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    Marteel, Stefaan 2018. The Intellectual Origins of the Belgian Revolution. p. 123.

    Moody, Joshua 2011. The Encyclopedia of Christian Civilization.

    Black, Jeremy 2008. Eighteenth-Century Britain, 1688–1783. p. 128.

    Brown, Michelle P. 2008. A Companion to the History of the Book. p. 177.

  • Volume 7: Enlightenment, Reawakening and Revolution 1660–1815
  • Edited by Stewart J. Brown, University of Edinburgh , Timothy Tackett, University of California, Irvine

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During the tumultuous period of world history from 1660 to 1815, three complex movements combined to bring a fundamental cultural reorientation to Europe and North America, and ultimately to the wider world. The Enlightenment transformed views of nature and of the human capacity to master nature. The religious reawakenings brought a revival of heartfelt, experiential Christianity. Finally revolution, the political and social upheavals of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, challenged established ideas of divine-right monarchies and divinely ordained social hierarchies, and promoted more democratic government, notions of human rights and religious toleration. A new religious climate emerged, in which people were more likely to look to their own feelings and experiences for the basis of their faith. During this same period, Christianity spread widely around the world as a result of colonialism and missions, and responded in diverse ways to its encounters with other cultures and religious traditions.


'This volume is as excellent as others in the series, representing what is best in current scholarship on the histories of Christianity.'

