Skip to main content Accesibility Help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 8
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Day, Jenny Huangfu 2018. Qing Travelers to the Far West.

    Carvalho, Henrique 2018. The beginnings of copyright law in Macau. The Journal of World Intellectual Property, Vol. 21, Issue. 3-4, p. 176.

    Li, Shubo 2014. The Dispute Over the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands. p. 21.

    Blanchard, Jean-Marc F. and Lin, Kun-Chin 2013. Contemplating Chinese Foreign Policy: Approaches to the Use of Historical Analysis. Pacific Focus, Vol. 28, Issue. 2, p. 145.

    Savage, Jesse Dillon 2011. The stability and breakdown of empire: European informal empire in China, the Ottoman Empire and Egypt. European Journal of International Relations, Vol. 17, Issue. 2, p. 161.

    Walther, Gerrit Scattola, Merio Pfisterer, Ulrich Satzinger, Georg Wiedner, Saskia Meine, Sabine Externbrink, Sven Reith, Reinhold Stöger, Georg Carl, Horst Stollberg-Rilinger, Barbara Hufeld, Ulrich Appuhn-Radtke, Sibylle Weber, Wolfgang E. J. von Friedeburg, Robert König, Hans-Joachim Rode-Breymann, Susanne Meumann, Markus Rinke, Stefan Hengerer, Mark Keller, Katrin Babel, Rainer Gersmann, Gudrun Schmale, Wolfgang Reichardt, Rolf Langewiesche, Dieter Lieb, Stefanie Koller, Edith Lüsebrink, Hans-Jürgen Siegert, Christine Gierl, Martin Schlinker, Steffen Gareis, Iris Mautner, Hendrikje Mittag, Achim Otto, Martin Haferkamp, Hans-Peter Gabriel, Martin Schirren, Thomas Synofzik, Thomas Gadebusch-Bondio, Mariacarla Behringer, Wolfgang Tischer, Matthias Czeguhn, Ignacio Müßig, Ulrike Poppinga, Onno von Mallinckrodt, Rebekka Altgeld, Wolfgang Wrede, Martin Töpfer, Thomas Flügel, Axel Wolf, Klaus König, Hans-Joachim Layh, Susanna Kanz, Roland Butzer, Günter Günter, Manuela Kroppenberg, Inge Mahoney, Dennis F. Büttner, Frank Eichhorn, Andreas Meinel, Christoph Walter, Peter Geffarth, Renko Eckert, Georg Schneider, Konrad Ehmer, Josef Beck, Michael Weber, Alexander Schweizer, Stefan Henkel, Jürgen Wasmuth, Jennifer Veluwenkamp, Jan Willem Nolte, Hans-Heinrich Marasinova, Elena Bahro, Steffi Bingener, Andreas Bremer, Thomas Troßbach, Werner Friedrich, Wolfgang Lück, Heiner Burschel, Peter Seidenspinner, Wolfgang Sparn, Walter Nüssel, Friederike Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm Piasecki, Peter Zimmermann, Margarete Körner, Hans Fessner, Michael Lafuente, Gloria Sanz Denzel, Markus A. Priesner, Claus Griesebner, Andrea Costa, Rosa Schöller, Rainer te Heesen, Anke Mathias, Regine Grotjahn, Rebecca Deupmann, Christoph Jordan, Stefan Bremer, Kai Moßburger, Hubert Vögele, Jörg Erben, Dietrich Müller-Wille, Staffan Schiemann, Gottfried Tschopp, Silvia Serena Saurer, Edith Wilbertz, Gisela Reichmuth, Stefan Dillinger, Johannes Sing, Thomas Marx, Peter W. Schmidt, Beate Agnes North, Michael Dobler, Silvia Carola Malinowski, Bernadette Löhnig, Martin Brunner, Rainer Kampmann, Christoph Dougherty, Carolyn Bartels, Christoph Popplow, Marcus Ellmers, Detlev Schinkel, Eckhard Bayer, Axel Kinzler, Sonja Voltmer, Rita Laß, Heiko Eckart, Wolfgang Uwe Gorißen, Stefan Siebenhüner, Kim Rössner, Philipp Robinson Häberlein, Mark Meiners, Uwe Goehrke, Carsten Chapuis-Després, Stéphanie Laube, Martin Köster, Roman Troitzsch, Ulrich Haarmann, Harald Bley, Helmut Schmidt-Glintzer, Helwig Frese, Heiko Zimmermann, Clemens Hiller, Marion Leppin, Volker Kim, Nanny Niefanger, Dirk Bruning, Jens Lohmann, Ingrid Rutz, Andreas Blum, Paul Richard Weikl, Katharina Brinkschulte, Eva Röcke, Werner Vogel, Lothar Schmidt, Peer Weitensfelder, Hubert Regnath, R. Johanna Maissen, Thomas Steinle, Friedrich Wagner, Michael Müller, Christoph Brauneder, Wilhelm Beck, Thomas Hattendorf, John Holzhey, Helmut Zander, Helmut Möller, Christian Schneider, Johann Pelzer-Reith, Birgit Holbach, Rudolf Sarx, Tobias Kästner, Alexander Strohmeyer, Arno Collin, Peter Siebe, Daniela Asche, Matthias Hamou, Philippe Lehmann-Brauns, Sicco Aust, Cornelia Karsten, Arne Kraft, Ekkehard Bork, Camilla Jarzebowski, Claudia Antoni, Klaus Mathieu, Christian Freitag, Florian Dix, Andreas Rüther, Kirsten Stange, Marion Wendt, Reinhard Lucassen, Jan Lucassen, Leo Beyrer, Klaus and Gludovatz, Karin 2010. Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit. p. 1.

