Skip to main content
The Cambridge History of China
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 7
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    MacFarquhar, Roderick 2012. Stuart Reynolds Schram, 1924–2012. The China Quarterly, Vol. 212, p. 1099.

    Gong, Fang and Li, Jun 2010. Seeking excellence in the move to a mass system: Institutional responses of key Chinese comprehensive universities. Frontiers of Education in China, Vol. 5, Issue. 4, p. 477.

    Luo, Mengyu 2016. Cultural policy and revolutionary music during China’s Cultural Revolution: the case of the Shanghai Symphony Orchestra. International Journal of Cultural Policy, p. 1.

    Goodman, David S. G. 2009. Sixty years of the People's Republic: local perspectives on the evolution of the state in China. The Pacific Review, Vol. 22, Issue. 4, p. 429.

    Zhao, Jingsong McCormick, John and Hoekman, Katherine 2008. Idiocentrism‐allocentrism and academics' self‐efficacy for research in Beijing universities. International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 22, Issue. 2, p. 168.

    Changfu, Xu 2015. Why do we need practical wisdom? A Chinese lesson in the process of globalisation. Global Discourse, Vol. 5, Issue. 4, p. 519.

    Zhouxiang, Lu 2013. From Hongkew Recreation Ground to Bird's Nest: The Past, Present and Future of Large Sports Venues in China. The International Journal of the History of Sport, Vol. 30, Issue. 4, p. 422.

  • Volume 15: The People's Republic, Part 2: Revolutions within the Chinese Revolution, 1966–1982
  • Edited by Roderick MacFarquhar, Harvard University, Massachusetts , John K. Fairbank, Harvard University, Massachusetts

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge History of China
    • Online ISBN: 9781139054829
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Volume 15 of The Cambridge History of China is the second of two volumes dealing with the People's Republic of China since its birth in 1949. The harbingers of the Cultural Revolution were analyzed in Volume 14 and Volume 15 traces a course of events still only partially understood by most Chinese. It begins by analysing the development of Mao's thought since the Communist seizure of power, and, in doing so, attempts to understand why he launched the movement. The contributors grapple with the conflict of evidence between what was said favourably about the Cultural Revolution at the time and the often diametrically opposed retrospective accounts. Volume 15, together with Volume 14, provides the most comprehensive and clearest account of how revolutionary China has developed in response to the upheavals initiated by Mao and Teng Hsiao-p'ing.


