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    Jin, Xiaobin Cao, Xue Du, Xindong Yang, Xuhong Bai, Qing and Zhou, Yinkang 2015. Farmland dataset reconstruction and farmland change analysis in China during 1661–1985. Journal of Geographical Sciences, Vol. 25, Issue. 9, p. 1058.

    JO, SAM-SANG 2015. The Blind Men, the Elephant, and Regional Order in Northeast Asia: Towards a New Conceptualization. Japanese Journal of Political Science, Vol. 16, Issue. 04, p. 507.

    Nordin, Astrid H. M. 2015. A reply to Xu Changfu’s ‘Why do we need practical wisdom?’. Global Discourse, Vol. 5, Issue. 4, p. 534.

    Wang, Hsien-Chun 2015. MERCHANTS, MANDARINS, AND THE RAILWAY: INSTITUTIONAL FAILURE AND THE WUSONG RAILWAY, 1874–1877. International Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 12, Issue. 01, p. 31.

    Eckaus, Richard S. 2014. On and off China's turnpike. Economics of Transition, Vol. 22, Issue. 4, p. 727.

    Diener, Alexander C. and Hagen, Joshua 2013. City of felt and concrete: Negotiating cultural hybridity in Mongolia's capital of Ulaanbaatar. Nationalities Papers, Vol. 41, Issue. 4, p. 622.

    HAO, TIANHU 2012. Milton in Late-Qing China (1837-1911) and the Production of Cross-Cultural Knowledge1. Milton Quarterly, Vol. 46, Issue. 2, p. 86.

    Chen, Li 2009. Law, Empire, and Historiography of Modern Sino-Western Relations: A Case Study of the Lady Hughes Controversy in 1784. Law and History Review, Vol. 27, Issue. 01, p. 1.

    Lu, Wei Ji, Xu-dong and Aiken, Max 2009. Governmental influences in the development of Chinese accounting during the modern era. Accounting, Business & Financial History, Vol. 19, Issue. 3, p. 305.

    Hao, Yen-p'ing 1982. Entrepreneurship and the West in East Asian Economic and Business History. Business History Review, Vol. 56, Issue. 02, p. 149.

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Book description

This is the first of two volumes in this major Cambridge history dealing with the decline of the Ch'ing empire. It opens with a survey of the Ch'ing empire in China and Inner Asia at its height, in about 1800. Contributors study the complex interplay of foreign invasion, domestic rebellion and Ch'ing decline and restoration. Special reference is made to the Peking administration, the Canton trade and the early treaty system, the Taiping, Nien and other rebellions, and the dynasty's survival in uneasy cooperation with the British, Russian, French, American and other invaders. Each chapter is written by a specialist from the international community of sinological scholars. No knowledge of Chinese is necessary; for readers with Chinese, proper names and terms are identified with their characters in the glossary, and full references to Chinese, Japanese and other works are given in the bibliographies. Numerous maps illustrate the text, and there are a bibliographical essays describing the source materials on which each author's account is based.