    Zhuang, Juan 2010. Beijing 2008: Volunteerism in Chinese Culture and its Olympic Interpretation and Influence. The International Journal of the History of Sport, Vol. 27, Issue. 16-18, p. 2842.

    Spakowski, Nicola 2009. Trans-Pacific Interactions. p. 59.

  • Print publication year: 1980
  • Online publication date: March 2008

3 - Changing Chinese views of Western relations, 1840–95

Chinese views of Western relations kept changing during the 1840-95 period, with a quickened tempo after 1860. Generally, foreign policy views changed from a 'closed door' policy in the forties to the 'good faith' policy based on the Confucian principle of sincerity during the sixties. Modern diplomatic skills, especially the idea of international law, were stressed during the ensuing two decades. Power politics, particularly the concepts of balance of power and alliance with strong countries, prevailed during the eighties and nineties. In spite of all these changes, the power of conservatism remained strong. Success in the introduction of things Western into China depended in large measure on the extent to which they were compatible with this tradition. China's inertia can also be seen in the views held by some political leaders towards the West. In addition to the conservatives, many literati-officials who championed Western learning were at the same time anti-Christian. Modernization in some senses meant Westernization.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge History of China
  • Online ISBN: 9781139054782
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
A Ying, (Hsing-ts'un, Ch'ien), comp. Ya-p'ien chan-cheng wen-hsueh chi (Literary writings concerning the Opium War). 2 vols. Peking: Ku-chi, 1957.
Banno, Masataka. ‘Furansu ryūgaku jidai no Ba Ken-chū — gaikō oyobi gaikōkan seido ni tsuite no futatsu no ikensho’ (Ma Chien-chung during his days of study in France — two proposals regarding foreign relations and the foreign service system). Kokkagakkai zassbi, 84.5 and 6 (1971).
Barnett, Suzanne Wilson. ‘Wei Yuan and Westerners. Notes on the sources of the Hai-kuo t'u-chih’. Ch'ing-shih wen-t'i, 2.4 (1970).
Chang, Ching-lu Chung-kuo chin-tai ch'u-pan shih-liao ch'u-pien (Materials on the history of publication in modern China, first collection). Shanghai: Ch'ün-lien, 1954.
Chang, Hao. ‘The antiforeignist role of Wo-jen, 1804–1871’, Papers on China, 14 (1960).
Ch'en, Ch'iu. Ching-shih po-i (Broad suggestions on statecraft). n. p., 1893.
Cheng, Kuan-ying. Sheng-shih wei-yen tseng-ting hsin-pien (Warnings to a prosperous age, rev. edn), 1892. Facsimile reproduction of 1910 reprint, Taipei: Hsueh-sheng, 1965.
Ch'i, Ssu-ho et al. eds. Ya-p'ien chan-cheng (The Opium War). 6 vols. Shanghai: Shen-chou kuo-kuang she, 1954.
Chiao-t'ung, t'ieh-tao pu chiao-t'ung shih pien-tsuan wei-yuan hui, comp. Chiao-t'ung shih (History of transport and communications). 37 vols. Nanking: Ministry of Communications, 1930–7. Microfilm and a ‘grand table of contents’ published in 1970 are available at Center for Chinese Research Materials, Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC.
Chin, Ying-lin. Ch'ih-hua t'ang wen-ch'ao (Essays written at the Ch'ih-hua t'ang). 12 chüan, n.p., 1851.
Chou, Sheng-ch'uan. Chou Wu-chuang kung i-shu (Writings of the late Sheng-ch'uan, Chou). Nanking, 1905. Taipei reproduction, Ch'engwen, 1969; also cited as Sheng-ch'uan, Chou. Chou Wu-chuang kung i-shu.
