Henry Dana spent his adolescence warmed by the foment of the Monthly Anthology Club, a group of young Federalists in the Boston area eager to promote a nationalist literature within the bounds of taste and tradition as a bulwark against abuses by a democratic culture. A native of Cummington, Massachusetts, William Cullen Bryant won the esteem of the young literary establishment in his state, but his rise to national attention dates from his closing his law practice in the Berkshires to accept co-editorship of the newly launched New-York Review in 1825.
  • Chapter 13 - Other Voices, Other Verses
    pp 282-305
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9780511762284.016
  • View abstract
    Summary
    A number of poets practiced varieties of Romanticism that are quite different from the transcendentalist tradition, especially in their treatment of nature, sensuality, and myth. American Romanticism has its real beginnings in New York. The American relationship to the natural world embodied a crucial conflict between reverence for the glories of a bountiful nature and the desire to convert that bounty into cash and productive industry. Much of nineteenth-century American poetry was devoted to dramatizing the passions and intrigues of the classical past, particularly in the form of verse drama, which constitutes one of the most under examined genres in the literary history. In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to a number of female poets, including Alice, Lucy Larcom, and Lydia Sigourney. American poets, particularly southerners, often turned to the mockingbird because their own native land lacked the bird dearest to the English poetic imagination, the nightingale.
  • Chapter 14 - American Poetry Fights the Civil War
    pp 306-328
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9780511762284.017
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Lydia Sigourney is often misunderstood as an excessively sentimental and possibly not very smart poet and a writer of ponderous advice handbooks for mothers and daughters. In the poem, To a Shred of Linen Mrs. Sigourney displayed having an unexpectedly witty, even iconoclastic, streak. Ralph Waldo Emerson found himself hankering after such worthier bards. He disliked poetry in which the meter influenced what the poet wants to say. Emerson's closest ally was Margaret Fuller who had written an unrhymed poetic sketch titled Meditations. Margaret Fuller's spirit of love quietly rebels against one of the most iconic images of Transcendentalism before Emerson had even had time to formulate it: the image of the solitary eyeball melting into the horizon. The works of other poets including Osgood, Waldo, Saadi Shirazi and Henry David Thoreau are also discussed.
  • Chapter 15 - Walt Whitman’s Invention of a Democratic Poetry
    pp 329-359
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9780511762284.018
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Poetic literacy was at a peak in mid-nineteenth century, and Edgar Allan Poe was fully immersed in the social networks that produced and disseminated poetry to a wide readership. Poe's poetry repeatedly dramatizes the ways that certain human values, capacities, and energies are not only threatened but actually extinguished. Poe explains that death is a transformation from particle to unparticled matter. For Poe, the properties of poetry that stir desires for impossible beauty are the elements of language that are irrelevant, or at least secondary, to its signifying capabilities. Poe's theory of death and the afterlife might seem somewhat idiosyncratic, particularly his understanding of an immaterial material, unparticled matter, as God, creativity, action, and spirit. Many of Poe's poems fall into two categories: there are the apocalyptic landscapes, like Dream-Land, and more familiarly, there are the meditations on lost love, like The Raven and Annabel Lee.
  • Chapter 16 - Emily Dickinson
    pp 360-382
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9780511762284.019
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was the most influential American poet of the nineteenth century. More than a century after Longfellow's death and Whitman's idiosyncratic evaluation, Angus Fletcher compared the two and lamented that as a poet, competing for attention in the modern age of anxiety and irony, Longfellow has fallen from his great height. Longfellow remains one of the very few American poets to be commemorated in Westminster Abbey. A Psalm of Life was included in Longfellow's first book of poetry in 1839, and its generic success accounts for the generic title of his second book of poetry Ballads and Other Poems. The classical literacy that Longfellow's poetry made available at a discount became the subject of his two best-selling narrative poems, Evangeline and The Song of Hiawatha. Longfellow's translation of Dante's Divine Comedy was the product of his collaboration with other members of the famous Dante Club.
  • Chapter 17 - The South in Reconstruction
    pp 383-402
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9780511762284.020
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The New England tradition was contested throughout the United States, its meanings were never monolithic, and authors like John Greenleaf Whittier, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and James Russell Lowell are more interesting than literary history has remembered them to be. Whittier's relation to the antislavery movement was entirely print-mediated, and in the vexed political climate of the 1830s his publications made him notorious. Whitman Bennett has described Whittier's antislavery newspaper poems as a very special brand. The dialectical distinction between national and natural literature characterizes Lowell's stance on literary value: literature becomes national as it becomes natural, by growing from a global tradition. The decline of Lowell's productivity after the Civil War has been noted, but the Commemoration Ode really commemorates the passing of the kind of public verse he had championed, which once shaped the social order, but which will have a less important place in the new, postbellum world.
  • Chapter 18 - The “Genteel Tradition” and Its Discontents
    pp 403-424
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9780511762284.021
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Massachusetts in the mid-nineteenth century was lousy with poets. At the apex of respectable high cultural ambitions, the Atlantic Monthly, under the editorship of James Russell Lowell and with the nods of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Oliver Wendell Holmes among other worthies, was publishing poetry vigorously. At some point in the 1860s, each poet separately composed a self-consciously major poem on the summer chorus of the crickets. The other voices of mid-nineteenth-century American poetry could scarcely be more other than Thomas Hill's transcription of Martian verse. The journalistic branch of American poetry was closely related to other modes of gaining access to authorship: Walt Whitman began his authorial career in social movement writing, with a temperance novel, and John Greenleaf Whittier moved through stints as a school teacher and a newspaper editor before becoming one of the major poets of nineteenth-century social movements.
  • Chapter 19 - Disciplined Play
    pp 425-444
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9780511762284.022
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Civil War witnessed an extraordinary outpouring of poetry by men and women from all walks of life. In the poetry of this era, both amateur and professional writers confronted a crisis of representation, as they sought to define the changing meanings of family, home, and nation in wartime. While canonical writers like Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson, and Herman Melville might address this crisis more explicitly, studying the full spectrum of poetry from this period makes clear that popular writers, women poets, and African Americans also grappled with important representational and aesthetic challenges in their poems. This chapter considers that full spectrum, ultimately arguing that Whitman, Dickinson, and Melville all responded dialogically to the work of their poetic contemporaries. The Civil War and the years immediately preceding it proved to be a time of extraordinary variety in the range of techniques African American poets employed in support of abolition.
  • Chapter 20 - Dialect, Doggerel, and Local Color
    pp 445-471
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9780511762284.023
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Walt Whitman devoted his career to defining and enacting a new poetics that would be distinctive to the American nation and its democratic aspirations. Whitman's influence has extended well beyond poetry. He has been examined seriously by political scientists and cultural theorists as a philosopher of democracy, and he has been a central figure in gay history and queer studies, often credited with inventing the language of homosexual love. Whitman's notebooks and surviving manuscripts reveal the intensity and fluidity of the development of his poetic style. He was teaching Americans how to begin to think and speak democratically, in a freer and looser idiom, in a more conversational and less formal tone, in an absorptive and indiscriminate way. Major historical events like the Civil War and Reconstruction had a palpable effect on the physical makeup of his books.
  • Chapter 21 - Political Poets and Naturalism
    pp 472-494
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9780511762284.024
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Emily Dickinson's poetry addresses the social ostracism she experienced as a religious skeptic. In some poems, she uses religious and biblical language but undercuts it by using punctuation and physical format to emphasize its dubious qualities. Dickinson has often been portrayed as a victim of Victorian social conventions, but her life, like her poetry, was a declaration of independence from the limitations of prescribed behavior. Dickinson's poems explore a wide range of emotions ranging from fury to ecstasy; much of her poetry focuses on love, autonomy, nature, and death. Dickinson accepted the inevitability of death, and her poems celebrate her deepest convictions that life should take on intense meaning in the context of mortality. Throughout her life, Dickinson rejected social convention and the comforts of religion. Her poetry and letters form a chronicle of her challenging, and often dramatic, adventure.

Page 1 of 3


Selected Bibliographies

Introduction and General Literary History

Ashton, Jennifer (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to American Poetry Since 1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013).
Bauer, Dale (ed.). The Cambridge History of American Women’s Literature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012).
Bercovitch, Sacvan (general ed.). The Cambridge History of American Literature. 8 vols. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995–2006).
Fletcher, Angus. A New Theory for American Poetry: Democracy, the Environment, and the Future of Imagination (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2006).
Fredman, Stephen (ed.). A Concise Companion to Twentieth-Century American Poetry (Oxford: Blackwell, 2005).
Gelpi, Albert. The Tenth Muse: The Psyche of the American Poet (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
Graham, Maryemma, and Jerry W. Ward (eds.). The Cambridge History of African American Literature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).
Haralson, Eric (ed.). Encyclopedia of American Poetry. 2 vols. (Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1998–2001).
Kreymborg, Alfred. Our Singing Strength: An Outline of American Poetry (New York: Coward McCann, 1929).
Larson, Kerry (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Nineteenth-Century American Poetry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).
Nelson, Cary (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Modern and Contemporary Poetry (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).
Ostriker, Alicia Suskin. Stealing the Language: The Emergence of Women’s Poetry in America (Boston: Beacon Press, 1986).
Parini, Jay, and Brett Millier (eds.). The Columbia History of American Poetry (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998).
Pearce, Roy Harvey. The Continuity of American Poetry (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1961).
Perkins, David. A History of Modern Poetry. 2 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.:Harvard University Press, 1976, 1987).
Roberts, Neil (ed.). A Companion to Twentieth-Century Poetry (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001).
Rubin, Joan Shelley. Songs of Ourselves: The Uses of Poetry in America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2007).
Stauffer, Donald. A Short History of American Poetry (New York: Dutton, 1974).
Waggoner, Hyatt. American Poets from the Puritans to the Present (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1984).
Wolosky, Shira. Poetry and Public Discourse in Nineteenth-Century America (New York: Palgrave, 2010).