Source: Church Times

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Page 1 of 2

  • 1 - Continental Catholic Europe
    pp 13-32
  • View abstract
    From as early as the mid-seventeenth century, the Catholic Church was obliged by international law to recognize Protestant rights across Germany. Of course, though state and church had a clear idea of each other's distinctive roles and of where they could be mutually supportive, there were still frequent conflicts in most decades and in most states about the prerogatives properly belonging to both. Relations between secular rulers and the papacy were nowhere more acute and sensitive than in the Italian peninsula. The papal states were invaded three times in the course of the century before the French Revolution by foreign armies in the Wars of the Spanish, Polish and Austrian Successions. Church-state relations had become so fraught in the 1760s, so central to the domestic and foreign strategies of most Catholic powers, that all sides lost sight of the harm to their credibility that such a war of attrition was likely to cause.
  • 2 - Continental Protestant Europe
    pp 33-53
  • View abstract
    Protestant orthodoxy possessed and maintained three main spheres of influence well into the eighteenth century: first, theological faculties at leading universities; second, the large body of clergy including most church leaders; third, most members of territorial governments and local administrations. In certain regions Protestant radicalism in the tradition of the radical reformation played a much greater role than either Pietism or orthodoxy. The new ideas of the Enlightenment first captured the minds of Protestants in the north west of Europe, in Great Britain and the Netherlands. The programme of Enlightenment had two faces. One face was characterized by the application of the principles of rationalism and criticism. The other face was determined by the implementation of practical reforms in many spheres of life. At best, Enlightened despots ruling in the various Protestant states of central Europe in the second half of the eighteenth century advocated religious tolerance.
  • 3 - Great Britain and Ireland
    pp 54-71
  • View abstract
    England, Scotland, and Ireland all had their national churches, and each shared a vision of a homogeneous Christian society that the status of these churches expressed. The Church of Ireland had, like the Church of England, been subjected to reorganization by sixteenth-century legislation. The political events of the seventeenth century served to place emphasis on the premise that Catholics, if given power, would seek the total expropriation, and perhaps the deaths, of Protestants. The Church of Scotland inherited the established status of the medieval church, but was fundamentally reformed into a Presbyterian polity in the late sixteenth century and again after 1688. In the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the government of the United Kingdom deliberately used its established churches to forward its social policy, acknowledging clergy as agents of the state in the work of social improvement and political stabilization.
  • 4 - The church in economy and society
    pp 72-86
  • View abstract
    This chapter explores what effect Christianity had on economy and society, especially in a period of 1660-1815 that witnessed not just the dislocations of the French Revolution but the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in England. In Protestant Europe, the Reformation had stripped away a considerable amount of church property, much of it coming from monasteries that were dissolved. Christianity did influence labour markets. British evangelicals began a great battle to end the slave trade, and a quieter campaign, this one waged by Protestants and Catholics alike, helped reduce the number of feast days and increase the amount of time people spent at work. The additional labour helped purchase new consumer goods and it may even account for much of the growth in per capita income in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution in Britain. There are of course other links between Christianity and the economy.
  • 5 - The Catholic clergy in Europe
    pp 87-108
  • View abstract
    This chapter talks about the Catholic clergy in Europe, from 1650 to the eve of the French Revolution. It presents a comparative outline of the various ecclesiastical groupings, divided into two main branches: secular clergy and regular clergy. On the Italian peninsula the post-Tridentine bishops were particularly concerned with the excessive numbers of the secular clergy. In any case it is certain that the reforms introduced by Pombal's government in the mid-eighteenth century had a strong positive impact on the organization of the Portuguese regular clergy, especially by comparison with the more tentative contemporary efforts carried out in Spain. With the end of the wars of religion in France, there was a strong revival of the regular orders. Despite their active presence, the religious orders in France would never assume the role they acquired in Spain, Italy, and those areas which experienced a Catholic re-conquest in the Habsburg monarchy and Poland.
  • 6 - The Protestant clergies in the European world
    pp 109-127
  • View abstract
    The churches of Europe began to consolidate their position within society and in Protestant countries the general understanding of the status and function of the clergy was widely understood. This chapter examines the structures and experiences of the Protestant clergies of Europe in the decades between 1660 and 1780 and considers how their position in church and society developed over time. It examines key aspects of clerical life: social background, education, methods of appointment and subsequent career patterns, income levels, and status within the state and local community. An educated ministry was an indispensable requirement for the Protestant churches of Europe. The clergy were not there simply to perform rituals but to teach God's word, and to teach it well they must be educated. The subjects chosen for study demonstrate the extent to which Protestant clergies across Europe were shaped by the values and priorities of the times.
  • 7 - Reaching audiences: Sermons and oratory in Europe
    pp 128-146
  • View abstract