Chung-yang, yen-chiu-yuan chin-tai-shih yen-chiu-so comp. Hai-fang tang (Archives on coastal defence). Hardback, 9 vols; paperback, 17 vols. Taipei: IMH, Academia Sinica, 1957.
Cohen, Paul A. China and Christianity: the missionary movement and the growth of Chinese antiforeignism, 1860–1870. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1963.
Drake, Fred W. China charts the world: Hsu Chi-yü and his geography of 1848. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975.
Elisseeff, Vadime. ‘The middle empire, a distant empire, an empire without neighbors’. Diogenes, 42 (Summer 1963).
Fairbank, John K., ed. The Chinese world order: traditional China's foreign relations. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968; also cited as Fairbank, John K., ed. The Chinese world or.
Feng, Kuei-fen Chiao-pin-lu k'ang-i (Straightforward words from the Lodge of Early Chou Studies). 2 chüan. Wu-hsien, Kiangsu: the Feng family, 1884.
Hao, Yen-p'ing. ‘Yu shou-chiu tao ko-hsin’ (From conservatism to reform). Ta-lu tsa-chih 20.7 (April 1960).
Hao, Yen-p'ing. ‘A study of the Ch'ing-liu tang: the disinterested scholar-offical group, 1875–1884’. Papers on China, 16 (1962).
Hao, Yen-p'ing. ‘Cheng Kuan-ying: the comprador as reformer’. JAS, 29.1 (Nov. 1969).
Hao, Yen-p'ing. ‘A “new class” in China's treaty ports: the rise of the comprador-merchants’. Business History Review, 44.4 (Winter 1970).
Hao, Yen-p'ing. The comprador in nineteenth century China: bridge between East and West. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970.
Hart, Robert. These from the land of Sinim, essays on the Chinese question. London: Chapman and Hall, 1901.
Ho, Ch'ang-ling. Huang-ch'ao ching-shih wen-pien (Collection of Ch'ing dynasty writings on statecraft). 120 chüan. 1873 edn. Taipei reproduction, Wen-hai, 1972.
Ho, Ch'i and Hu, Li-yuan. Hsin-cheng chen-ch'üan (The true interpretation of new policies). Hong Kong, 1895. Reprinted in 6 ts'e by Chung-kuo pao-kuan, 1900.
Hsia, Hsieh. Chung-hsi chi-shih (A record of Sino-Western affairs). 1865 edn. Taipei reproduction, Wen-hai, 1962.
Hsu, Chi-yü Sung-k'an hsien-sheng ch'üan-chi (Complete works of Hsu Chi-yü). 10 chüan. 1915 preface, n.p.
Hsu, Immanuel C. Y. China's entrance into the family of nations: the diplomatic phase, 1858–1880. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960.
Hsueh, Fu-ch'eng. Yung-an ch'üan-chi (Complete works of Hsueh Fu-ch'eng), including Wen-pien (Collection of essays), Jih-chi (Diary), Wai-pien (Additional essays), Ch'ou-yang ch'u-i (Preliminary proposals concerning Western affairs) and Hai-wai wen-pien (Collection of essays written overseas). Shanghai: Tsui-liu t'ang, 1897.
Huang, Chün-tsai. Chin-hu ch'i mo (Seven works of Huang Chün-tsai). Shanghai: Sao-yeh shan-fang, 1929.
Huang, En-t'ung. Fu-i chi-lueh (Brief account of the pacification of barbarians). Unpublished handwritten copy, 1865 preface. Taipei: Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica.
Kuo, Sung-tao. Kuo shih-lang tsou-shu (Kuo Sung-tao's memorials). 12 chüan. 1892. Taipei reproduction, Wen-hai, 1968.
Kuo, Sung-tao. Yang-chih shu-wu wen-chi (Collection of essays of Kuo Sung-tao). 28 chüan. 1892. Taipei reproduction, Wen-hai, 1968.
Legge, James, trans. The Chinese classics. 8 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1893–5; Hong Kong reproduction, Hong Kong University Press, 1960.