1 Remembering Muskrat: Native Poetics and the American Indian Oral Tradition

Astrov, Margot (ed.). The Winged Serpent: American Indian Prose and Poetry (Boston: Beacon, 1947).
Bahr, Donald, Lloyd Paul, and Vincent Joseph. Ants and Orioles: Showing the Art of Pima Poetry (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1997).
Brandon, William (ed.). The Magic World: American Indian Songs and Poems (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1971).
Castro, Michael. Interpreting the Indian: Twentieth-Century Poets and the Native American (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991).
Day, A. Grove (ed.). The Sky Clears: Poetry of the American Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1951).
Donohue, Betty Booth. Bradford’s Indian Book: Being the True Roote & Rise of American Letters as Revealed by the Native Text Embedded in Of Plimoth Plantation (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2011).
Harjo, Joy, and Gloria Bird (eds.). Reinventing the Enemy’s Language: Contemporary Native Women’s Writings of North America (New York: W. W. Norton, 1997).
León-Portilla, Miguel. Pre-Columbian Literatures of Mexico, trans. Grace Lobanov and Miguel León-Portilla (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1969).
Lerner, Andrea (ed.). Dancing on the Rim of the World: An Anthology of Contemporary Northwest Native American Writing (Tucson, Ariz.: Sun Tracks, 1990).
Lincoln, Kenneth. Sing with the Heart of a Bear: Fusions of Native and American Poetry (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000).
Parker, Robert Dale. Changing Is Not Vanishing: A Collection of Early American Indian Poetry to 1930 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011).
Rothenberg, Jerome (ed.). Shaking the Pumpkin: Traditional Poetry of the Indian North Americas (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1972).
Womack, Craig S.Red on Red: Native American Literary Separatism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999).

2 Rhyming Empires: Early American Poetry in Languages Other Than English

Bauer, Ralph. The Cultural Geography of Colonial American Literatures: Empire, Travel, Modernity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).
Bauer, Ralph, and José Antonio Mazzotti (eds.). Creole Subjects in the Colonial Americas: Empire, Texts, Identities (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009).
Castillo, Susan. Colonial Encounters in New World Writing: Performing America, 1500–1786 (London: Routledge, 2006).
Castillo, Susan, and Ivy Schweitzer (eds.). A Companion to the Literatures of Colonial America (Oxford: Blackwell, 2005).
Castillo, Susan and Ivy, SchweitzerThe Literatures of Colonial America: An Anthology (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001).
Dawdy, Shannon Lee. Building the Devil’s Empire: French Colonial New Orleans (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008).

3 The World, the Flesh, and God in Puritan Poetry

Colacurcio, Michael J.Godly Letters: The Literature of the American Puritans (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006).
Daly, Robert. God’s Altar: The World and the Flesh in Puritan Poetry (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978).
Davis, Thomas M.A Reading of Edward Taylor (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1992).
Gatta, John. Gracious Laughter: The Meditative Wit of Edward Taylor (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1989).
Hammond, Jeffrey A.Sinful Self, Saintly Self: The Puritan Experience of Poetry (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1993).
Martin, Wendy. An American Triptych: Anne Bradstreet, Emily Dickinson, Adrienne Rich (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984).
Rosenmeier, Rosamond. Anne Bradstreet Revisited (Boston: Twayne, 1991).
Rowe, Karen E.Saint and Singer: Edward Taylor’s Typology and the Poetics of Meditation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).
Schweitzer, Ivy. The Work of Self-Representation: Lyric Poetry in Colonial New England (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991).
White, Peter (ed.). Puritan Poets and Poetics: Seventeenth-Century American Poetry in Theory and Practice (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1985).

4 Confronting Death: The New England Puritan Elegy

Cavitch, Max. American Elegy: The Poetry of Mourning from the Puritans to Whitman (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007).
Elliott, Emory. “The Development of the Puritan Funeral Sermon and Elegy: 1660–1750,” Early American Literature 15 (1980): 151–64.
Hall, David D.Worlds of Wonder, Days of Judgment: Popular Religious Belief in Early New England (New York: Knopf, 1989).
Hambrick-Stowe, Charles E.The Practice of Piety: Puritan Devotional Disciplines in Seventeenth-Century New England (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982).
Hammond, Jeffrey A.The American Puritan Elegy: A Literary and Cultural Study (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
Hammond, Jeffrey A.Sinful Self, Saintly Self: The Puritan Experience of Poetry (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1993).
Leverenz, David. The Language of Puritan Feeling: An Exploration in Literature, Psychology, and Social History (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1980).
Meserole, Harrison T. (ed.). American Poetry of the Seventeenth Century (1968; University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1985).
Pettit, Norman. The Heart Prepared: Grace and Conversion in Puritan Spiritual Life (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1966).
Piercy, Josephine K.Studies in Literary Types in Seventeenth Century America (1607–1710) (1939; Hamden, Conn.: Archon, 1969).
Silverman, Kenneth (ed.). Colonial American Poetry (New York: Hafner, 1968).
Stannard, David E.The Puritan Way of Death: A Study in Religion, Culture, and Social Change (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977).
White, Peter (ed.). Puritan Poets and Poetics: Seventeenth-Century American Poetry in Theory and Practice (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1985).

5 The Emergence of a Southern Tradition

Davis, Richard Beale. Intellectual Life in the Colonial South 1585–1763. 3 vols. (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1978).
Egan, Jim. Oriental Shadows: The Presence of the East in Early American Literature (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2011).
Hubbell, Jay B.The South in American Literature, 1607–1900 (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1954).
Lemay, J. A. Leo. A Calendar of American Poetry in the Colonial Newspapers and Magazines and in the Major English Magazines through 1765 (Worcester, Mass.: American Antiquarian Society, 1970).
Lemay, J. A. LeoMen of Letters in Colonial Maryland (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1972).
Shields, David S.Civil Tongues and Polite Letters in British America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997).
Shields, David S.Oracles of Empire: Poetry, Politics, and Commerce in British America, 1690–1750 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990).
Spengemann, William C.A Mirror for Americanists (Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1989).
Spengemann, William C.A New World of Words: Redefining Early American Literature (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1994).
Warner, Michael. Letters of the Republic: Publication and the Public Sphere in Eighteenth-Century America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990).
Wroth, Lawrence C.The Colonial Printer (New York: Dover, 1965).

6 Poetry in the Time of Revolution

Brooks, Joanna. American Lazarus: Religion and the Rise of African-American and Native American Literatures (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).
Carretta, Vincent. Phillis Wheatley: Biography of a Genius in Bondage (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2011).
Hayes, Kevin J.A Colonial Woman’s Bookshelf (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1996).
Hayes, Kevin J.The Mind of a Patriot: Patrick Henry and the World of Ideas (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2008).
Hayes, Kevin J. (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Early American Literature (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008).
Hayes, Kevin J.The Road to Monticello: The Life and Mind of Thomas Jefferson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008).
Howard, Leon. The Connecticut Wits (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1943).
Leary, Lewis. The Literary Career of Nathaniel Tucker, 1750–1807 (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1951).
Shields, David S. (ed.). American Poetry: The Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (New York: Library of America, 2007).
Walser, Richard. “Alexander Martin, Poet,” Early American Literature 6 (1971): 55–61.

7 Asserting a National Voice

Brown, Charles H. William Cullen Bryant (New York: Scribner, 1971).
Gado, Frank. William Cullen Bryant: An American Voice (Hartford, Vt.: Antoca Press, 2006).
Hallock, John W.The American Byron: Homosexuality and the Fall of Fitz-Greene Halleck (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2000).
Howard, Leon. The Connecticut Wits (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1943).
Hunter, Doreen M.Richard Henry Dana, Sr. (Boston: Twayne, 1987).
McWilliams, John P., Jr. The American Epic: Transforming a Genre 1770–1860 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
Muller, Gilbert H.William Cullen Bryant: Author of America (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2008).
Overmyer, Grace. America’s First Hamlet (New York: New York University Press, 1957).
Widmer, Ted. Young America: The Flowering of Democracy in New York City (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).
Woodress, James L.A Yankee’s Odyssey: The Life of Joel Barlow (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1958).

8 The Emergence of Romantic Traditions

Baym, Nina. Feminism and American Literary History (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1992).
Bennett, Paula Bernat (ed.). Nineteenth-Century American Women Poets: An Anthology (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1998).
Bennett, Paula BernatPoets in the Public Sphere: The Emancipatory Project of American Women’s Poetry, 1800–1900 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003).
Bennett, Paula Bernat, Karen L. Kilcup, and Philipp Schweighauser (eds.). Teaching Nineteenth-Century American Poetry (New York: Modern Language Association, 2007).
Brennan, Matthew C.The Poet’s Holy Craft: William Gilmore Simms and Romantic Verse Traditions (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2010).
Chai, Leon. The Romantic Foundations of the American Renaissance (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1987).
Larson, Kerry C.Imagining Equality in Nineteenth-Century American Literature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
Richards, Eliza. Gender and the Poetics of Reception in Poe’s Circle (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Rubin, Louis D., Jr., Blyden Jackson, Rayburn S. Moore, Lewis P. Simpson, and Thomas Daniel Young (eds.). The History of Southern Literature (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990).
Walker, Cheryl (ed.). American Women Poets of the Nineteenth Century: An Anthology (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1992).
Walker, CherylThe Nightingale’s Burden: Women Poets and American Culture before 1900 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982).
Watt, Emily Stipes. The Poetry of American Women from 1632 to 1945 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1977).