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  • 1 - Introduction: the old order
    pp 1-34
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    This introductory chapter provides an overview of the key themes discussed in this book. The studies in the book are committed to being past minded as well as present-minded, and therefore to reconstructing the views, motives and historical understanding of people at the time when events occurred. Since China's historical consciousness has changed in the process of revolution, it is imperative to understand the Chinese self-image under the old order as well as the conditions of life then. Such an investigation, once undertaken, begins to fill out the picture of imperialism. From a unilateral force which overwhelms China from the outside, it becomes a result of interaction, and as this interaction between China and the outside world is studied further, imperialism as a generality breaks down into a variety of factors and circumstances. It appears first that Chinese society was enormous in mass and extremely various in its local conditions. Foreign relations were a marginal concern.
  • 2 - Ch'ing Inner Asia c. 1800
    pp 35-106
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    In the nineteenth century Ch'ing Inner Asia commenced being slowly absorbed into an expanding China and began to come under the influence of Han Chinese culture. After the Muslim rebellions great changes began to take place in Manchuria, Mongolia, Sinkiang and Tibet, and the history of Ch'ing Inner Asia took on an unmistakeably modern look. It was the Manchus who laid the groundwork for the sinicization of China's Inner Asian frontier. Manchurian tribesmen, Mongols, Tibetans, Turkic-speaking Muslims and all bannermen were omitted from the tax registers of the Ch'ing empire. Despite considerable Han Chinese immigration into Manchuria, part of Inner Mongolia, Tsinghai and northern Sinkiang, the government's basic policy was that the Han population should remain in China proper. In theory, the imperial government expected its Inner Asian dependencies and provinces to be self-supporting. With government consent, Han farmers tilled fields in Fengtien, Tsinghai, the fringes of eastern Kham and Zungharia. The Chinese prefectural administrative system had followed them.
  • 3 - Dynastic decline and the roots of rebellion
    pp 107-162
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    An image of dynastic decline also emerges in the late Ch'ing period from the exploitation, careerism and inefficiency of local government, all spurs to popular rebellion. Certainly the most striking feature of Chinese social history in late imperial and modern times has been the phenomenal rise in population. The primary path to upward mobility in Ming and Ch'ing times was through education and the civil service examination system. Pressure upon existing channels of social mobility undoubtedly contributed to the characteristic pattern of political behaviour in Ch'ing China, the patronage network, in which patron-client relationships were made to bear more than their usual burden in the workings of the government. Grain tribute was one of the three great superintendencies administered by the central government in the provinces, the others being the salt monopoly and the Yellow River Conservancy. The concern of early nineteenth-century literati like Wei Yüan with the problems of frontier defence had a solid base in the eighteenth-century experience.
  • 4 - The Canton trade and the Opium War
    pp 163-212
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    Ch'ing emperors viewed the Canton trade as an important source of personal profit. The Cohong's capital came from profits earned by selling tea and textiles to monopoly trading organizations like the British East India Company (EIC). The EIC used the silver to continue purchasing the vast quantities of tea which it sold in England. Three developments altered this balanced system of economic interests: the increasingly private corruption of the Ch'ing customs superintendents, the growing credit instability of the Anglo-Chinese monopolists, and the rise of the free trade in opium. The creation of the Consoo Fund inaugurated the last great phase of the Canton trade, from 1780 to 1833. The Act of 1833 which abolished the EIC monopoly also provided for the appointment of a British superintendent of trade in Canton. When the Ch'ing dynasty reacted paralytically to the first shots of the Opium War, news of the crisis was reaching England.
  • 5 - The creation of the treaty system
    pp 213-263
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    The two decades of the 1840s and 1850s constituted the first phase of a new order in China's foreign relations. From the Western point of view, it was a creative and beginning phase in which an institutional structure was gradually worked out. Later phases saw the treaty system grow into a more and more important element in the Chinese state and society. From the modern Chinese point of view, the treaties were vehicles of imperialist invasion. In the third generation from the 1890s to the 1920s the foreign influences transmitted primarily through the treaty ports became an invading flood that contributed heavily to the disruption and transformation of China's traditional state and society. During the 1840s and 1850s Canton and Shanghai were the major ports. The British government, having opened China by force, was the active party in the creation of the treaty port structure. By the early 1860s the treaty system's potentialities were becoming evident.
  • 6 - The Taiping Rebellion
    pp 264-317
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    The Taiping Rebellion (1851-64) was in many respects the hinge between China's pre-modern and modern histories. Liang's tract was the only textual source for Hung Hsiu-ch'üan's religious vision, and probably the only source before 1847, when Hung obtained a translation of the Bible. Its contents are therefore of particular importance for the history of the Taiping Rebellion. Yang and Hsiao in particular developed the implications of Hung's visions by establishing their own positions as spokesmen of Jehovah and Jesus. The Taipings soon launched a crusade northward towards the economic heartland of China - the rich provinces of the lower Yangtze valley. It was during the crusade to Nanking that the Taiping Kingdom transformed itself from a relatively small, provincial rebellion into a vast movement that swept up treasure and recruits from broad reaches of central China. The social processes underlying the early Nien movement remain one of the most underdeveloped research areas in nineteenth-century history.
