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    The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia
    • Online ISBN: 9781139054898
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521243049
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Book description

This volume introduces the geographical setting of Central Asia and follows its history from the palaeolithic era to the rise of the Mongol empire in the thirteenth century. From earliest times Central Asia linked and separated the great sedentary civilisations of Europe and Asia. In the pre-modern period 'Inner Asia' was definable more as a cultural than a geographical entity, its frontiers shifting according to the changing balances of power. Written by distinguished international scholars who have pioneered the exploration of Central Asia's poorly documented past, this volume discusses chronologically the varying historical achievements of the disparate population groups in the region.

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  • 1 - Introduction: the concept of Inner Asia
    pp 1-18
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521243049.002
  • View abstract
    Summary
    If the continents of Europe and Asia are conceptual entities, Eurasia - the combined land mass of the two - is a physiogeographical one. Each of the sedentary civilizations - in loose terminology Europe, the Middle East, India, Southeast Asia and East Asia - is a unique combination of cultural features. Some of these may appear in more than one area; yet an association of various components, moulded by a unique historical process and greatly influenced by national environment, made each of these regions different from the others. The frontier of Inner Asia is unstable; it has varied from age to age, shifting according to the balance of power between its own population and that of the surrounding, sedentary civilizations. The military efficiency of a nomad cavalry force was a function of its size, but the relationship between the number of horses and their military value was not a mathematical constant but a geometric progression.
  • 2 - The geographic setting
    pp 19-40
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521243049.003
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The areal extent and diversity of the natural landscapes of Inner Asia impel a survey of the geographic background of this region to concentrate on the environmental characteristics which seem to contribute most to an understanding of the even greater complexities of the human use of these lands. This chapter focuses initially on five general geographic features of Inner Asia: its size; the effects of distance from maritime influences on movement and climate; the problems of its rivers; geographic diversity and uniformity; and, the limited capabilities for areally extensive crop agriculture. It discusses the major environmental components of the natural zones of Inner Asia. The mountain zone of Inner Asia consists of a large number of mountain chains of diverse geological structure and age. A massive zone of deserts occupies most of the southern portions of Inner Asia from the Caspian Sea to the eastern edges of the Gobi and Ordos deserts in Mongolia.
  • 3 - Inner Asia at the dawn of history
    pp 41-96
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521243049.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries brought to light exceedingly important discoveries by archeologists on the continent of Asia. Within the boundaries of this orographic system Inner Asia appears against a background of the rest of the planet as an enclosed unit with its own characteristic terrains and peculiar flora and fauna. Special variants of these flint tools are chopping tools or choppers of flint with a cutting point in place of a transverse cutting edge. The Middle Paleolithic peoples of Inner Asia achieved their highest culture probably somewhat later, as is evidenced by a series of rich finds in the south of the Mongolian Peoples' Republic, in the Gobi, and in the west at the foot of the Mongol Altai. In Western Mongolia there has been discovered still another pre-ceramic culture characterized not only by light stone tools of the round scraper type, but also by tools formed by the characteristic serrate technique.
  • 4 - The Scythians and Sarmatians
    pp 97-117
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521243049.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    From the end of the 7th century BC to the 4th century BC the Central-Eurasian steppes were inhabited by two large groups of kin Iranian-speaking tribes - the Scythians and Sarmatians. While these two groups were ethnically close and their ways of life were very similar, each of them had their own historical destinies and characteristics, in economic and social development, as well as in culture. The study of the Scythians and Sarmatians in the Soviet era has made very considerable advances, particularly through the accumulation of new archeological sources in the post-war period. The early history of the Scythians is bound up with military expeditions into the countries of Western Asia. Archeologists have been unable to find the land of Gerrhi which, according to Herodotus, was the burial-place of the Scythian kings. The economy of this primitive state polity was based on the exploitation of free members of the community.
  • 5 - The Hsiung-nu
    pp 118-150
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521243049.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Chinese written tradition traces the beginnings of the Hsiung-nu back to times immemorial. It is reported that the Hsiung-nu had been known in remote antiquity under a number of different names such as Hun-chu, Hsienyun, Jung, Ti, etc. In other words, the Hsiung-nu made their earliest formal appearance on the stage of Inner Asian history when Chinese history was just about to turn a new page, at the end of the Warring States period. The eastern neighbors of the Hsiung-nu, the Tung-hu, hearing of Motun's succession, evidently tried to test the new ruler. Motun's power was rapidly expanding during the early years of the Han dynasty. Towards the end of the 3rd century BC the territories under Tung-hu control extended from the southern part of Inner Mongolia to southern Manchuria. The half-century that stretched from 115 to 60 BC was a period in which the Hsiung-nu and the Han struggled for mastery over the Western Regions.