9 Linen Shreds and Melons in a Field: Emerson and His Contemporaries

Bloom, Harold. Figures of Capable Imagination (New York: Seabury Press, 1976).
Buell, Lawrence. Emerson (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005).
Buell, Lawrence “The Transcendentalist Poets,” in Jay Parini (ed.), The Columbia History of American Poetry (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993), pp. 97–119.
Clayton, Sarah T.The Angelic Sins of Jones Very (New York: Peter Lang, 1999).
Folsom, Ed. “Transcendental Poetics: Emerson, Higginson, and the Rise of Whitman and Dickinson,” in Joel Myerson, Sandra Harbert Petrulionis, and Laura Dassow Walls (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Transcendentalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), pp. 263–90.
Gittleman, Edwin. Jones Very: The Effective Years, 1833–1840 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1967).
Gura, Philip F.American Transcendentalism: A History (New York: Hill and Wang, 2007).
Harding, Walter. The Days of Henry Thoreau: A Biography. New ed. (1970; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992).
Marshall, Meghan. Margaret Fuller: A New American Life (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013).
Morris, Saundra. “‘Metre-Making’ Arguments: Emerson’s Poems,” in Joel Porte and Saundra Morris (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Ralph Waldo Emerson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 218–42.
New, Elisa. The Regenerate Lyric: Theology and Innovation in American Poetry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).
Richardson, Robert. Emerson: The Mind on Fire (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995).
Stula, Nancy, Barbara Novak, and David M. Robinson. At Home and Abroad: The Transcendental Landscapes of Christopher Pearse Cranch (New London, Conn.: Lyman Allyn Art Museum, 2007).
Sullivan, Robert. The Thoreau You Don’t Know (New York: HarperCollins, 2009).
Waggoner, Hyatt H.Emerson as Poet (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1974).
Witherell, Elizabeth. “Thoreau as Poet,” in Joel Myerson (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Henry David Thoreau (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 57–70.

10 Edgar Allan Poe’s Lost Worlds

Carlson, Eric W.The Recognition of Edgar Allan Poe: Selected Criticism since 1829 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1966).
Felman, Shoshana. “On Reading Poetry: Reflections on the Limits and Possibilities of Psychoanalytical Approaches,” in John P. Muller and William J. Richardson (eds.), The Purloined Poe: Lacan, Derrida, and Psychoanalytic Reading (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988), pp. 133–56.
Fried, Debra. “Repetition, Refrain, and Epitaph,” ELH 53:3 (1986): 615–32.
Frye, Stephen (ed.). The Poetry of Edgar Allan Poe (Pasadena, Calif.: Salem Press, 2011).
Hoffman, Daniel. Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe (1972; Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1998).
Johnson, Barbara. A World of Difference (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987).
McGill, Meredith. American Literature and the Culture of Reprinting, 1834–1853 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003).
Miller, John Carl (ed.). Poe’s Helen Remembers (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1979).
Quinn, Arthur Hobson. Edgar Allan Poe: A Critical Biography (1941; Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998).
Richards, Eliza. Gender and the Poetics of Reception in Poe’s Circle (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Richards, ElizaOutsourcing ‘The Raven’: Retroactive Origins,” Victorian Poetry 43:2 (2005): 205–21.
Thomas, Dwight. The Poe Log: A Documentary Life of Edgar Allan Poe, 1809–1849, ed. David Kelly Jackson (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1987).
Whitman, Sarah Helen. Edgar Poe and His Critics, ed. Oral Sumner Coad (1860; New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1949).

11 Longfellow in His Time

Buell, Lawrence. “Introduction,” in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Selected Poems (New York: Penguin, 1988).
Calhoun, Charles C.Longfellow: A Rediscovered Life (Boston: Beacon Press, 2004).
Fletcher, Angus. “Whitman and Longfellow: Two Types of the American Poet,” Raritan 10:4 (1991): 131–45.
Gale, Robert A.A Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Companion (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 2003).
Gioia, Dana. “Longfellow and the Aftermath of Modernism,” in Jay Parini (ed.), The Columbia History of American Poetry (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993).
Irmscher, Christoph. Longfellow Redux (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2006).
Irmscher, ChristophPublic Poet, Private Man: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow at 200 (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2009).
Rubin, Joan Shelley. Songs of Ourselves: The Uses of Poetry in America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2007).

12 Whittier, Holmes, Lowell, and the New England Tradition

Baym, Nina. “Early Histories of American Literature: A Chapter in the Institution of New England,” American Literary History 1:1 (1989): 459–88.
Bennett, Whitman. Whittier: Bard of Freedom (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1941).
Cohen, Michael. “Whittier, Ballad Reading, and the Culture of Nineteenth-Century Poetry,” Arizona Quarterly 64:3 (2008): 1–29.
Dowling, William C.Oliver Wendell Holmes in Paris: Medicine, Theology, and the Autocrat of the Breakfast Table (Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 2006).
Gibian, Peter. Oliver Wendell Holmes and the Culture of Conversation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Hoyt, Edwin P.The Improper Bostonian: Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes (New York: Morrow, 1979).
Mordell, Albert. Quaker Militant: John Greenleaf Whittier (Boston: Houghton, 1933).
Rodríguez, J. Javier. “The U.S.-Mexican War in James Russell Lowell’s The Biglow Papers,” Arizona Quarterly 63:3 (2007): 1–33.
Smith, Henry N.That Hideous Mistake of Poor Clemens’s.” Harvard Library Bulletin 9 (1955): 145–80.
Sorby, Angela. Schoolroom Poets: Childhood, Performance, and the Place of American Poetry, 1865–1917 (Durham: University of New Hampshire Press, 2005).
Stokes, Claudia. Writers in Retrospect: The Rise of American Literary History, 1875–1910 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006).
Tilton, Eleanor M.Amiable Autocrat: A Biography of Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes (New York: Schuman, 1947).
Wagenknecht, Edward. John Greenleaf Whittier: A Portrait in Paradox (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967).

13 Other Voices, Other Verses: Cultures of American Poetry at Midcentury

Bennett, Paula Bernat (ed.). Nineteenth-Century American Women Poets: An Anthology (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998).
Bennett, Paula BernatPoets in the Public Sphere: The Emancipatory Project of American Women’s Poetry, 1800–1900 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003).
Cavitch, Max. “Emma Lazarus and the Golem of Liberty,” in Meredith L. McGill (ed.), The Traffic in Poems: Nineteenth-Century Poetry and Transatlantic Exchange (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2008), pp. 97–122.
Diehl, Joanne Feit. Dickinson and the Romantic Imagination (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981).
Jackson, Virginia. Dickinson’s Misery: A Theory of Lyric Reading (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2005).
Jackson, Virginia “Thinking Dickinson Thinking Poetry,” in Martha Nell Smith and Mary Loeffelholz (eds.), A Companion to Emily Dickinson (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2008), pp. 205–21.
Lauter, Paul. Canons and Contexts (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991).
Morris, Timothy. Becoming Canonical in American Poetry (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995).
Sherman, Joan R. (ed.). African American Poetry of the Nineteenth Century: An Anthology (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992).
Williams, Gary. Hungry Heart: The Literary Emergence of Julia Ward Howe (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999).
Wilson, Edmund. Patriotic Gore (1962; New York: W. W. Norton, 1994).
Winters, Yvor. “A Discovery,” Hudson Review 3 (1950): 453–58.
Winters, YvorMaule’s Curse: Seven Studies in the History of American Obscurantism (Norfolk, Conn.: New Directions, 1938).

14 American Poetry Fights the Civil War

Barrett, Faith. To Fight Aloud Is Very Brave: American Poetry and the Civil War (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2012).
Fahs, Alice. The Imagined Civil War: Popular Literature of the North and South, 1861–1865 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001).
Garner, Stanton. The Civil War World of Herman Melville (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1993).
Hutchison, Coleman. Apples and Ashes: Literature, Nationalism, and the Confederate States of America (Athens: University of Georgia, 2012).
Maslan, Mark. Whitman Possessed: Poetry, Sexuality, and Popular Authority (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001).
Miller, Cristanne. Reading in Time: Emily Dickinson in the Nineteenth Century (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2012).
Morris, Roy, Jr. The Better Angel: Walt Whitman in the Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).
Richards, Eliza. “Weathering the News in US Civil War Poetry,” in Kerry Larson (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Nineteenth Century American Poetry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), pp. 113–34.
St. Armand, Barton Levi. Emily Dickinson and Her Culture: The Soul’s Society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984).
Sweet, Timothy. Traces of War: Poetry, Photography, and the Crisis of the Union (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990).
Wolosky, Shira. Emily Dickinson: A Voice of War (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1984).