Lei, Hai-tsung. ‘Ku-tai Chung-kuo ti wai-chiao’ (Diplomacy in ancient China). She-hui k'o-hsueh (Peiping: Tsing Hua University), 3.1 (1941).
Leonard, Jane K.Chinese overlordship and Western penetration in maritime Asia: a late Ch'ing re-appraisal of Chinese maritime relations’. MAS, 6.2 (1972).
Levenson, Joseph R. Confucian China and its modern fate: the problem of monarchical decay. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968.
Li, En-han. Wan-Ch'ing ti shou-hui k'uang-ch'üan yun-tung (The movement to recover mining rights in the late Ch'ing period). Taipei: IMH, Academia Sinica, 1963.
Li, Hung-chang. Li Wen-chung kung ch'üan-chi (Complete papers of Li Hung-chang). Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1921 photo reprint of Nanking 1905 Taipei, Wen-hai reproduction, 1962; also cited as Hung-chang, Li. Li Wen-chung kung ch'iian-chi.
Li, Hung-chang. Li Wen-chung kung p'eng-liao han-kao (Li Hung-chang's letters to friends and colleagues), in Hung-chang, Li, Li Wen-chung kung ch'üan-chi (q.v.). 20 chüan. Nanking, 1905; Shanghai reproduction, Commercial Press, 1921.
Li, Kuo-ch'i. Chung-kuo tsao-ch'i ti t'ieh-lu ching-ying (China's early railway enterprises). Taipei: IMH, Academia Sinica, 1961.
Li, Kuo-ch'i. Chang Chih-tung ti wai-chiao cheng-ts'e (Chang Chih-tung's foreign policy proposals). Taipei: IMH, Academia Sinica, 1970.
Li, Shu-ch'ang. Cho-tsun-yuan ts'ung-kao (Li Shu-ch'ang's writings). Shanghai, 1893.
Li, Tsung-hsi. K'ai-hsien Li shang-shu cheng-shu (Li Tsung-hsi's political papers). 8 chüan. Wuchang, 1885.
Li, Tsung-t'ung and Feng-han, Liu. Li Hung-tsao hsien-sheng nien-p'u (Chronological biography of Mr Li Hung-tsao). 2 vols. Taipei: Chung-kuo hsueh-shu chu-tso chiang-chu wei-yuan-hui, 1969.
Li, San-pao. ‘Letters to the editor in John Fryer's Chinese Scientific Magazine, 1876–1892: an analysis’. CYCT, 4.2 (Dec. 1974).
Liang, Ch'i-ch'ao. Intellectual trends in the Ch'ing period (Ch'ing-tai hsueh-shu kai-lun). trans. Hsu, Immanuel C. Y.. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1959.
Liu, Kwang-Ching. ‘Cheng Kuan-ying I-yen: Kuang-hsu ch'u-nien chih pien-fa ssu-hsiang’. (Cheng Kuan-ying's I-yen: reform proposals of the early Kuang-hsu period). Ch'ing-hua hsueh-pao, ns, 8.1–2 (1970).
Liu, Kwang-Ching. ‘The Confucian as patriot and pragmatist: Li Hung-chang's formative years, 1823–1866’. HJAS, 30 (1970).
, Shih-ch'iang, ‘Wan-Ch'ing Chung-kuo chih-shih fen-tzu tui Chi-tu-chiao tsai Hua ch'uan-chiao mu-ti ti i-chü, 1860–1898’ (Chinese intellectual's suspicion and fear of the Christian missionary's aims in the late Ch'ing period, 1860–1898). SFLS, 3 (Feb. 1975).
, Shih-ch'iang. Chung-kuo kuan-shen fan-chiao ti yuan-yin, 1860–1874 (Causes behind the Chinese gentry-officials' hostility towards Christianity, 1860–1874). Taipei: IMH, Academia Sinica, 1966.
, Shih-ch'iang. Ting Jih-ch'ang yü tzu-ch'iang yun-tung (Ting Jih-ch'ang and the self-strengthening movement). Taipei: IMH, 1972.
Ma, Chien-chung. Shih-k'o-chai chi-yen (Ma Chien-chung's essays and discourses). 1896 preface. Taipei reproduction, Wen-hai, 1968.
Min, Erh-ch'ang Pei-chuan-chi pu (Supplement to collected epigraphs), comp. Peiping: Yenching University, 1923.
Pao, Shih-ch'en. An-Wu ssu-chung (Four collections regarding peaceful government of Kiangsu). 36 chüan. Soochow, 1851; Taipei reproduction, Wen-hai, 1968.
T'ang, I. Yu-ts'un wen (Essays of T'ang I). 6 chüan. Changsha, 1847.