    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
  • 1 - Mao Tse-tung's thought from 1949 to 1976
    pp 1-104
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Like Lenin, Mao Tse-tung, on coming to power, continued to develop his ideas in a context different from that within which he had operated while in opposition. One important constant in the development of Mao Tse-tung's thought was his concern to adapt Marxism, or Marxism-Leninism, to the economic and social reality of a backward agrarian country, and to the heritage of the Chinese past, which for Mao was no less real. This chapter first quotes a passage about Stalin's propensity to exterminate his critics. Following on from this, Mao developed, under the heading of eliminating counterrevolutionaries, a comparison between China and the Soviet Union as regarded the use and abuse of revolutionary violence. Mao drastically changed his position regarding the nature of the contradictions in Chinese society during the summer of 1957. The consequences of this shift for economic policy have already been explored, and some of its implications in the philosophic domain have also been evoked.
  • 2 - The Chinese state in crisis
    pp 105-217
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter is a history of the first three and a half years of the Cultural Revolution, from its initial stirrings in late 1965 to the convocation of the Ninth National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in April 1969. These three and a half years encompass several shorter periods. First, there was the growing confrontation between Mao Tse-tung and the Party establishment from the fall of 1965 to the summer of the following year. The second period, from the Eleventh Plenum through the end of 1966, was one in which Mao's assault on the Party establishment spread across the country, with the Red Guards now its major instrument. The Red Guard movement drew on many of the socioeconomic cleavages and grievances, particularly the tension between class background and academic performance as criteria for success in China's educational system. During the third period, from January 1967 until mid-1968, Mao ordered that political power be seized from the discredited Party establishment.
  • 3 - China confronts the Soviet Union: warfare and diplomacy on China's Inner Asian frontiers
    pp 218-302
    • By Thomas Robinson, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This chapter suggests that even with a near absence of foreign relations, in reality China was responding to the combined influence of well-understood domestic and international pressures. Chinese foreign policy during the Cultural Revolution showed what the costs were when the Party elected to run the risk of violating several of the cardinal principles of its own policy and of international systemic behavior. The chapter specifies the foreign policy origins of the Cultural Revolution under three aspects: the broadening, particularly in the mind of Mao Tse-tung, of the issue of ideological revisionism from Sino-Soviet relations to the Chinese domestic political and socioeconomic arena; the alleged delay of the Cultural Revolution necessitated by the American military intervention in Vietnam and the debate over the appropriate Chinese response; and the influence of these and other foreign policy issues on interpersonal relations among top Party leaders. All are textbook examples of the complex intermingling of foreign and domestic factors.
  • 4 - The succession to Mao and the end of Maoism
    pp 303-401
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution was an attempt to shape the future of China. The issues of party building and the reconstruction of state institutions basically were about power. There also seems to have been one issue of policy dividing Mao Tse-tung and Lin Piao, although it is given less attention in Chinese sources: the opening to America. The beneficiaries of the Cultural Revolution were those officials who had risen as a result of the purge of their seniors, as well as through their own ability to manipulate the turbulent politics of the late 1960s and early 1970s. In the immediate aftermath of the fall of Lin Piao, these were principally military figures: Hsu Shih-yu, Ch'en Hsi-lien, Li Te-sheng, and Wang Tung-hsing; but they also included a civilian cadre, Chi Teng-k'uei, who was involved in the post-Lin cleanup and would achieve increasing prominence.
  • 5 - The opening to America
    pp 402-472
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Among the legacies of the era of Mao Tse-tung, the opening to the United States ranks as one of the most important. More than any other foreign policy initiative in Mao's twenty-seven years in power, the Sino-American accommodation reflected the Chairman's determination to establish China's legitimacy among the world's major powers. This chapter first explains the character of foreign policy decision making during the period of 1970s and 1980s, and how it influenced the opportunities for policy change. The opening to America reflected longer-term strategic developments that directly affected Peking's security calculations. Then, it explores some of the connections between Lin Piao's declining fortunes at home and the success of Mao and Chou in building a relationship with the United States. The chapter also reviews the events that prompted China's strategic reassessment in the aftermath of the Cultural Revolution.
  • 6 - China's economic policy and performance
    pp 473-539
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Few really new economic ideas or policies were put forward during the Cultural Revolution decade, 1966-76. China's economic strategy emphasizing machinery and steel was virtually a carbon copy of Stalin's development strategy for Russia in the 1930s. Before turning to China's development strategy in the Cultural Revolution period, one must first deal with the argument that China had no coherent strategy in the period, because the country was in continual chaos. Politics, of course, was frequently chaotic, but the question here is whether politics regularly spilled over into the economy, causing work stoppages and worse. China's basic industrial development strategy was set in the 1st Five-Year Plan, of 1953-57. In terms of sectoral growth strategies, China had made a significant move in the direction of the strategy that had proved so successful among its East Asian neighbors.
  • 7 - Education
    pp 540-593
    • By Suzanne Pepper, Universities Field Staff International, Hong Kong