15 Walt Whitman’s Invention of a Democratic Poetry

Allen, Gay Wilson, and Ed Folsom (eds.). Walt Whitman and the World (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1995).
Aspiz, Harold. So Long! Walt Whitman’s Poetry of Death (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2004).
Bauerlein, Mark. Whitman and the American Idiom (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1991).
Beach, Christopher. The Politics of Distinction: Whitman and the Discourses of Nineteenth-Century America (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996).
Ceniza, Sherry. Walt Whitman and Nineteenth-Century Women Reformers (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1998).
Erkkila, Betsy. Whitman the Political Poet (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989).
Folsom, Ed. Walt Whitman’s Native Representations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Folsom, Ed, and Kenneth M. Price (eds.). The Walt Whitman Archive (1995–present). http://www.whitmanarchive.org.
Genoways, Ted. Walt Whitman and the Civil War (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009).
Greenspan, Ezra. Walt Whitman and the American Reader (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
Hollis, C. Carroll. Language and Style in Leaves of Grass (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1983).
Killingsworth, M. Jimmie. Whitman’s Poetry of the Body: Sexuality, Politics, and the Text (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989).
Klammer, Martin. Whitman, Slavery, and the Emergence of Leaves of Grass (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995).
LeMaster, J. R., and Donald D. Kummings (eds.). Walt Whitman: An Encyclopedia (New York: Routledge, 1998).
Loving, Jerome. Walt Whitman: The Song of Himself (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).
Miller, Matt. Collage of Myself: Walt Whitman and the Making of Leaves of Grass (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2010).
Moon, Michael. Disseminating Whitman: Revision and Corporeality in Leaves of Grass (Cambridge, Mass.:Harvard University Press, 1991).
Perlman, Jim, Ed Folsom, and Dan Campion (eds.). Walt Whitman: The Measure of His Song (Duluth, Minn.: Holy Cow!, 1998).
Pollak, Vivian. The Erotic Whitman (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000).
Price, Kenneth M.Whitman and Tradition: The Poet in His Century (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1990).
Reynolds, David S.Walt Whitman’s America: A Cultural Biography (New York: Knopf, 1995).
Robertson, Michael. Worshipping Walt: The Whitman Disciples (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2008).
Thomas, M. Wynn. The Lunar Light of Whitman’s Poetry (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987).

16 Emily Dickinson: The Poetics and Practice of Autonomy

Cody, John. After Great Pain: The Inner Life of Emily Dickinson (New York: Belknap, 1971).
Franklin, Ralph W.The Editing of Emily Dickinson: A Reconsideration (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967).
Fuss, Diana. The Sense of an Interior: Four Writers and the Rooms that Shaped Them (New York: Routledge, 2004).
Habegger, Alfred. My Wars Are Laid Away in Books: The Life of Emily Dickinson (New York: Modern Library, 2002).
Heginbotham, Eleanor Elson. Reading the Fascicles of Emily Dickinson: Dwelling in Possibilities (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2003).
Johnson, Thomas H. (ed.). The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson (New York: Little, Brown, 1960).
Johnson, Thomas H.Emily Dickinson: An Interpretive Biography (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1955).
Johnson, Thomas H.The Letters of Emily Dickinson (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1986).
Juhasz, Suzanne (ed.). Feminist Critics Read Emily Dickinson (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1983).
Keller, Karl. The Only Kangaroo Among the Beauty: Emily Dickinson and America (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979).
Martin, Wendy. An American Triptych: Anne Bradstreet, Emily Dickinson, Adrienne Rich (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984).
Martin, WendyThe Cambridge Introduction to Emily Dickinson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
Messmer, Marietta. A Vice for Voices: Reading Emily Dickinson’s Correspondence (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001).
Miller, Cristanne. Emily Dickinson: A Poet’s Grammar (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987).
Miller, CristanneReading in Time: Emily Dickinson in the Nineteenth Century (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2012).
Rich, Adrienne. “Vesuvius at Home: The Power of Emily Dickinson,” Parnassus: Poetry in Review 5:1 (1976): 49–74. Reprinted in Adrienne Rich, Selected Prose, 1966–1978 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1979).
Wolosky, Shira. Emily Dickinson: A Voice of War (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1984).

17 The South in Reconstruction: White and Black Voices

Bain, Robert, and Joseph M. Flora (eds.). Fifty Southern Writers Before 1900: A Bio-Bibliographical Sourcebook (New York: Greenwood, 1987).
Boyd, Melba Joyce. Discarded Legacy: Politics and Poetics in the Life of Frances E. W. Harper, 1825–1911 (Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State University Press, 1994).
Cisco, Walter Brian. Henry Timrod: A Biography (Madison, N.J.: Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 2004).
Fishkin, Shelly Fisher, Gavin Jones, Meta DuEwa Jones, Arnold Rampersad, and Richard Yarborough (eds.), “Paul Laurence Dunbar.” Special issue, African American Review 41:2 (2007).
Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877 (New York: Harper & Row, 1988).
Gabin, Jane S.A Living Minstrelsy: The Poetry and Music of Sidney Lanier (Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 1985).
Griffin, Martin. Ashes of the Mind: War and Memory in Northern Literature, 1865–1900 (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2009).
Harris, Trudier, and Thadious M. Davis. Afro-American Writers Before the Harlem Renaissance (Detroit, Mich.: Gale, 1986).
Kerkering, John D.The Poetics of National and Racial Identity in Nineteenth-Century American Literature (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003).
Moore, Rayburn S.Paul Hamilton Hayne (New York: Twayne, 1972).
Moore, Rayburn S. “Poetry of the Late Nineteenth Century,” in Louis D. Rubin, Jr., Blyden Jackson, Rayburn S. Moore, Lewis P. Simpson, and Thomas Daniel Young (eds.), The History of Southern Literature (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1985), pp. 188–98.

18 The “Genteel Tradition” and Its Discontents

Barrineau, Nancy Warner (ed.). Theodore Dreiser’s Ev’ry Month (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996).
Beatty, Richmond Croom. “Bayard Taylor and George H. Boker,” American Literature 6:3 (1934): 316–27.
Bennett, Paula Bernat (ed.). Nineteenth-Century American Women Poets: An Anthology (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998).
Bennett, Paula BernatPoets in the Public Sphere: The Emancipatory Project of American Women’s Poetry, 1800–1900 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003).
Cary, Edwin H. “Introduction,” in William Dean Howells, Pebbles, Monochromes, and Other Modern Poems, 1891–1916, ed. Edwin H. Cary (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2000), pp. xi–xlvi.
Cary, Richard. The Genteel Circle: Bayard Taylor and His New York Friends (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1952).
Cohen, Michael. “E.C. Stedman and the Invention of Victorian Poetry,” Victorian Poetry 43:2 (2005): 165–88.
DeMille, G. E.Stedman, Arbiter of the Eighties,” PMLA 41:3 (1926): 756–66.
Fenn, William Purviance. “Richard Henry Stoddard’s Chinese Poems,” American Literature 11:4 (1940): 417–38.
Haralson, Eric L. (ed.). Encyclopedia of American Poetry: The Nineteenth Century (Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1998).
Hollander, John (ed.). American Poetry: The Nineteenth Century. 2 vols. (New York: Library of America, 1993).
McGill, Meredith (ed.). The Traffic in Poems: Nineteenth-Century Poetry and Transatlantic Exchange (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2008).
Newcomb, John Timberman. Would Poetry Disappear? American Verse and the Crisis of Modernity (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2004).
Piatt, Sarah Morgan Bryan, Palace-Burner: The Selected Poetry of Sarah Piatt, ed. Paula Bernat Bennett (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001).
Renker, Elizabeth. “The ‘Twilight of the Poets’ in the Era of American Realism, 1875–1900,” in Kerry Larson (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Nineteenth-Century American Poetry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), pp. 135–53.
Spengemann, William, with Jessica Roberts (eds.). Nineteenth-Century American Poetry (New York: Penguin, 1996).
Walker, Cheryl (ed.). American Women Poets of the Nineteenth Century: An Anthology (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1992).

19 Disciplined Play: American Children’s Poetry to 1920

Crain, Patricia. The Story of A: The Alphabetization of America from the New England Primer to the Scarlet Letter (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2003).
Flynn, Richard. “Can Children’s Poetry Matter?The Lion and the Unicorn: A Critical Journal of Children’s Literature 17:1 (June 1993): 37–44.
Gray, Janet. Race and Time: American Women’s Poetics from Antislavery to Racial Modernity (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2004).
Hall, Donald (ed.). Oxford Book of Children’s Verse in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).
Kelley, Mary. Private Woman, Public Stage: Literary Domesticity in Nineteenth-Century America (1984; Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002).
Mintz, Stephen. Huck’s Raft: A History of American Childhood (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2006).
Philips, Elizabeth. Emily Dickinson: Personae and Performance (State College: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004).
Smith, Kate Capshaw. Children’s Literature of the Harlem Renaissance (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006).
Sorby, Angela. Schoolroom Poets: Childhood, Performance, and the Place of American Poetry, 1865–1917 (Durham: University of New Hampshire Press, 2005).

20 Dialect, Doggerel, and Local Color: Comic Traditions and the Rise of Realism in Popular Poetry

Harrell, Willie J., Jr. (ed.). We Wear the Mask: Paul Lawrence Dunbar and the Politics of Representative Reality (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2010).
Jones, Gavin. Strange Talk: The Politics of Dialect Literature in Gilded Age America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).
Redding, J. Saunders. To Make a Poet Black (1939; Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1988).
Sorby, Angela. Schoolroom Poets: Childhood, Performance, and the Place of American Poetry, 1865–1917 (Durham: University of New Hampshire Press, 2005).
Stanley, David, and Elaine Thatcher (eds.). Cowboy Poets and Cowboy Poetry (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000).
Sloane, David E. E.In Search of a Realist Poetic Tradition,” American Literary Realism, 1870–1910 5 (Fall 1972): 489–91.
Sloane, David E. E.The Literary Humor of the Urban Northeast, 1830–1890 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1983).
Sloane, David E. E.Will Carleton as Realist Poet,” Markham Review 4 (October 1975): 81–85.
Van Allen, Elizabeth J.James Whitcomb Riley: A Life (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999).