Teng, Ssu-yü and Fairbank, John K. China's response to the West: a documentary survey 1839–1923. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1954.
Tseng, Chi-tse. Tseng Hui-min kung shih-hsi jih-chi (Diary of Tseng Chi-tse's diplomatic mission to the West). Shanghai, 1893; also in HFHC, ts'e.
Tseng, Chi-tse. Tseng Hui-min kung i-chi (Collected papers of the late Tseng Chi-tse). Shanghai: The Kiangnan Arsenal, 1893; Taipei reproduction, Wen-hai 1966.
Tseng, Chi-tse. This comprehensive collection includes Tseng Hui-min kung wen-chi, 5 chüan, also found in Tseng Hui-min kung i-chi, Sao-yeh, shan-fang edn, Shanghai 1932.
Tseng, Chi-tse. Tseng Hui-min kung shou-hsieh jih-chi (Tseng Chi-tse's holograph diary). Taipei: Hsueh-sheng, 1965.
Tseng, Kuo-fan. Tseng Wen-cheng kung shu-cha (Tseng Kuo-fan's letters). 33 chüan. Changsha: Ch'uan-chung shu-chü, 1876.
Tso, Tsung-t'ang. Tso Wen-hsiang kung ch'üan-chi (Complete collection of Tso Tsung-t'ang's papers). Changsha, 1890.
Tso, Tsung-t'ang. et seq. Taipei, Wen-hai reproduction, 1964; also cited as Tsung-t'ang, Tso, Tso Wen-hsiang kung ch'iian.
Waley, Arthur. The Opium War through Chinese eyes. London: Allen & Unwin, 1958.
Wang, Chia-chien. Wei Yuan tui Hsi-fang ti jen-shih chi ch'i hai-fang ssu-hsiang (Wei Yuan's knowledge of the West and his ideas regarding maritime defence). Taipei: National Taiwan University, College of Letters, 1964.
Wang, Chia-chien. Wei Yuan nien-p'u (Chronological biography of Wei Yuan). Taipei: IMH, Academia Sinica, 1967.
Wang, Chia-chien. ‘Wen-hsiang tui-yü shih-chü ti jen-shih chi ch'i tzu-ch'iang ssu-hsiang’ (Wen-hsiang's knowledge of world affairs and his ideas regarding self-strengthening). SFLS, 1 (1973).
Wang, Erh-min. ‘Ch'i-ying wai-chiao’ (The diplomacy of Ch'i-ying). Ta-lu tsa-chih, 30.9 and 10 (May and June 1965).
Wang, K'ai-yun. Hsiang-ch'i lou wen-chi (Collection of essays of Wang K'ai-yun). Taipei: Hsin-hsing, 1956.
Wang, Ping-hsieh. Wu-tzu-ch'i shih wen-chi (Wang Ping-hsieh's essays). Tientsin: Kuang-jen t'ang, 1885; Taipei reproduction, Wen-hai, 1968.
Wang, T'ao, ed. Ko-chih shu-yuan k'o-i (Assigned writings of students of the Shanghai Polytechnic Institute). 13 ts'e. Shanghai: Polytechnic Institute and Reading Room, 1886–93.
Wang, T'ao. T'ao-yuan ch'ih-tu (Wang T'ao's letters). 8 chüan. Hong Kong: privately issued, 1876; Taipei reproduction, Ta-t'ung, 1968.
Wang, Yen-wei and Wang, Liang, comps. Ch'ing-chi wai-chiao shih-liao (Historical materials concerning foreign relations in the late Ch'ing period, 1875–1911). 218 + 1 chüan for the Kuang-hsu period (1875–1908) and 24 chüan for the Hsuan-t'ung period (1908–11). Peiping: Wang Hsi-yin, 1932–5; Taipei reproduction, Wen-hai, 1963.
Wei, Yuan. Sheng wu-chi (Chronicle of the sacred dynasty's military campaigns). Ku-wei t'ang 1842 edn. Taipei reproduction, Wen-hai, 1967.
Wei, Yuan. Hai-kuo t'u-chih (Illustrated treatise on the maritime kingdoms). 100 chüan. Shanghai: Wen-hsien ko, 1898 edn. Taipei reproduction of 1847 edn, Ch'eng-wen, 1966.
Weng, T'ung-ho. Weng T'ung-ho jih-chi p'ai-yin-pen (A typeset edition of the diary of Weng T'ung-ho). 5 vols. Taipei: Ch'eng-wen, 1970.
Wright, Mary C. The last stand of Chinese conservatism: the T'ung-chih restoration, 1862–1874. Stanford University Press, 1957.
Yao, Ying. Tung-ming wen hou-chi (Supplement to Yao Ying's collected essays). 14 chüan, n.p., 1867.