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    Education emerged as both a means and an end during the Cultural Revolution decade. School-system reform was one of the movement's ultimate aims. Because in retrospect the dual nature of education's role was often confused, this chapter distinguishes between the mobilization phase, which launched the movement, and the consolidation phase, aimed at institutionalizing the "revolution in education" thereafter. Initially, as indicated, the Party organization had tried to concentrate the movement on intellectual matters and educational reform. As the movement escalated out of the Party's control, Mao's educational principles provided the basis for the criticism of teachers and of the struggle objects. The question of actually transforming the education system was then thrust into the background as the Red Guards moved out into society to bring down the power holders everywhere. Educational reform itself belonged to the consolidation phase of the movement and thus had to await the dampening of factional conflict.
  • 8 - Creativity and politics
    pp 594-616
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The Cultural Revolution confirmed the close relation between artistic creation and political life, but also showed that variations in the relation were possible. Severe ideological attacks on particular writers and the complete reorganization of the cultural bureaucracy almost suffocated literary life. This chapter describes the political interference in literary life and the changes in the literary system. For political and ideological reasons, including those provided by the Shanghai Forum, the Cultural Revolution was hostile to literary creation. The ideological criticism of Wu Han and Teng T'o appeared to be a political instrument to eliminate the political enemies of Mao Tse-tung and Lin Piao. Because of internal dissent and external pressures, the Cultural Revolution Group never had the authority to give effective guidance to literary and artistic production and, except in the case of the promotion of modern Peking Opera on revolutionary themes, its interference in artistic life led nowhere.
  • 9 - The countryside under communism
    pp 617-681
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The ironies occasioned by a coercive family planning program being carried out alongside a liberalization in the rural economy illustrate how difficult it is to assess how the peasantry may have evaluated the complex historical changes. Traditionally, peasants' ideas and feelings about the meaning of life and the fundamental dictates of morality had been textured, explained, and justified through an elaborate religious system. Patterns of work, community, and cultural life differed sharply between city and countryside. Peasants' evaluations of the changes in their modes of social life may have entailed less of a tension between positive and negative judgments than their evaluations of political and economic life, because the patterns of their social life did not change as drastically as their political economy. The Communists' attempts at socialist transformation were most successful precisely when they built their new organizations for collective agriculture closely around the traditional social ecology of the countryside.
  • 10 - Urban life in the People's Republic
    pp 682-742
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The Chinese Communists attempted to transform urban institutions and social life in fundamental ways. This chapter discusses general trends and impressions about Chinese urban life, with a focus on the larger cities and occasional efforts to note the diversity of reactions of urban groups. The tempo of life in the early years varied. The years through 1952 were ones of novelty and disruption, with campaigns to remake society disturbing orderly work and study routines. In 1957 and then in the ensuing Great Leap Forward the tempo began to change back toward campaign mobilizations once again, and China was plunged into first a political and then an economic crisis. This chapter comments on Cultural Revolution's impact on people's lives and feelings. The Cultural Revolution produced a drastic disruption of urban social order. The legacy of crime and juvenile delinquency spawned by the Cultural Revolution carried over into the post-Mao period, producing continued popular anxieties.
  • 11 - Literature under communism
    pp 743-812
    • By Cyril Birch, The University of California, Berkeley
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    During China's past three decades, literature under communism has stocked the cultural desert of the Chinese countryside with nourishment of a kind. It has provided heroes, role models, lessons in practical socialism. A number of established poets who had spent the war and postwar years in the Kuomintang-controlled areas of China made attempts, following the establishment of the People's Republic, to bring their work into accord with the new spirit of the age. By an irony of history, precisely the years during which literary creation was most rigidly fettered on the mainland were a time of the most vigorous new activity in Taiwan. The death of Mao and the overthrow of the Gang of Four opened the floodgates to literary creation in all genres. One of the themes of post-Mao writing was the private values of personal life. The proper place of love in socialist life, the damage done by love's denial.
  • 12 - Taiwan under Nationalist rule, 1949–1982
    pp 813-874
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    The changes in material conditions and attitudes of the people of Taiwan during the fifty years of Japanese rule affected in important ways the subsequent development of Taiwan under the Nationalists. During the late 1940s and early 1950s the Nationalist government adopted a number of economic, political, and social measures that moderated the strains between mainlanders and Taiwanese. Land reform made a vital contribution to Taiwan's notable economic development, but it was adopted initially as much for political as for economic reasons. During the 1970s Taiwan's ability to survive in a hostile environment was tested more severely than at any time since the late 1940s. It suffered heavy blows to its international position and to its economy. Its ability to surmount these challenges and continue to advance and prosper testified to the soundness of the political and economic systems established in previous decades by Taiwan's governing elite.
  • Bibliographical essays
    pp 889-938
  • DOI:
  • View abstract
    This bibliography contains a list of reference materials and works related to the history of China. China's central authorities attempted to maintain order during the Cultural Revolution by issuing a series of central directives and by circulating major speeches by national leaders. The available historical materials shed little light on deliberations over foreign policy or on the relationship between domestic and international politics, especially in periods of intense leadership conflict. Research and publications dealing with China's economic reforms of the 1980s is ongoing just as the reforms themselves are ongoing. Work on economic policy and performance during the Cultural Revolution period is also in its infancy. Sources about intellectual life during the Cultural Revolution can be divided into the following categories: Chinese sources published in China, Chinese sources published outside China, sources in English published in China, and sources in English and other languages published outside China.