21 Political Poets and Naturalism

Bendixen, Alfred. “Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s ‘Toolbox’: The Value of Satiric Poetry and Social Reform,” in Paula Bernat Bennett, Karen Kilcup, and Phillipp Schweighauser (eds.), Teaching Nineteenth-Century American Poetry (New York: MLA, 2007), pp. 161–71.
Blair, John. “The Posture of a Bohemian in the Poetry of Stephen Crane,” American Literature 61 (1989): 215–29.
Cavitch, Max. “Stephen Crane’s Refrain,” ESQ: A Journal of the American Renaissance 54:1–4 (2008): 33–53.
Dooley, Patrick K.The Pluralistic Philosophy of Stephen Crane (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993).
Goldstein, Jesse Sidney. “Edwin Markham, Ambrose Bierce, and ‘The Man with the Hoe,’Modern Language Notes 58:3 (1943): 165–75.
Halliburton, David. The Color of the Sky: A Study of Stephen Crane (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
Hoffman, Daniel. The Poetry of Stephen Crane (New York: Columbia University Press, 1957).
Kessler, Carol Farley. “Brittle Jars and Bitter Jangles: Light Verse by Charlotte Perkins Gilman,” in Sheryl L. Meyering (ed.), Charlotte Perkins Gilman: The Woman and Her Work (Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1989), pp. 133–43.
Nelson, Cary. Revolutionary Memory: Recovering the Poetry of the American Left (New York: Routledge, 2001).
O’Donnell, Thomas F.A Note on the Reception of Stephen Crane’s The Black Riders,” American Literature 24 (1952): 233–35.
Pizer, Donald. Realism and Naturalism in Nineteenth-Century American Literature (1966; Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984).
Rudd, Jill, and Val Gough (eds.). Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Optimist Reformer (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1999).
Scharnhorst, Gary. “Reconstructing Here Also: On the Later Poetry of Charlotte Perkins Gilman,” in Joanne B. Karpinski (ed.), Critical Essays on Charlotte Perkins Gilman (New York: G. K. Hall, 1992), pp. 249–68.

22 The Twentieth Century Begins

Beach, Christopher. The Politics of Distinction: Whitman and the Discourses of Nineteenth-Century America (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996).
Brown, Bill. The Material Unconscious: American Amusement, Stephen Crane, and the Economies of Play (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997).
Churchill, Suzanne W., and Adam McKible (eds.). Little Magazines and Modernism (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007).
Clark, Suzanne. Sentimental Modernism: Women Writers and the Revolution of the Word (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991).
Douglas, Ann. Terrible Honesty: Mongrel Manhattan in the 1920s (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1995).
DuPlessis, Rachel Blau. Genders, Races, and Religious Cultures in Modern American Poetry, 1908–1934 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Harrington, Joseph. Poetry and the Public: The Social Form of Modern U.S. Poetics (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2002).
Kalaidjian, Walter. American Culture Between the Wars: Revisionary Modernism and Postmodern Critique (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993).
Marek, Jayne. Women Editing Modernism: “Little” Magazines and Literary History (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1995).
Morrisson, Mark S.The Public Face of Modernism: Little Magazines, Audiences, and Reception, 1905–1920 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2001).
Newcomb, John Timberman. How Did Poetry Survive? The Making of Modern American Verse (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2012).
Newcomb, John TimbermanWould Poetry Disappear? American Verse and the Crisis of Modernity (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2004).
Thurston, Michael. Making Something Happen: American Political Poetry Between the Wars (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001).
Van Wienen, Mark W.Partisans and Poets: The Political Work of American Poetry in the Great War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
Wilson, Christopher P.The Labor of Words: Literary Professionalism in the Progressive Era (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1985).

23 Robert Frost and Tradition

Brodsky, Joseph, Seamus Heaney, and Derek Walcott. Homage to Robert Frost (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1996).
Costello, Bonnie. Shifting Ground: Reinventing Landscape in Modern American Poetry (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003).
Faggen, Robert (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Robert Frost (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Faggen, RobertRobert Frost and the Challenge of Darwin (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997).
Hass, Robert Bernard. Going by Contraries: Robert Frost’s Conflict with Science (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2002).
Hoffman, Tyler. Robert Frost and the Politics of Poetry (Hanover, N.H.: Middlebury College Press, 2001).
Jarrell, Randall. Poetry and the Age (1953; Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001).
Kearns, Katherine. Robert Frost and a Poetics of Appetite (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Lentricchia, Frank. Modernist Quartet (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Lentricchia, FrankRobert Frost: Modern Poetics and the Landscapes of Self (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1975).
New, Elisa. The Line’s Eye: Poetic Experience, American Sight (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998).
Parini, Jay. Robert Frost: A Life (New York: Henry Holt, 1991).
Poirier, Richard. Robert Frost: The Work of Knowing (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1990).
Pritchard, William H.Frost: A Literary Life Reconsidered (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984).
Richardson, Mark. The Ordeal of Robert Frost: The Poet and His Poetics (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997).
Wilcox, Earl J., and Jonathan N. Barron (eds.). Roads Not Taken: Rereading Robert Frost (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2000).

24 T. S. Eliot

Bush, Ronald (ed.). T. S. Eliot: The Modernist in History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
Chinitz, David E.T. S. Eliot and the Cultural Divide (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003).
Gordon, Lyndall. T. S. Eliot: An Imperfect Life (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000).
Habib, M. A. R.The Early T. S. Eliot and Western Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
Moody, A. David (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to T. S. Eliot (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Rainey, Lawrence. Institutions of Modernism: Literary Elites and Public Culture (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998).
Ricks, Christopher. True Friendship: Geoffrey Hill, Anthony Hecht and Robert Lowell Under the Sign of Eliot and Pound (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2010).
Ricks, ChristopherT. S. Eliot and Prejudice (London: Faber and Faber, 1988).

25 William Carlos Williams: The Shock of the Familiar

Altieri, Charles. The Art of Twentieth Century American Poetry (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006).
Copestake, Ian (ed.). The Legacy of William Carlos Williams (Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press, 2007).
Corn, Wanda, and Tirza True Latimer. Seeing Gertrude Stein: Five Stories (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011).
Crawford, T. Hugh. Modernism, Medicine and William Carlos Williams (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993).
Cushman, Stephen. William Carlos Williams and the Meaning of Measure (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985).
DeKoven, Marianne. A Different Language: Gertrude Stein’s Experimental Writing (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983).
Dydo, Ulla P.Gertrude Stein: The Language That Rises (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 2003).
Halter, Peter. William Carlos Williams and the Revolution in the Visual Arts. Rev. ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).
Hejinian, Lyn. The Language of Inquiry (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000).
Mariani, Paul. William Carlos Williams: A New World Naked (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981).
Meyer, Steven. Irresistible Dictation: Gertrude Stein and the Correlations of Writing and Science (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2001).
Newcomb, John Timberman. How Did Poetry Survive? The Making of Modern American Verse (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2012).
Perelman, Bob. The Trouble with Genius: Reading Pound, Joyce, Stein and Zukofsky (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994).
Perloff, Marjorie. The Poetics of Indeterminacy: Rimbaud to Cage (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1983).
Sayre, Henry. The Visual Text of William Carlos Williams (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983).
Tichi, Cecilia. Shifting Gears: Technology, Literature, Culture in Modernist America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987).
Weaver, Mike. William Carlos Williams: The American Background (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977).

26 Finding “Only Words” Mysterious: Reading Mina Loy (and H.D.) in America

Burke, Carolyn. Becoming Modern: The Life of Mina Loy (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1996).
Churchill, Suzanne. The Little Magazine Others and the Renovation of American Poetry (London: Ashgate, 2006).
Collecott, Diana. H.D. and Sapphic Modernism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
DuPlessis, Rachel Blau. Genders, Races, and Religious Cultures in Modern American Poetry, 1908–1934 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
DuPlessis, Rachel BlauThe Pink Guitar: Writing as Feminist Practice (New York: Routledge, 1990).
Friedman, Susan Stanford, and Rachel Blau DuPlessis (eds.). Signets: Reading H.D. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990).
Goody, Alex. Modernist Articulations: A Cultural Study of Djuna Barnes, Mina Loy, and Gertrude Stein (Hampshire: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2007).
Kinnahan, Linda. Poetics of the Feminine: Authority and Literary Tradition in William Carlos Williams, Mina Loy, Denise Levertov, and Kathleen Fraser (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Kuenzli, Rudolf E. (ed.). New York Dada (New York: Willis Locker & Owens, 1986).
Miller, Cristanne. Cultures of Modernism: Marianne Moore, Mina Loy, Else Lasker-Schüler: Gender and Literary Community in New York and Berlin (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005).
Miller, CristanneTongues ‘Loosened in the Melting Pot’: The Poets of Others and the Lower East Side,” Modernism/Modernity 14:3 (2007): 455–76.
Potter, Rachel, and Suzanne Hobson (eds.). The Salt Companion to Mina Loy (Cambridge: Salt, 2010).
Shreiber, Maeera, and Keith Tuma (eds.). Mina Loy: Woman and Poet (Orono, Maine: National Poetry Foundation, 1998).
Vetter, Lara. Modernist Writings and Religio-Scientific Discourse: H.D., Loy, and Toomer (New York: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2010).

27 Marianne Moore and the Printed Page

Bornstein, George. Material Modernism: The Politics of the Page (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Costello, Bonnie. Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981).
Holley, Margaret. The Poetry of Marianne Moore (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987).
Kineke, Sheila. “T. S. Eliot, Marianne Moore, and the Gendered Operations of Literary Sponsorship,” Journal of Modern Literature 21:1 (1997): 121–36.
Miller, Cristanne. Marianne Moore: Questions of Authority (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995).
Rainey, Lawrence. Institutions of Modernism: Literary Elites and Public Culture (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998).
Rotella, Guy. Reading and Writing Nature: The Poetry of Robert Frost, Wallace Stevens, Marianne Moore, and Elizabeth Bishop (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1991).
Turner, Catherine. Marketing Modernism Between the Two World Wars (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2003).