  • 7 - Sino-Russian relations, 1800–62
    pp 318-350
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    Sino-Russian trade continued through periodic fairs. On Sinkiang's north-western border there was also, by 1800, an illicit Sino-Russian trade at Kulja and Tarbagatai. No account of nineteenth-century Sino-Russian relations would be complete without mention of Russia's other non-tributary door to China, the ecclesiastical mission of the Russian Orthodox Church. International politics became increasingly mixed with Russian efforts in central Asian trade. The Russian government's only real disappointment in the Treaty of Kulja had been the Ch'ing government's unwillingness to open Kashgar to Russian trade. The Ch'ing dynasty continued in its half-hearted resolve to preserve the Manchu character of the Manchurian frontier, but Han Chinese immigrants continued to pour in, so the government, reflecting on Manchuria's resources, instituted a policy of Manchu immigration. In terms of its total value, however, the Sino-Russian border trade at Kiakhta continued through the nineteenth century to occupy the leading place. The balance of Sino-Russian trade as a whole leaned in China's favour.
  • 8 - The heyday of the Ch'ing order in Mongolia, Sinkiang and Tibet
    pp 351-408
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    In Inner Asia, the first half of the nineteenth century witnessed the heyday of the Ch'ing order. The growth of the Mongolian monastic establishment and the penetration of Han Chinese influence advanced quickly in Inner than in Outer Mongolia. In 1820, the statecraft scholar Kung Tzu-chen published two essays, one arguing for the conversion of Sinkiang into a province and the other pressing for the termination of the trade at Canton. The Ch'ing government believed that its Kokand policy had been a success, and it seems even to have been understood in Kokand that the khan had an obligation to assist the Ch'ing 'in case of any insurrection in Chinese Tartary in future'. The 'unequal treaty' system in Altishahr appeared to have produced at last that very tranquillity for which Ch'ing policymakers had striven for so long. In Tibet, it had been the Ch'ing emperor's desire to make himself patron of the Yellow church, to which the Mongols also belonged.
  • 9 - The Ch'ing Restoration
    pp 409-490
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    In historical perspective, the Ch'ing restoration was perhaps even more remarkable than that of the T'ang. The philosophical basis of Tseng Kuo-fan's outlook was the Ch'eng-Chu doctrine regarding the 'proper place' (fen) for each of the myriad things. The three years 1859-61, which saw a resurgence of Taiping power, also saw Ch'ing policy towards the Europeans turn from belligerence to appeasement, partly as a result of a change in the decision-making personnel at court in a power struggle that attended the accession of a child monarch. The transition to the T'ung-chih reign probably made little difference in the policy of employing Han Chinese in key provincial posts. During the eighteen years from the outbreak of the Taiping Rebellion to the end of the Nien War, the metropolitan examinations as well as the chü-jen examinations held at Peking were not once suspended.
  • 10 - Self-strengthening: the pursuit of Western technology
    pp 491-542
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    As first proposed in the aftermath of the Anglo-French occupation of Peking in 1860, self-strengthening was part of a new Ch'ing foreign policy that emphasized conciliation with the European powers and the acceptance of the treaty system. In Peking the chief advocates of self-strengthening were the two Manchu leaders who bore responsibility for dealing with the European invaders. Prince Kung and Wen-hsiang realized, first of all, that Sino-Western contacts were unavoidable and that a great deal might be gained through careful diplomacy. Interest of Tseng Kuo-fan, Li Hung-chang and Tso Tsung-t'ang in Western technology was directly inspired by the civil war. Tseng's idea of self-strengthening was broader than merely adopting Western technology. Like Tseng, Tso believed that the policy of self-strengthening should include improvement in government administration and a more rigorous system for military training. The application of Western technology to transportation and industry within China had begun to shift the focus of effort from defence to industrialization.
  • 11 - Christian missions and their impact to 1900
    pp 543-590
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    The missionary enterprise in modern China was only one manifestation of an effort that was world-wide in scope. This effort was fed from a number of diverse streams - religious, cultural and national. Christianity had always been a religion with universalist pretensions and hence missionary potential. In 1773, one of the most powerful institutional supports of Christian missions, the Society of Jesus, over 450 of whose members had laboured in China since the time of Ricci, was dissolved by papal order. The treaties negotiated between China and the Western powers after the Opium War contained no provisions specifically relating to Christian missions. The Sino-French treaties established, in broad outline, the legal framework within which Catholic missions would operate for the remainder of the century. As a result of the most-favoured-nation clauses, Protestant missionaries also benefited from the new order. The new treaties provided the legal preconditions for the unprecedented growth experienced by the missionary movement after 1860.
  • Bibliographical essays
    pp 591-614
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    This bibliographical essay is a comprehensive listing of scholarship present in chapters of the book. It helps readers to move quickly to a basic understanding of the literature analyzed. For the introductory chapter of the book, the most recent background study, with selected bibliography, is Charles O. Hucker, China's imperial past: an introduction to Chinese history and culture. The most accessible general bibliography of works in European languages is Denis Sinor, comp. Introduction à I'èitude de I'Eurasie centrale, but Ch'ing Inner Asia 1800-62 is very lightly represented. A bibliography of Chinese scholarship is Chang Hsing-t'ang, comp. Meng-ku ts'an-k'ao shu-mu. A bibliography of Japanese Mongolian studies is Iwamura Shinobu and Fujieda Akira, comps. Mongoru kenkyū bunken mokuroku (1900-1972): Bibliography of Mongolia for 1900-19/2. For more specific topical guidance to secondary works in all languages, consult G. W. Skinner's Modern Chinese society: an analytic bibliography.