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Marc J. Blecher , and Gordon White . Micropolitics in contemporary China: a technical unit during and after the Cultural Revolution.White Plains, N. Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1979.

W. A. C. Adie , “Chou En-lai on safari,” China Quarterly, 18 (April-June 1964)

Byung-joon Ahn . “The Cultural Revolution and China's search for political order.China Quarterly, 58 (April-June 1974), 249–85.

Byung-joon Ahn . “The political economy of the People's Commune in China: changes and continuities.Journal of Asian Studies, 34.3 (May 1975), 631–58.

Henry S. Albinski Chinese and Soviet policies in the Vietnam crisis.Australian Quarterly, 40.1 (March 1968), 65–74.

Judith Banister . “Mortality, fertility, and contraceptive use in Shanghai.China Quarterly, 70 (June 1977), 254–95.

Marianne Bastid . “Economic necessity and political ideals in educational reform during the Cultural Revolution.China Quarterly, 42 (April-June 1970), 16–45.

Richard Baum . “China: year of the mangoes.Asian Survey, 9.1 (January 1969), 1–17.

Cyril Birch . “Fiction of the Yenan period.China Quarterly, 4 (October-December 1960), 1–11.

Philip Bridgham . “Mao's Cultural Revolution: origin and development.China Quarterly, 29 (January-March 1967), 1–35.

Philip Bridgham . “Mao's Cultural Revolution: the struggle to seize power.China Quarterly, 34 (April-June 1968), 6–37.

Philip Bridgham . “Mao's Cultural Revolution: the struggle to consolidate power.China Quarterly, 41 (January–March 1970), 1–25.

Philip Bridgham . “The fall of Lin Piao.China Quarterly, 55 (July-September 1973), 427–29.

Barry Burton . “The Cultural Revolution's ultraleft conspiracy: the ‘May 16 Group.’Asian Survey, 11.11 (November 1971), 1029–53.

Kam Wing Chan and Xueqiang Xu . “Urban population growth and urbanization in China since 1949: reconstructing a baseline.China Quarterly, 104 (December 1985). 583–613.

Anita Chan . Children of Mao: a study of politically active Chinese youths.London: Macmillan; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1985, with subtitle Personality development and political activism in the Red Guard generation.

Anita Chan . “Images of China's social structure: the changing perspectives of Canton students.World Politics, 34.3 (April 1982), 295–323.

Anita Chan ; Stanley Rosen ; and Jonathan Unger . “Students and class warfare:the social roots of the Red Guard conflict in Guangzhou.China Quarterly, 83 (September 1980), 397–446.

King C. Chen Hanoi vs. Peking: policies and relations - a survey.Asian Survey, 12.9 (September 1972), 807–17.

John Chinnery . “Lu Xun and contemporary Chinese literature.China Quarterly, 91 (September 1982), 411–23.

Paul Clark . “Film-making in China: from the Cultural Revolution to 1981.China Quarterly, 94 (June 1983), 304–22.

Ralph N. Clough Island China.Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978.

Jerome Alan Cohen . The criminal process in the People's Republic of China, 1949–1963: an introduction.Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968.