28 The Formalist Modernism of Edna St. Vincent Millay, Helene Johnson, and Louise Bogan

Bowles, Gloria. Louise Bogan’s Aesthetic of Limitation (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987).
Clark, Suzanne. Sentimental Modernism: Women Writers and the Revolution of the Word (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991).
Collins, Martha (ed.). Critical Essays on Louise Bogan (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1984).
DuPlessis, Rachel Blau. Genders, Races, and Religious Cultures in Modern American Poetry, 1908–1934 (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Freedman, Diane P. (ed.). Millay at 100: A Critical Reappraisal (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1995).
Gilbert, Sandra M., and Susan Gubar. No Man’s Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. 3 vols. (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1988, 1989, 1994).
Harrington, Joseph. Poetry and the Public: The Social Form of Modern U.S. Poetics (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2002).
Hull, Gloria T.Color, Sex, and Poetry: Three Women Writers of the Harlem Renaissance (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987).
Milford, Nancy. Savage Beauty: The Life of Edna St. Vincent Millay (New York: Random House, 2001).
Nelson, Cary. “The Fate of Gender in Modern American Poetry,” in Kevin J. H. Dettmar and Stephen Watt (eds.), Marketing Modernisms: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996), pp. 321–60.
Nelson, CaryRepression and Recovery: Modern American Poetry and the Politics of Cultural Memory, 1910–1945 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989).
Schweik, Susan. A Gulf So Deeply Cut: American Women Poets and the Second World War (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991).
Walker, Cheryl. Masks Outrageous and Austere: Culture, Psyche, and Persona in Modern Women Poets (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991).
Wheeler, Lesley. Voicing American Poetry: Sound and Performance from the 1920s to the Present (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2008).

29 The Romantic and Anti-Romantic in the Poetry of Wallace Stevens

Bloom, Harold. The Poems of Our Climate (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1977).
Brazeau, Peter. Parts of a World: Wallace Stevens Remembered (New York: Random House, 1977).
Critchley, Simon. Things Merely Are: Philosophy in the Poetry of Wallace Stevens (London: Routledge, 2005).
Filreis, Alan. Wallace Stevens and the Actual World (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1991).
Fisher, Barbara. Wallace Stevens: The Intensest Rendezvous (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1990).
Leggett, B. J.Early Stevens: The Nietzschean Intertext (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1992).
Leighton, Angela. On Form: Poetry, Aestheticism, and the Legacy of a Word (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).
Lensing, George. Wallace Stevens: A Poet’s Growth (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1986).
Lensing, GeorgeWallace Stevens and the Seasons (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2001).
Longenbach, James. Wallace Stevens: The Plain Sense of Things (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).
Miller, J. Hillis. The Linguistic Moment: From Wordsworth to Stevens (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1985).
Richardson, Joan. Wallace Stevens (New York: Beech Tree, 1988).
Serio, John (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Wallace Stevens (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
Vendler, Helen. On Extended Wings: The Longer Poems of Wallace Stevens (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969).
Vendler, HelenWallace Stevens: Words Chosen out of Desire (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1984).

30 Ezra Pound, William Carlos Williams, and the East Coast Projectivists

Armand, Louis (ed.). Contemporary Poetics (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 2007).
Beach, Christopher. Ezra Pound and the Remaking of American Tradition (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992).
Butterick, George F. A Guide to the Maximus Poems of Charles Olson (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980).
Davie, Donald. Studies in Ezra Pound (Manchester: Carcanet, 1991).
Kenner, Hugh. The Pound Era (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971).
Makin, Peter. Pound’s Cantos (London: Allen & Unwin, 1985).
Maud, Ralph. Charles Olson at the Harbor: A Biography (Vancouver, B.C.: Talon, 2008).
Moody, A. David. Ezra Pound: Poet (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).
Nadel, Ira (ed.). Ezra Pound in Context (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
Perelman, Bob. The Trouble with Genius: Reading Pound, Joyce, Stein and Zukofsky (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994).
Terrell, Carroll F.A Companion to the Cantos of Ezra Pound (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993).
Von Hallberg, Robert. Charles Olson: The Scholar’s Art (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978).

31 Langston Hughes and His World

Dace, Tish (ed.). Langston Hughes: The Contemporary Reviews (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
De Santis, Christopher (ed.). Dictionary of Literary Biography. Vol. 315, Langston Hughes: A Documentary Volume (Detroit, Mich.: Thomson Gale, 2005).
Huggins, Nathan. Harlem Renaissance (1971; New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).
Jones, Meta DuEwa. “Listening to What the Ear Demands: Langston Hughes and His Critics,” Callaloo 25:4 (2002): 1145–75.
Lewis, David Levering. When Harlem Was in Vogue (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1981).
Rampersad, Arnold. The Life of Langston Hughes. 2 vols. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986, 1988).
Santos, Irene Ramalho. “Langston Hughes: The Color of Modernism,” in Sacvan Bercovitch (ed.), The Cambridge History of American Literature. Vol. 5, Poetry and Criticism 1900–1950 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 311–42.
Saul, Scott. Freedom Is, Freedom Ain’t: Jazz and the Making of the Sixties (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003).
Tracy, Steven. Langston Hughes and the Blues (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2011).
Young, Kevin. “‘If You Can’t Read, Run Anyhow!’: Langston Hughes and the Poetics of Refusal,” in The Grey Album (Minneapolis: Graywolf, 2012), pp. 169–88.

32 The Objectivists and the Left

DuPlessis, Rachel Blau, and Peter Quartermain (eds.). The Objectivist Nexus: Essays in Cultural Poetics (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1999).
Filreis, Alan. Modernism from Right to Left: Wallace Stevens, the Thirties, and Literary Radicalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Heller, Michael. Conviction’s Net of Branches: Essays on the Objectivist Poets and Poetry (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1985).
Kenner, Hugh. A Homemade World: The American Modernist Writers (New York: Knopf, 1975).
Nelson, Cary. Repression and Recovery: Modern American Poetry and the Politics of Cultural Memory, 1910–1945 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989).
Nelson, CaryRevolutionary Memory: Recovering the Poetry of the American Left (New York: Routledge, 2001).
Nicholls, Peter. George Oppen and the Fate of Modernism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).
Penberthy, Jenny (ed.). Lorine Niedecker: Woman and Poet (Orono, Maine: National Poetry Foundation, 1996).
Scroggins, Mark. The Poem of a Life: A Biography of Louis Zukofsky (Emeryville, Calif.: Shoemaker and Hoard, 1997).
Stanley, Sandra Kumamoto. Louis Zukofsky and the Transformation of a Modern American Poetics (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994).
Teres, Harvey. Renewing the Left: Politics, Imagination, and the New York Intellectuals (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).
Zukofsky, Louis (ed.). “Objectivists.” Special issue, Poetry 37:5 (1931). http://www .poetryfoundation.org/poetrymagazine/toc/221.

33 “All the Blessings of This Consuming Chance”: Robert Lowell, John Berryman, Theodore Roethke, and the Middle-Generation Poets

Axelrod, Steven Gould. Robert Lowell: Life and Art (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1978).
Bell, Vereen. Robert Lowell: Nihilist as Hero (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983).
Blake, David Haven. “Public Dreams: John Berryman, Celebrity and the Culture of Confession,” American Literary History 13:4 (2001): 716–36.
Haffenden, John. The Life of John Berryman (Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1982).
Hamilton, Ian. Robert Lowell: A Biography (New York: Random House, 1982).
Haralson, Eric (ed.). Reading the Middle Generation Anew (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2006).
Kirsch, Adam. The Modern Element: Essays on Contemporary Poetry (New York: W. W. Norton, 2008).
London, Michael, and Robert Boyers (eds.). Robert Lowell: A Portrait of the Artist in His Time (New York: David Lewis, 1970).
Mariani, Paul. Dream Song: The Life of John Berryman (New York: William Morrow, 1990).
Rudman, Mark. Robert Lowell: An Introduction to the Poetry (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983).
Tillinghast, Richard. Robert Lowell’s Life and Work: Damaged Grandeur (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995).
Vendler, Helen. The Given and the Made (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995).
Vendler, HelenLast Books, Last Looks: Stevens, Plath, Lowell, Bishop, Merrill (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2010).

34 Elizabeth Bishop, Randall Jarrell, and the Lost World of Real Feeling

Burt, Stephen. Randall Jarrell and His Age (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002).
Cleghorn, Angus, Bethany Hicok, and Thomas Travisano (eds.). Elizabeth Bishop in the 21st Century (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2012).
Costello, Bonnie. Elizabeth Bishop: Questions of Mastery (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993).
Costello, BonnieElizabeth Bishop’s Impersonal Personal,” American Literary History 15:2 (2003): 334–66.
Ferguson, Suzanne (ed.). Jarrell, Bishop, Lowell, and Co. (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2003).
Flynn, Richard. Randall Jarrell and the Lost World of Childhood (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1990).
Harrison, Victoria. Elizabeth Bishop’s Poetics of Intimacy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).
Kinzie, Mary. The Cure of Poetry in an Age of Prose: Moral Essays on the Poet’s Calling (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).
Longenbach, James. Modern Poetry After Modernism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).
Millier, Brett C. Elizabeth Bishop: Life and the Memory of It (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993).
Pickard, Zachariah. Elizabeth Bishop’s Poetics of Description (Montreal: McGill University Press, 2009).
Pritchard, William. Randall Jarrell: A Literary Life (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1990).
Travisano, Thomas. Midcentury Quartet (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1999).

35 Writing the South

Blotner, Joseph. Robert Penn Warren: A Biography (New York: Random House, 1997).
Brinkmeyer, Robert H., Jr. The Fourth Ghost: White Southern Writers and European Fascism, 1930–1950 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2009).
Burt, John. Robert Penn Warren and American Idealism (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1989).
Gioia, Dana, and William Logan (eds.). Certain Solitudes: On the Poetry of Donald Justice (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1997).
Gray, Richard. Writing the South: Ideas of an American Region (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).
Hart, Henry. James Dickey: The World as a Lie (New York: Picador, 2000).
Moffett, Joe. Understanding Charles Wright (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2008).
Suarez, Ernest. Southbound: Interviews with Southern Poets (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1999).
Young, Thomas Daniel. Gentleman in a Dustcoat: A Biography of John Crowe Ransom (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1976).