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

RobertH. G. Lee The Manchurian frontier in Ch'ing history. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970.

G. William Skinner . ‘Marketing and social structure in rural China’. Journal of Asian Studies, (Nov. 1964), 24.2 (Feb. 1965), 24.3 (May 1965).

Gunnar Jarring . ‘A note on Shamanism in Eastern Turkestan’. Ethnos, 1961, nos. 1–2.

Sh. Natsagdorj (Š;. Nacagdorž). ‘The economic basis of feudalism in Mongolia’, tr. Owen Lattimore . Modern Asian Studies, 1.3 (1967).

LawrenceD. Kessler Ethnic composition of provincial leadership during the Ch'ing dynasty’. Journal of Asian Studies, 28.3 (May 1969).

PeterM. Mitchell The limits of reformism: Wei Yüan's reaction to Western intrusion'. Modern Asian Studies, 6.2 (April 1972).

Kwang-Ching Liu . ‘The Confucian as patriot and pragmatist: Li Hung-chang's formative years, 1823–1866’. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 30 (1970).

Frank H. H. King Money and monetary policy in China, 1845–1895, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1965.

Knight Biggerstaff . ‘Shanghai Polytechnic Institution and Reading Room: an attempt to introduce Western science and technology to the Chinese’. Pacific Historical Review, 25.2 (May 1956).

William Ayers . Chang Chih-tung and educational reform in China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971.

Masataka Banno . China and the West 1858–1861: the origins of the Tsungli Yamen. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1964.

Knight Biggerstaff . ‘The secret correspondence of 1867–1868: the views of leading Chinese statesmen regarding the further opening of China to Western influence’. Journal of Modern History, 22 (1950) 127–49.

Derk Bodde and Clarence Morris . Law in imperial China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967.

Hao Chang . Liang Ch'i-ch'ao and intellectual transition in China, 1890–1907. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971.

Jerome Ch'en . ‘The Hsien-feng inflation’. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 21 (1958) 578–86.

Hungdah Chiu . ‘Comparison of the Nationalist and Communist Chinese views of unequal treaties’ in J. A. Cohen , ed. China's practice of international law: some case studies. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972.

PaulA. Cohen China and Christianity: the missionary movement and the growth of Chinese antiforeignism, 1860–1870. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1963.

PaulA. Cohen Littoral and hinterland in nineteenth-century China: the “Christian” reformers’ in J. K. Fairbank , ed. The missionary enterprise in China and America. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1974.

Britten Dean . ‘Sino-British diplomacy in the 1860s: the establishment of the British concession at Hankow’. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 32 (1972) 71–96.