G. P. Deshpande China and Vietnam.International Studies, 12.4 (October December 1973), 568–81.

Norma Diamond . “Rural collectivization and decolléctivization in China: a review article.Journal of Asian Studies, 44.4 (August 1985), 785–92.

Richard K. Diao The impact of the Cultural Revolution on China's economic elite.China Quarterly, 42 (April-June 1970), 65–87.

Lowell Dittmer . “Bases of power in Chinese politics: a theory and an analysis of the fall of the ‘Gang of Four.’World Politics, 31.1 (October 1978).

Jürgen Domes . “The Cultural Revolution and the army.Asian Survey, 8.5 (May 1968), 349–63.

Jürgen Domes . “The role of the military in the formation of revolutionary committees, 1967–68.China Quarterly, 44 (October-December 1970), 112–45.

Jürgen Domes . “New policies in the communes: notes on rural societal structures in China, 197–1981.Journal of Asian Studies, 41.2 (February 1982), 253–67.

Arthur J. Dommen The attempted coup in Indonesia.China Quarterly, 25 (January March 1966), 144–70.

Jerrold F. Elkin , and Brian Fredericks . “Sino-Indian border talks: the view from New Delhi.Asian Survey, 23.10 (October 1983), 1128–39.

Joseph W. Esherick On the ‘restoration of capitalism’: Mao and Marxist theory.Modern China, 5.1 (January 1979), 41–77.

Shinkichi Eto . “Recent developments in Sino-Japanese relations.Asian Survey, 20.7 (July 1980), 726–743.

John K. Fairbank , ed. The missionary enterprise in China and America.Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1974.

Victor Falkenheim . “The Cultural Revolution in Kwangsi, Yunnan, and Fukien.Asian Survey, 9.8 (August 1969), 580–97.

Yi-tsi Mei Feuerwerker . Ding Ling's fiction: ideology and narrative in modern Chinese literature.Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982.

Gardel Feurtado . “The formation of provincial revolutionary committees, 1966–1968: Heilungkiang and Hopei.Asian Survey, 12.12 (December 1972), 1014–31.

Douwe W. Fokkema Chinese criticism of humanism: campaign against the intellectuals, 1964–66.China Quarterly, 26 (April-June 1966), 68–81.

John Gardner . Chinese politics and the succession to Mao.London: Macmillan, 1982.

John Gittings . “The Chinese army's role in the Cultural Revolution.Pacific Affairs, 39.3–4 (Fall-Winter 1966–67), 269–89.

W. G. Goddard Formosa: a study in Chinese history.London: Macmillan, 1966.

Harry Harding . “From China, with disdain: new trends in the study of China.Asian Survey, 22.10 (October 1982), 934–58.

William Heaton . “Maoist revolutionary strategy and modern colonization: the Cultural Revolution in Hong Kong.Asian Survey, 10.9 (September 1970), 840–857.

. “The ghost of Empress Lü and Chiang Ch'ing's empress dream.Chinese Studies in History, 12.1 (Fall 1978), 37–54.

Robert A. Holmes Burma's foreign policy toward China since 1962.Pacific Affairs, 45.2 (Summer 1972), 240–54.

Christopher Howe , ed. Shanghai: revolution and development in an Asian metropolis.New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Paul Hyer , and William Heaton . “The Cultural Revolution in Inner Mongolia.China Quarterly, 36 (October-December 1968), 114–28.

W. J. F. Jenner , “1979: a new start for literature in China?China Quarterly, 86 (June 1981).

Irmgard Johnson . “The reform of Peking Opera in Taiwan.China Quarterly, 57 (January-March 1974), 140–45.

Kay Ann Johnson . Women, the family, and peasant revolution in China.Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Penny Kane . Famine in China, 1959–61: demographic and social implications.New York: St. Martin's Press, 1988.

Ying-mao Kau . “The case against Lin Piao.Chinese Law and Government, 5.3–4 (Fall–Winter 1972–73). 3–30.

Roy U. T. Kim Sino-North Korean relations.Asian Survey, 8 (August 1968), 17–25.