36 San Francisco and the Beats

Allen, Donald (ed.). The New American Poetry: 1945–1960 (1960; Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).
Duncan, Michael, and Kristine McKenna (eds.). Seminal Culture: Wallace Berman and His Circle (Santa Monica, Calif.: Santa Monica Museum, 2005).
Ellingham, Lewis, and Kevin Killian. Poet Be Like God: Jack Spicer and the San Francisco Renaissance (Hanover, N.H.: Wesleyan University Press, 1988).
Fredman, Stephen. Contextual Practice: Assemblage and the Erotic in Postwar Poetry and Art (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2010).
Knight, Brenda. Women of the Beat Generation: The Writers, Artists and Muses at the Heart of a Revolution (San Francisco: Conari Press, 1996).
Raskin, Jonah. American Scream: Allen Ginsberg’s Howl and the Making of the Beat Generation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004).
Suiter, John. Poets on the Peaks: Gary Snyder, Philip Whalen and Jack Kerouac in the North Cascades (Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 2002).
Vincent, John Emil (ed.). After Spicer: Critical Essays (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2011).

37 The New York School

Altieri, Charles. Painterly Abstraction in Modernist American Poetry: The Contemporaneity of Modernism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
Dubois, Andrew. Ashbery’s Forms of Attention (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2006).
Epstein, Andrew. Beautiful Enemies: Friendship and Postwar American Poetry (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).
Herd, David. John Ashbery and American Poetry (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001).
Lehman, David. The Last Avant-Garde: The Making of the New York School of Poets (New York: Doubleday, 1998).
Nelson, Maggie. Women, the New York School, and Other Abstractions (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2007).
Perloff, Marjorie. Frank O’Hara: Poet Among Painters (1977; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997).
Shaw, Lytle. Frank O’Hara: The Poetics of Coterie (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2006).
Vincent, John Emil. John Ashbery: His Later Books (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2007).
Ward, Geoff. Statutes of Liberty: The New York School of Poets. Rev. ed. (New York: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2001).
Wilkinson, John. “‘Couplings of Such Sonority’: Reading a Poem by Barbara Guest,” Textual Practice 23:3 (June 2009): 481–502.

38 The Uses of Authenticity: Four Sixties Poets

Altieri, Charles. Enlarging the Temple: New Directions in American Poetry During the 1960s (Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press, 1979).
Bly, Robert. American Poetry: Wildness and Domesticity (New York: Harper and Row, 1990).
Breslin, James E. B.From Modern to Contemporary: American Poetry, 1945–1965 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984).
Breslin, Paul. The Psycho-Political Muse: American Poetry since the Fifties (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987).
Davidson, Michael. Ghostlier Demarcations: Modern Poetry and the Material World (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).
Hedley, Jane. I Made You to Find Me: The Coming of Age of the Woman Poet and the Politics of Poetic Address (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2009).
Jarnot, Lisa, and Michael Davidson. Robert Duncan, the Ambassador from Venus: A Biography (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012).
Johnston, Devin. Precipitations: Contemporary American Poetry as Occult Practice (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2002).
Smith, Dave (ed.). The Pure Clear Word: Essays on the Poetry of James Wright (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982).
Williamson, Alan. Introspection and Contemporary Poetry (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1984).

39 James Merrill and His Circles

Berger, Charles, and David Lehman (eds.). James Merrill: Essays in Criticism (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1983).
Blasing, Mutlu Konuk. Politics and Form in Postmodern Poetry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
Gwiazda, Piotr. James Merrill and W.H. Auden: Homosexuality and Poetic Influence (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).
Howard, Richard. Alone with America (New York: Atheneum, 1980).
Kalstone, David. Five Temperaments (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977).
Labrie, Ross. James Merrill (Boston: Twayne, 1982).
McClatchy, J. D.Twenty Questions (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998).
Moffett, Judith. James Merrill: An Introduction to the Poetry (New York: Columbia University Press, 1984).
Phillips, Siobhan. The Poetics of the Everyday (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011).
Polito, Robert. A Reader’s Guide to The Changing Light at Sandover (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994).
Sastri, Reena. James Merrill: Knowing Innocence (New York: Routledge, 2007).
Wasley, Aidan. The Age of Auden: Postwar Poetry and the American Scene (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2011).
Yenser, Stephen. The Consuming Myth: The Work of James Merrill (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987).

40 Science in Contemporary American Poetry: Ammons and Others

Brown, Kurt (ed.). The Measured Word: On Poetry and Science (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2001).
Crawford, Robert (ed.). Contemporary Poetry and Contemporary Science (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).
Halpern, Nick. Everyday and Prophetic: The Poetry of Lowell, Ammons, Merrill, and Rich (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2003).
Holmes, John (ed.). Science in Modern Poetry: New Directions (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2012).
Schneider, Steven P.A. R. Ammons and the Poetics of Widening Scope (Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1994).
Schneider, Steven P. A. R. (ed.). Complexities of Motion: New Essays on A. R. Ammons’s Long Poems (Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1999).
Scigaj, Leonard. Sustainable Poetry: Four American Ecopoets (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1999).
Steinman, Lisa M. Made in America: Science, Technology, and American Modernist Poets (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1987).
Tiffany, Daniel. Toy Medium: Materialism and Modern Lyric (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000).
Walpert, Bryan. Resistance to Science in Contemporary American Poetry (London: Routledge, 2011).

41 The 1970s and the “Poetry of the Center”

Archambeau, Robert. Laureates and Heretics: Six Careers in American Poetry (South Bend, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 2010).
Davis, Dick. Wisdom and Wilderness: The Achievement of Yvor Winters (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1991).
Juhasz, Suzanne. Naked and Fiery Forms: Modern American Poetry by Women: A New Tradition (New York: Harper, 1976).
Longenbach, James. Modern Poetry after Modernism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).
Pinsky, Robert. The Situation of Poetry: Contemporary Poetry and Its Traditions (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1976).
Rich, Adrienne. On Lies, Secrets and Silence: Selected Prose 1966–1978 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1979).
Spiegelman, Willard. The Didactic Muse: Scenes of Instruction in Contemporary Poetry (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989).
Von Hallberg, Robert. American Poetry and Culture, 1945–1980 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985).
Yenser, Stephen. A Boundless Field: American Poetry at Large (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002).

42 Latino Poetry and Poetics

Algarín, Miguel, and Bob Holman (eds.). Aloud: Voices from the Nuyorican Poets Café (New York: Holt, 1994).
Arteaga, Alfred. Chicano Poetics: Heterotexts and Hybridities (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
Cruz, Victor Hernández, Leroy Quintana, and Virgil Suárez (eds.). Paper Dance: 55 Latino Poets (New York: Persea, 2000).
Falconer, Blas, and Lorraine López (eds.). The Other Latin@: Writing Against a Singular Identity (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2011).
Pérez-Torres, Rafael. Movements in Chicano Poetry: Against Myth, Against Margins (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
Somers-Willett, Susan B. A.The Cultural Politics of Slam Poetry: Race, Identity and the Performance of Popular Verse in America (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2009).

43 Asian American Poetry

Chang, Juliana (ed.). Quiet Fire: A Historical Anthology of Asian American Poetry, 1892–1970 (New York: Asian American Writers’ Workshop, 1996).
Hongo, Garrett (ed.). The Open Boat: Poems from Asian America (New York: Doubleday, 1993).
Jeon, Joseph. Racial Things, Racial Forms: Objecthood in Avant-Garde Asian American Poetry (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2012).
Lai, Him Mark, Genny Lim, and Judy Yung (eds.). Island: Poetry and History of Chinese Immigrants on Angel Island, 1910–1940 (1980; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1991).
Marx, Edward. “A Slightly Open Door: Yone Noguchi and the Invention of English Haiku,” Genre 3 (2006): 107–26.
Park, Josephine Nock-Hee. Apparitions of Asia: Modernist Form and Asian American Poetics (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008).
Uba, George. “Versions of Identity in Post-Activist Asian American Poetry,” in Shirley Geok-lin Lim and Amy Ling (eds.), Reading the Literatures of Asian America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992), pp. 33–48.
Yao, Steven. Foreign Accents: Chinese American Verse from Exclusion to Postethnicity (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010).
Yu, Timothy. “‘The Hand of a Chinese Master’: José Garcia Villa and Modernist Orientalism,” MELUS 29:1 (2004): 41–59.
Yu, TimothyRace and the Avant-Garde: Experimental and Asian American Poetry Since 1965 (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2009).

44 Psychoanalytic Poetics

Altieri, Charles. Self and Sensibility in Contemporary American Poetry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984).
Axelrod, Steven Gould. Sylvia Plath: The Wound and the Cure of Words (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990).
Diehl, Joanne Feit (ed.). On Louise Glück: Change What You See (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005).
Forbes, Deborah. Sincerity’s Shadow: Self-Consciousness in British Romantic and Mid-Twentieth-Century American Poetry (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).
Gill, Jo (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Sylvia Plath (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
Gray, Jeffrey. “‘Necessary Thought’: Frank Bidart and the Postconfessional,” Contemporary Literature 34:4 (1993): 714–39.
Harrison, DeSales. The End of the Mind: The Edge of the Intelligible in Hardy, Stevens, Larkin, Plath and Glück (New York and London: Routledge, 2005).
Kendall, Tim. Sylvia Plath: A Critical Study (London: Faber and Faber, 2001).
Keniston, Anne. Overheard Voices: Address and Subjectivity in Postmodern American Poetry (New York: Routledge, 2006).
Lerner, Lawrence. “What Is Confessional Poetry?Critical Quarterly 29:1 (1987): 46–66.
Rector, Liam, and Tree Swenson (eds.). On Frank Bidart: Fastening the Voice to the Page (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2007).
Rose, Jacqueline. The Haunting of Sylvia Plath (London: Virago, 1991).
Sewell, Lisa. “‘In the End, the One Who Has Nothing Wins’: Louise Glück and the Poetics of Anorexia,” Literature Interpretation Theory 17 (2006): 49–76.
Vendler, Helen. Soul Says: On Recent Poetry (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995).
Williamson, Alan. Introspection and Contemporary Poetry (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1984).