    During the 'long' eighteenth century, the social and intellectual pressures brought to bear on the sermon as a medium of communication were stronger than ever before. This chapter describes the general appearance of the sermon between 1660 and 1800. The history of the sermon in the century and a half between 1660 and 1800 has been described in terms of a turn from 'Baroque' to 'neo-Classical'. The labels 'confessional' and 'polite' may be helpful to the extent that they shed some light on the engagement of early modern pulpit oratory with political change, communication processes and the development of public opinion. The confessional sermon may be seen as an extension of a public sphere premised on authority and subordination, and the 'polite sermon' as reflecting a public sphere based on such Enlightened virtues as liberty, moderation and articulateness. The chapter also outlines the successful response of the eighteenth-century sermon to the challenges it faced.
  • 8 - Christian education
    pp 147-165
  • View abstract
    One of the fundamental characteristics of the Protestant and the subsequent Catholic Reformations was the assertion that no one could claim to be a Christian unless they could account for their belief. This chapter talks about the development of primary and secondary schools and universities in religious education during the early modern period. The modern state increasingly tended to consider teaching as falling under its sole jurisdiction, following the principle that the church is within the state. To be sure, in Hanoverian England, the state actually became less interested in secondary and higher education, viewing neither as matters of state concern. The chapter mentions the early initiatives towards sweeping educational transformations taken by certain German states, even though the results were not always equal to the ambitions. Such reforms indicate a desire both to provide the state administration with competent and loyal workers and also to establish an educational hierarchy in which the different levels worked well together.
  • 9 - Christianity and gender
    pp 166-184
  • View abstract
    In seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, as in all Christian history, messages about gender were contradictory and ambiguous, providing ideas that supported gender hierarchy as well as gender complementarity and equality. The period of the English Civil War, 1640-60, provides a unique opportunity to hear women's religious ideas, for the hiatus in censorship during the war allowed many religious works by women, and men who were not officials in established churches, to be published. Women's leadership and actions during the war also served as one example of the 'world turned upside down', which the Restoration of the Stuart monarchy in 1660 sought to set right again. That Restoration and the re-establishment of the Anglican Church led many English Puritans to immigrate, and they took their ideas about gender and sexuality as well as theology to continental Europe and ultimately to North America.
  • 10 - Popular religion
    pp 185-207
  • View abstract
    In historical discourse, the term 'popular religion' has long had widely differing meanings depending upon the social group, the place, the time, and even the religious context for which it is used. The moralizing of the natural world had important consequences for the Protestant definition of popular religion, and the attitude of the Protestant clerical elites towards superstition. All the Reformers devoted a large and intellectually essential part of their work to the fight against superstition, although in actual practice ministers could take rather different attitudes towards the 'relics of paganism', as they often called it. During the seventeenth century, and even more during the eighteenth century, popular religion became the main target of the reform efforts directed by all the religious authorities of western Christianity, Protestant and Catholic. Raising the religious practice of the laity to a higher cultural level required a double transformation in the public space.
  • 11 - Jewish–Christian relations
    pp 208-225
  • View abstract
    In the Merchant of Venice, Shakespeare captures both the ambiguity of Jewish-Christian relations in early modern Europe and the myths surrounding the Jew, the blood-thirsty usurer of medieval legend, 'the very devil incarnation'. When shaped and politicized, as they were by such French figures as Mirabeau, Jacques-Pierre Brissot and the abbe Henri Gregoire, the arguments contributed to a rhetoric of regeneration and emancipation which defined and gave direction to Jewish-Christian relations throughout the nineteenth century. Searing events illustrating the vulnerability of Jews as well as Protestants charged the climate of the last years of ancien regime France. In line with arguments presented by Michaelis and Rousseau, others argued that the religion, traditions, and messianic expectations of the Jews made their integration neither possible nor desirable. Despite a century and a half of liberalization, relations between Jews and Christians would continue to be both tenuous and vulnerable.
  • 12 - Architecture and Christianity
    pp 226-248
  • View abstract
    The Italian monumental tradition spread northwards in central Europe due to the movements of itinerant teams of stone-masons and decorators from Lombardy and Milan, in search of new building sites. Originating in France, the Rococo influence grafted itself onto the Italianate trunk to produce an art that was particularly voluble, optimistic, and luminous. The rupture of the Reformation led to different conceptions of the religious function not only of the church, but of its furniture and fittings as well. Neither the evolution of architectural design nor the development of church furnishings can explain the originality of buildings of worship at the time of the Catholic and Protestant Reformations. The expansion of internal space through architecture and painting was accompanied by subtle and complex research into the use of light. The aim was to create an emotional effect on the spectator by dissimulating the position of the light source, and so to accentuate the effects of mystery and unreality.
  • 13 - Christianity and the rise of science, 1660–1815
    pp 249-264
  • View abstract