Donald W. Klein , and Lois B. Hager The Ninth Central Committee.China Quarterly, 45 (January-March 1971), 37–56.

Nick Knight . “Mao Zedong's On contradiction and On practice: pre-liberation texts.China Quarterly, 84 (December 1980), 641–68.

Ryosei Kokubun . “The politics of foreign economic policy-makingin China: the case of plant cancellations with Japan.China Quarterly, 105 (March 1986), 19–44.

Joseph C. Kun North Korea: between Moscow and Peking.China Quarterly, 31 (July September 1967), 48–58.

Nicholas R. Lardy Economic growth and distribution in China.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.

Nicholas R. Lardy Agriculture in China's modern economic development.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Joseph S. M. Lau ‘How much truth can a blade of grass carry?’: Ch'en Ying-chen and the emergence of native Taiwan writers.Journal of Asian Studies, 32.4 (1973), 623–38.

Joseph S. M. Lau ‘Crowded hours’ revisited: the evocation of the past in Taipeijen.Journal of Asian Studies, 35.1 (1975), 31–47.

W. R. Lavely , “The rural Chinese fertility transition: a report from Shifang Xian, Sichuan,” Population Studies, 38 (1984).

Kenneth G. Lieberthal The foreign policy debate as seen through allegorical articles, 1973–76.China Quarterly, 71 (September 1977), 528–54.

H. Y. Lowe The adventures of Wu: the life cycle of a Peking man. Introduction by Derk Bodde . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1983.

Colin Mackerras . “Chinese opera after the Cultural Revolution (1970–72).China Quarterly, 55 (July-September 1973), 478–510.

Neville Maxwell . “The Chinese account of the 1969 fighting at Chenpao.China Quarterly, 56 (October–December, 1973).

Neville Maxwell . “A note on the Amur/Ussuri sector of the Sino-Soviet boundaries.Modern China, 1.1 (January 1975), 116–26.

Maurice Meisner . “Leninism and Maoism: some populist perspectives on Marxism-Leninism in China.China Quarterly, 45 (January–March 1971), 2–36.

Ronald N. Montaperto , and Jay Henderson , eds. China's schools in flux: report. White Plains, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1979.

Rhoads Murphey . Shanghai: key to modern China.Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1953.

Barry Naughton . “The third front: defence industrialization in the Chinese interior.China Quarterly, 115 (September 1988), 351–86.

Harvey W. Nelsen Military forces in the Cultural Revolution.China Quarterly, 51 (July– September 1972), 444–74.

Harvey W. Nelsen Military bureaucracy in the Cultural Revolution.Asian Survey, 14.4 (April 1974), 372–95.

Charles Neuhauser . “The impact of the Cultural Revolution on the CCP machine.Asian Survey, 8.6 (June 1968), 465–88.

Ralph L. Powell Commissars in the economy: the ‘Learn from the PLA’ movement in China.Asian Survey, 5.3 (March 1965), 125–38.

Albert Ravenholt . “Formosa today.Foreign Affairs, 30.4 (July 1952), 612–24.

Carl Riskin . “Small industry and the Chinese model of development.China Quarterly, 46 (April–June 1971), 245–73.

Thomas W. Robinson The Wuhan Incident: local strife and provincialrebellion during the Cultural Revolution.China Quarterly, 47 (July–September 1971), 413–38.

Thomas W. Robinson China in 1972: socio-economic progress amidst politicaluncertainty.Asian Survey, 13.1 (January 1973), 1–18.

Thomas W. Robinson China in 1973: renewed leftism threatens the ‘NewCourse.’Asian Survey, 14.1 (January 1974), 1–21.

Stanley Rosen . “Obstacles to educational reform in China.Modern China, 8.1 (January 1982), 3–40.

D. R. Sardesar China and peace in Vietnam.China Report, 5.3 (May–June 1969), 13–18.

Stuart [R.] Schram . “Mao Tse-tung and the theory of the permanent revolution, 1958–1969.China Quarterly, 46 (April–June 1971), 221–44.