LloydE. Eastman Ch'ing-i and Chinese policy formation during the nineteenth century’. Journal of Asian Studies, 24.4 (1965) 595–611.

JohnK. Fairbank Patterns behind the Tientsin Massacre’. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 20 (1957) 480–511.

JohnK. Fairbank , ed. The Chinese world order. Traditional China's foreign relations. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968.

JohnK. Fairbank , ed. The missionary enterprise in China and America. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1974.

EdwardV. Gulick Peter Parker and the opening of China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1973.

Yen-p'ing Hao . The comprador in nineteenth century China: bridge between East and West. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970.

HaroldC. Hinton The grain tribute system of the Ch'ing dynasty’. Far Eastern Quarterly and Journal of Asian Studies, 11.3 (May 1952) 339–54.

Ping-ti Ho . Studies on the population of China, 1368–1953. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1959.

Ping-ti Ho . ‘The significance of the Ch'ing period in Chinese history’. Journal of Asian Studies, 26.2 (Feb. 1967) 189–95.

Immanuel C. Y. Hsü China's entrance into the family of nations: the diplomatic phase 1858–1880. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960.

Ch'ang-t'u Hu . ‘The Yellow River administration in the Ch'ing dynasty’. Far Eastern Quarterly and Journal of Asian Studies, 14.4 (Aug. 1955) 505–13.

William Hung . ‘Huang Tsun-hsien's poem “The closure of the educational mission in America” translated and annotated’. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 18 (1955) 50–73.

IrwinT. Hyatt Jr. Our ordered lives confess: three 19th century missionaries in east Shantung. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1976.

BlairB. Kling The origin of the managing agency system in India’. Journal of Asian Studies 26.1 (Nov. 1966) 37–48.

JaneKate Leonard . ‘Chinese overlordship and Western penetration in maritime Asia: a late Ch'ing reappraisal of Chinese maritime relations’. Modern Asian Studies, 6.2 (April 1972) 151–74.

Kwang-Ching Liu . ‘Early Christian colleges in China’. Journal of Asian Studies, 20.1 (Nov. 1960) 71–8.

Kwang-Ching Liu . Americans and Chinese: a historical essay and a bibliography. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1963.

ThomasA. Metzger The internal organisation of Ch'ing bureaucracy: legal, normative, and communication aspects. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1973.

Rhoads Murphey . Shanghai, key to modern China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1953.

David Pong . ‘The income and military expenditure of Kiangsi Province in the last years (1860–1864) of the Taiping Rebellion’. Journal of Asian Studies, 26.1 (Nov. 1966) 49–65.

JohnL. Rawlinson China's struggle for naval development, 1839–1895. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967.

EvelynSakakida Rawski . Agricultural change and the peasant economy of south China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972.

W. W. Rockhill The Delhi Lamas of Lhasa and their relations with the Manchu emperors of China, 1644–1908’. T'oung pao, 11 (1910) 1–104.

Louis M. J. Schram The Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan frontier, pt III. Records of the Monguor Clans: history of the Monguors in Huangchung and the chronicles of the Lu Family’, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, NS, vol. 51 (May 1861) pt 3, pp. 1–117.

Han-yin Chen Shen . ‘Tseng Kuo-fan in Peking, 1840–1852: his ideas on state-craft and reform’. Journal of Asian Studies, 27.1 (Nov. 1967) 61–80.

Ssu-yü Teng and JohnK. Fairbank , comp. China's response to the West, a documentary survey 1839–1923. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1954; paper reprint, New York: Atheneum, 1969.

Yeh-chien Wang . Land and taxation in imperial China, 1750–1911. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1973.

J. Y. Wong The Arrow incident: a reappraisal’. Modern Asian Studies, 8.3 (1974) 373–89.

J. Y. Wong Harry Parkes and the Arrow War in China’. Modern Asian Studies, 9.3 (1975) 303–20.

Silas H. L. Wu Communication and imperial control in China; evolution of the palace memorial system, 1693–1735. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970.

Lien-sheng Yang . ‘Female rulers in imperial China’. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 23 (1960–1) 47–61.


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