    In the mid-seventeenth century the relationship between scientific thinkers and ecclesiastical authorities was marked by reciprocal mistrust. Certainly this was the case in Catholic Europe. Perhaps this was the reason for the new intellectual momentum in Protestant Europe. At the end of the seventeenth century, in both Catholic and Protestant countries, the relationship between science and religion was marked by a certain ambiguity. It is scarcely surprising that towards 1700 Newton's discoveries should renew the debate over the problem of the infinity of space and time. The advance of science coincided with the beginnings of an immense transformation in religious sensitivity, a transformation in which the individual was to assume an essential position. Science effects had been expanded and amplified by such major movements as the Enlightenment and the French Revolution; and perhaps also, in equal measure, by the evolution of spirituality within the various Christian confessions.
  • 14 - The Enlightenment critique of Christianity
    pp 265-282
  • View abstract
    The period after 1660 saw the emergence of the first sustained attack on Christianity from within Europe since the triumph of the Christian Church under Constantine in the fourth century. The Enlightened critique of Christianity emerged first in Protestant circles, and while plenty of Catholics could criticize their church, Protestant thinkers tended to be in the vanguard that pushed anticlericalism into open heterodoxy, finally deism, atheism, and pantheism. The possibility to think outside of any reference to Christian doctrine made an appearance in the second half of the seventeenth century, in a movement some historians have characterized as the radical Enlightenment. By late in the eighteenth century it had made possible a world where statesmen like Thomas Jefferson could rewrite the Bible to expunge its mysterious elements, scientists like Darwin in England and Laplace in France could dispense with God, revolutionaries in Paris could empty the churches of crosses and statutes and make them into temples of reason.
  • 15 - The Christian Enlightenment
    pp 283-301
  • View abstract
    This chapter concentrates on a few key Protestant and Catholic examples in England, Geneva, Germany, and France in order to highlight some of the movement's distinguishing features and most salient characteristics. It shows how Christian theologians and clergymen across Europe shared in, and contributed to, many aspects of the complex intellectual and cultural movement we refer to as the Enlightenment. The political implications of the Christian Enlightenment are difficult to ascertain. It may very well be that it had a contradictory influence on political ideas and events. If additional research confirms that Christian sentimentalism was more prevalent and intense in France than elsewhere in Europe, it might invite us to consider the political implications of the Christian Enlightenment from another angle. The example of Necker points not only to the wider diffusion of Christian sentimentalism, but also to how it might have insinuated itself into the language of politics.
  • 16 - Jansenism and the international suppression of the Jesuits
    pp 302-328
  • View abstract
    The international expulsion and suppression of the Jesuits was, among other scenarios, one of the last encounters in the multi-secular conflict between Jesuits and Jansenists. The enmity between Jansenists and Jesuits began as a Reformation-vintage doctrinal controversy that dates in some sense to the Council of Trent, especially to its attempt to define the Catholic doctrine of justification in response to the challenges of the Protestant Reformation and, to a lesser degree, Erasmian humanism. The end of the Jesuits was eventually and temporarily to bring religious 'peace' of a sort to France, a 'peace' born of fatigue and religious indifference, however, rather than the one the Jansenists had hoped for. But for the rest of Catholic Europe, the effect of the campaign against the Jesuits was ironically to import the hitherto mainly French 'fire of discord', as a Jansenist International squared off against an increasingly militant Ultramontanist International in the decades preceding the French Revolution.
  • 17 - Evangelical awakenings in the North Atlantic world
    pp 329-347
  • View abstract
    The first great Protestant awakenings arose from an interweaving of Pietism, revivalism, and politics. Pietism, or in Anglo-Saxon parlance, evangelicalism, was a mixture of attitudes not primarily revivalist, few of which were shared by all evangelicals, or which were exclusive to them, and which changed steadily in time. The roots of Pietism lay in the presumption common to both Catholic and Protestant in the early seventeenth century that the way to enliven a Christian practice dulled by habit, or shrivelled by polemic, was by encouraging individual meditation. When late in the eighteenth-century Protestants residing along the North Atlantic coastlines gained freer access to the non-European world, eschatologies like that of Spener were very heavily pressed in the cause of overseas missions. One of the features of the evangelical mind might be inferred from its roots in Arndt and the vogue of meditation, that is, its commitment to mysticism.
  • 18 - Toleration and movements of Christian reunion, 1660–1789
    pp 348-370
  • View abstract
    The subjects of toleration and religious liberty are particularly vulnerable to teleological treatments that link human progress to the growth of freedom and secularization. Paradoxically, while toleration was one of the most divisive of political issues, its history was linked with efforts at Christian reunion, in both practical and theoretical terms. Most of the states of Europe and the North Atlantic witnessed some movement towards greater toleration in the eighteenth century which would eventually lead to full religious equality, but it was a movement that progressed in patterns both unpredictable and uncertain. The arguments of Enlightened thinkers, from Limborck to Locke to Jefferson, did anticipate the practice of religious freedom. But in every case in which people find substantial social and political change, the arguments for religious freedom were accompanied by the unremitting claims of religious minorities.
  • 19 - Christianity in Iberian America
    pp 371-391
  • View abstract