Stuart R. Schram From the ‘Great Union of the Popular Masses’ to the ‘GreatAlliance.’China Quarterly, 49 (January–March 1972), 88–105.

Stuart [R.] Schram . “Chairman Hua edits Mao's literary heritage: ‘On the tengreat relationships.’China Quarterly, 69 (March 1977), 126–35.

Stuart [R.] Schram . “‘Economics in command?’ Ideology and policy since theThird Plenum, 1978–1984.China Quarterly, 99 (September 1984), 417–61.

Stuart [R.] Schram . “The limits of cataclysmic change: reflections on the place ofthe ‘Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution’ in the political development of thePeople's Republic of China.China Quarterly, 108 (December 1986).

Stuart [R.] Schram . “China after the Thirteenth Congress.China Quarterly, 114 (June 1988), 177–97.

G. William Skinner . “Marketing and social structure in rural China.Journal of Asian Studies, Part I, 24 1.1 (November 1964), 3–43; Part II, 24.2 (February 1965), 195–228; Part III, 24.3 (May 1965), 363–99.

Richard H. Solomon On activism and activists: Maoist conceptions of motivation and political role linking state to society.China Quarterly, 39 (July–September 1969), 76–114.

John Bryan Starr . “Revolution in retrospect: the Paris Commune throughChinese eyes.China Quarterly, 49 (January–March 1972), 106–25.

Anna Louise Strong . “Three interviews with Chairman Mao Zedong.China Quarterly, 103 (September 1985), 489–509.

Frederick C. Teiwes Leadership, legitimacy and conflict in China: from a charismaticMao to the politics of succession. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1984.

Anne Thurston . “Victims of China's Cultural Revolution: the invisible wounds.Pacific Affairs, Part I, 57. 4 (Winter 1984–85), 599–620; and Part II, 58. 1(Spring 1985), 5–27.

Daniel Tretiak . “The Sino-Japanese Treaty of 1978: the Senkaku incident prelude.Asian Survey, 18.12 (December 1978), 1235–49.

Tang Tsou . “The Cultural Revolution and the Chinese political system.China Quarterly, 38(April–June 1969), 63–91.

Patricia Tsurumi . Japanese colonial education in Tahvan 1895–1945Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1977.

Ezra F. Vogel Canton under communism: programs and politics in a provincial capital, 1949–1968. New York: Harper & Row, 1980; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969.

Philip West . Yenching University and Sino-Western relations, 1916–1952. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1976.

D. Gordon White . “The politics of Hsia-hsiang youth.China Quarterly, 59 (July–September 1974), 491–-517.

Allen S. Whiting The use of force in foreign policy by the People's Republic ofChina.The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 402 (July 1972), 55–66.

Allen S. Whiting Sino-American detente.China Quarterly, 82 (June 1980), 334–41.

William W. Whitson , with Huang Chen-hsia . The Chinese high command: a historyof communist military politics, 1927–71. New York: Praeger, 1973.

Alexander Woodside . “Peking and Hanoi: anatomy of a revolutionary partnership.International Journal, 24.1 (Winter 1968–69), 65–85.

Michael Yahuda . Towards the end of isolationism: China's foreign policy after Mao. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1983.

Michael Yahuda . “Kremlinology and the Chinese strategic debate, 1965–66.China Quarterly, 49 (January–March 1972), 32–75.

Shiao-ling Yu . “Voice of protest: political poetry in the post-Mao era.China Quarterly,, 96 (December 1983), 703–20.

George T. Yu Sino-African relations: a survey.Asian Survey, 5.7 (July 1965), 321–32.

Donald S. Zagoria , and Uri Ra'anan . “On Kremlinology: a reply to MichaelYahuda.China Quarterly, 50 (April–June 1972), 343–50.

David Zweig . Agrarian radicalism in China, 1968–1987. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989.

David Zweig . “Strategies of policy implementation: policy ‘winds’ and brigadeaccounting in rural China, 1966–1978.World Politics, 37. 2 (January 1985), 267–93.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 3913 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 729 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.