45 American Poetry of the 1980s: The Pressures of Reality

Benston, Kimberly W. “Performing Blackness: Re/Placing Afro-American Poetry,” in Houston A. Baker, Jr., and Patricia Redmond (eds.), Afro-American Literary Study in the 1990s (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989), pp. 164–93.
Bernstein, Charles. Content’s Dream: Essays 1975–1984 (1986; Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 2001).
Burt, Stephen. Close Calls with Nonsense (St. Paul, Minn.: Graywolf Press, 2009).
Caplan, David. Questions of Possibility: Contemporary Poetry and Poetic Form (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).
Hall, Donald (ed.). Claims for Poetry (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1982).
Jarman, Mark, and Robert McDowell (eds.). The Reaper Essays (Brownsville, Ore.: Story Line Press, 1996).
Perloff, Marjorie. Radical Artifice: Writing Poetry in the Age of Media (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).
Schultz, Susan M.A Poetics of Impasse in Modern and Contemporary American Poetry (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2005).
Shetley, Vernon. After the Death of Poetry: Poet and Audience in Contemporary America (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1993).
Silliman, Ron. The New Sentence (New York: Roof, 1995).

46 Black and Blues Configurations: Contemporary African American Poetry

Alexander, Elizabeth. The Black Interior (St. Paul, Minn.: Graywolf, 2004).
Anderson, T. J.Notes to Make the Sound Come Right: Four Innovators of Jazz Poetry (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2004).
Bentson, Kimberly. Performing Blackness: Enactments of Afro-American Modernism (London: Routledge, 2000).
Cummings, Allison. “Public Subjects: Race and the Critical Reception of Gwendolyn Brooks, Erica Hunt, and Harryette Mullen,” Frontiers 26:2 (2005): 3–36.
Gabbin, Joanne V. (ed.). The Furious Flowering of African American Poetry (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999).
Henderson, Stephen (ed.). Understanding the New Black Poetry (New York: William Morrow, 1973).
Holladay, Hilary. Wild Blessings: The Poetry of Lucille Clifton (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2004).
Jackson, Lawrence P. The Indignant Generation (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2011).
Jones, Meta DuEwa. The Muse Is Music: Jazz Poetry from the Harlem Renaissance to Spoken Word (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2011).
Mackey, Nathaniel. Discrepant Engagement: Dissonance, Cross-Culturality, and Experimental Writing (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).
Melham, D. H.Gwendolyn Brooks: Poetry and the Heroic Voice (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1987).
Naylor, Paul (ed.). “Nathaniel Mackey: A Special Issue.” Special issue, Callaloo 23:2 (2000).
Nielsen, Aldon Lynn. Black Chant: Languages of Afro-American Postmodernism (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997).
Nielsen, Aldon LynnIntegral Music: Languages of Afro-American Innovation (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2004).
Pereira, Malin. Rita Dove’s Cosmopolitanism (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003).
Shockley, Evie. Renegade Poetics: Black Aesthetics and Formal Innovation in African American Poetry (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2011).
Smethurst, James. “Remembering When Indians Were Red: Bob Kaufman, the Popular Front, and the Black Arts Movement,” Callaloo 25:1 (2002): 146–64.
Smith, Derik. “Quarreling in the Movement: Robert Hayden’s Black Arts Era,” Callaloo 33:2 (2010): 449–66.
Thomas, Lorenzo. Extraordinary Measures: Afrocentric Modernism and Twentieth Century American Poetry (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2000).
Widener, Daniel. Black Arts West: Culture and Struggle in Postwar Los Angeles (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2010).
Williams, Sherley Anne. “The Blues Roots of Contemporary Afro-American Poetry,” Massachusetts Review 18:3 (1977): 542–54.

47 Amy Clampitt, Culture Poetry, and the Neobaroque

Brunner, Edward. Cold War Poetry (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000).
Costello, Bonnie. Shifting Ground: Reinventing Landscape in Modern American Poetry (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003).
Hollander, John. The Gazer’s Spirit: Poems Speaking to Silent Works of Art (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995).
Karr, Mary. “Against Decoration,” Parnassus 16:2 (1991): 277–300.
Longenbach, James. Modern Poetry After Modernism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).
McDowell, Robert. “The Wilderness Surrounds the Word,” Hudson Review 43 (1991): 669–78.
Quinn, Justin. American Errancy: Empire, Sublimity and Modern Poetry (Dublin: University College Dublin Press, 2005).
Spiegelman, Willard. How Poets See the World: The Art of Description on Contemporary Poetry (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).
Vendler, Helen. The Music of What Happens (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988).
Von Hallberg, Robert. American Poetry and Culture, 1945–1980 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985).

48 Modern and Contemporary Children’s Poetry

Cifelli, Edward M. John Ciardi: A Biography (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1997).
Flynn, Richard. “Can Children’s Poetry Matter?The Lion and the Unicorn: A Critical Journal of Children’s Literature 17:1 (June 1993): 37–44.
Flynn, RichardConsolation Prize,” Signal: Approaches to Children’s Books 100 (2003): 66–83.
Hall, Donald (ed.). The Oxford Book of Children’s Poetry in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985).
Livingston, Myra Cohn. The Child as Poet: Myth or Reality? (Boston: Horn Book, 1984).
Livingston, Myra Cohn “David McCord’s Poems: Something Behind the Door,” in Perry Nodelman (ed.), Touchstones: Reflections on the Best in Children’s Literature. Vol. 2 (West Lafayette, Ind.: Children’s Literature Association, 1987), pp. 157–72.
MacDonald, Ruth. Shel Silverstein (New York: Twayne, 1997).
Nel, Philip. Dr. Seuss: American Icon (New York: Continuum, 2004).
Sorby, Angela. Schoolroom Poets: Childhood, Performance, and the Place of American Poetry, 1865–1917 (Durham: University of New Hampshire Press, 2005).
Styles, Morag. From the Garden to the Street (London: Cassell, 1998).
Styles, Morag, Louise Joy, and David Whitley (eds.). Poetry and Childhood (Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books, 2010).
Thomas, Joseph T., Jr. Poetry’s Playground: The Culture of Contemporary American Children’s Poetry (Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State University Press, 2007).

49 Multilingualism in Contemporary American Poetry

Balaz, Joseph P. (ed.). Ho‘omānoa: An Anthology of Contemporary Hawaiian Literature (Honolulu: Ku Pa‘a Incorporated, 1989).
Franklin, Cynthia, Ruth Hsu, and Suzanne Kosanke (eds.). Navigating Islands and Continents: Conversations and Contestations in and around the Pacific (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2000).
Morales, Rodney. “Literature,” in Michael Haas (ed.), Multicultural Hawai‘i: The Fabric of a Multiethnic Society (New York: Garland, 1998), pp. 107–29.
Pennycock, Alastair. The Cultural Politics of English as an International Language (New York: Addison-Wesley, 1995).
Sommer, Doris. Proceed with Caution, When Engaged by Minority Writing in the Americas (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999).
Spahr, Juliana. Everybody’s Autonomy: Connective Reading and Collective Identity (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2001).
Stein, Gertrude. Selections, ed. Joan Retallack (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008).
Xiaojing, Zhou. “‘What Story What Story What Sound’: The Nomadic Poetics of Myung Mi Kim’s Dura,” College Literature 33:4 (2007): 63–91.

50 American Poetry at the End of the Millennium

Altieri, Charles. Postmodernisms Now: Essays on Contemporaneity in the Arts (State College: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998).
Beach, Christopher. Poetic Culture: Contemporary American Poetry Between Community and Institution (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1999).
Gardner, Thomas (ed.). Jorie Graham: Essays on the Poetry (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2005).
Gardner, ThomasRegions of Unlikeness: Explaining Contemporary Poetry (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999).
Grossman, Allen. The Long Schoolroom (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997).
Irwin, John T.Hart Crane’s Poetry: “Appollinaire Lived in Paris, I Live in Cleveland, Ohio” (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011).
Keller, Lynn. Thinking Poetry: Readings in Contemporary Women’s Exploratory Poetics (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2010).
Kellogg, David. “The Self in the Poetic Field,” Fence 3:2 (2001): 97–108.
Keniston, Anne. Overheard Voices: Address and Subjectivity in Postmodern American Poetry (New York: Routledge, 2006).
Martin, Robert K.The Homosexual Tradition in American Poetry (1979; Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1998).
Nealon, Christopher. Foundlings: Lesbian and Gay Historical Emotion Before Stonewall (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2001).
Perelman, Bob. The Marginalization of Poetry: Language Writing and Literary History (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996).
Perloff, Marjorie. 21st-Century Modernism: The “New” Poetics (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002).
Rasula, Jed. Syncopations: The Stress of Innovation in Contemporary American Poetry (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2004).
Reed, Brian. Hart Crane: After His Lights (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2006).
Vendler, Helen. Soul Says: On Recent Poetry (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995).
Wallace, Mark, and Steven Marks (eds.). Avant-Garde Poetics of the 1990s: Telling It Slant (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2002).