    The new ideas of the eighteenth century challenged these Baroque structures intellectually and politically. This chapter explores how much did Spanish and Portuguese monarchs achieve administratively in the colonies. It also examines what effect did official attitudes have on the role of religion in colonial culture, as well as on the continuing process of evangelization on the mission frontiers. The reports of bishops and diocesan priests in the late colonial period highlight one important element of popular religiosity. It did not conform to Enlightened perspectives on proper religious behaviour, but for the most part evangelization had been successful in introducing a Christian world-view. In Spanish America, the small numbers of Africans and a general process of assimilation made black religiosity culturally indistinguishable from the practices of the surrounding indigenous and hispanicized populations. But in Brazil, a distinct black religiosity developed which has persisted to the present day.
  • 20 - British and French North America to 1765
    pp 392-410
  • View abstract
    The story of Christianity in colonial North America is the story of old-world religion taking on a life of its own in the contingencies of the new world. The effort by New England Puritans to create a purer Christian civilization than they had known in England represented North America's most comprehensive and influential religious experiment. The English Puritans, who attempted in old England to reform the lives of individuals, the practice of the national English church, and the structures of their society, were frustrated first by royal opposition and then by the ambiguities of their own temporary success in the Civil War. What people could see clearly in the wake of revival was a renewal of imperial warfare and the beginning of cataclysmic change for the colonies. Britain's victory over France, which was finalized by the Treaty of Paris in 1763, seemed at first to simplify colonial life.
  • 21 - Christianity in Africa
    pp 411-432
  • View abstract
    The evangelical awakening brought about an African mass movement in Christianity that was the first of any such movement among non-European populations, and in scale and effectiveness it went beyond anything that had impacted Africa, before or since. Long before the American Revolution there had been a movement among New England puritans to suppress the slave trade. With the antislavery cause in West Africa, the African theme in Christianity acquired a trans-Atlantic range. The eighteenth-century Protestant evangelical movement served to revive missionary interest in general. In West Africa the evangelical cause was represented by the Church Missionary Society (CMS) of the Church of England, founded in 1799, although, instructively, the first CMS recruits were German evangelicals, Melchio Renner and Peter Hartwig, who arrived in Sierra Leone in 1804. The transmission of Christianity engaged the terms of indigenous discovery to commence a long-term intercultural process of conversion and readjustment in Sierra Leone and beyond.
  • 22 - Christianity in south and south-east Asia
    pp 433-450
  • View abstract
    This chapter explores the spread of Christianity from the sixteenth to the early nineteenth centuries within the various parts of undivided India and, more briefly, in some other areas of south and south-east Asia. According to tradition, Christianity first came to India in the person of Saint Thomas. The Thomas Christians continued to flourish in south India long after the disappearance of Christians from many other parts of Asia. With the founding of the Lutheran mission at Tranquebar on the east coast of south India in the early years of the eighteenth century, the monopoly which the Roman Catholic Church had till then held in the mission field was challenged. From 1706 till the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Lutheran Mission supported a total of fifty-six missionaries in India. The chapter also focuses on three Christian mission fields: Sri Lanka, Timor and some of the neighbouring islands, and Vietnam.
  • 23 - Christianity in East Asia
    pp 451-474
  • View abstract
    The conversion of the Philippines constitutes a remarkable chapter in the history of Christianity in East Asia. During the early decades of the seventeenth century, the Society of Jesus had enjoyed the exclusive right to propagate the gospel in Japan and China. The appointment of the Jesuit Adam Schall von Bell as director of the Astronomical Bureau by the Shunzhi Emperor in 1645 suggested that the missionaries and Christianity had been accepted by the new regime. From the early eighteenth century the toleration of Christianity in China was being increasingly questioned. Although the Christianizing of China was primarily undertaken by Roman Catholics, brief mention must be made of the rather marginal Russian Orthodox and Protestant efforts during the period 1660-1815. The early history of Catholicism in Korea is a unique example of church planting without missionary intervention. Of greater significance was the introduction of Catholic ideas through Korean Confucian scholars in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
  • 24 - Christian encounters with other world religions
    pp 475-494
  • View abstract
    In 1660, encounters with Confucianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism were comparatively new experiences for western Christians. Islam is the religious tradition with which Christianity has had the longest interaction and it thus deserves to be considered first. When, by the 1650s, it appeared that the missionary efforts in Isfahan and Delhi were failures, the Catholic Church entered a period of theological indifference towards Islam as a religion. This Catholic indifference coincided with a period of intellectual stagnation within Islam itself, which Muslim scholars refer to as gumud. Christianity and Hinduism had already met in the early centuries of Christian history as the presence of the Christians of St Thomas, or Syrian Christians, in southern India attested; however, that encounter had had little or no impact on western Christianity. By 1815, the approach of Protestant Christianity towards Hinduism, shaped as much by Enlightenment thought as by evangelical individualism, was set on a collision course leading to mutual antipathy and distrust.

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