  • 6 - Indo-Europeans in Inner Asia
    pp 151-176
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521243049.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The earliest linguistic remains of the Indo-Europeans in this area date from about the third quarter of the first millenium AD. This consists of a literature, largely of Indie origin, Buddhistic in content, mostly translations or adaptations of religio-philosophical works, and a few commercial documents. The relationship between Tokharian and Hittite has been considered so close that they could have separated from the parent speech earlier than, and independent of, the rest of the Indo-European family. In the Chinese and Tibetan Buddhist tradition there are stories about Kaniska's conquest of Saketa and Magadha (Eastern India): the latter surrendered the sacred alms bowl of the Buddha, the famous scholar Asvaghosa and a miraculous cock to him. The political history of the Indo-Europeans of Inner Asia from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD is indeed a glorious period. The new eclecticism generated new trends of thought and they were reflected in religion, art and literature.
  • 7 - The Hun period
    pp 177-205
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521243049.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    There are several reasons why the Huns caught the Western imagination. Firstly, not since Scythian times had any Inner Asian people seriously challenged the equilibrium of the Western World. Secondly, they appeared on the European scene at a time when both the eastern and the western parts of the Roman Empire had to contend with serious internal disorders which weakened their military preparedness. Thirdly, the status quo of the period was disturbed not only by their direct action but even more by their being instrumental in setting into motion the great upheaval of peoples commonly known as the Volkerwanderung. Finally, the enduring reputation of the Huns is due in no small measure to some excellent descriptions given by contemporary writers, even poets whose imagination was caught by this, quite literally, extraordinary people. Huns constituted a military reserve to be counted upon by anyone willing and able to pay the price.
  • 8 - The Avars
    pp 206-228
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521243049.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    A survey of Avar history best begins with a conspectus of the main data culled from the available written sources. The Avars, partly by their weapons and partly by the force of their awe-inspiring reputation, made the Onoghurs, the Zali, the Sabirs, the Utighurs, and Kutrighurs submit one by one. Bayan then sent his envoys to the Emperor's capital already from the Lower Danube, to ask permission for his people to settle down inside the boundaries of the East Roman Empire. Justinian's diplomacy seems to have averted the surrender of any significant territories. For the period ending with the surrender of Sirmium, together with the Ecclesiastical History of John of Ephesus, the fragments of the work of Menander Protector constitute the principal sources of Avar history. Religion is not the only sphere of Avar culture in which the rich and ever increasing archeological material supplements the poor testimony of the written sources.
  • 9 - The peoples of the Russian forest belt
    pp 229-255
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521243049.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The medieval history of the Russian forest belt is largely concerned with three important movements of peoples. The first is the steady expansion of the Eastern Slavic population from the western periphery of the Eurasian forests to the East. The second movement is that of Turkic peoples who went or were driven to the very border of the steppe, the forest-steppe zone. The third movement is that of the Ugric Hungarians into the steppe and their transformation into a steppe people. The Uralic peoples today are divided into two large groups: Finno-Ugric and Samoyed. The dissolution of the Ugric community was probably gradual. The southern elements of the community continued to be oriented towards the steppes. The steppe-dwellers were the principal catalysts for change in the medieval history of the forest zone. The economic structure of Oghur society and hence attendant modes of cultural expression appear to have been somewhat different from those of most of the Turkic nomads.
  • 10 - The peoples of the south Russian steppes
    pp 256-284
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521243049.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The rich grasslands and abundant rivers of the Ponto-Caspian steppes, a continuation of the great Inner Asian plains, constituted a natural gravitation point for the nomad migrating or ejected from the Asian hinterland. Urban life and the practice of agriculture and other settled pursuits were more in evidence amongst the nomads here. A nomadic life-style, as known from the Khazar and Hungarian models, became more and more the perquisite of the aristocracy, a badge of social distinction. The origins of the Khazar kaghanate, one of the most important political formations of medieval Eurasia, the dominant power in the south-Russian steppe zone, cannot be delineated with precise detail. The people described here are the Pechenegs whose movements were both the result of other migrations in the Central Asian steppes and the cause of still other displacements in the steppes to their west.
  • 11 - The establishment and dissolution of the Türk empire
    pp 285-316
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521243049.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Chinese were just as prone to link any northern Barbarian with the Hsiung-nu as Byzantine historians were to see Scythians in their western counterparts. The sources contain a great number of Turk personal names. They appear in a variety of scripts and languages: Chinese, Greek, Sogdian, and Turk. Sometimes it is possible to recognize the same name in sources written in different languages. The Turks built their empire on the ruins of that of the Juan-juan. Following the traditions of Chinese diplomacy, always in search of an ally in the rear of the Inner Asian foe, the Wei attempted to look for one in the western regions. In the Western World, for centuries, their name was used as a common denomination of barbarians, irrespective of their language, whereas for the peoples of Inner Asia, the name Turk became, and has remained, the hallmark of the unity of peoples sharing a common language.
  • 12 - The Uighurs
    pp 317-342
    • By Colin Mackerras, School of Modern Asian Studies, Griffith University, Australia
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521243049.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter provides a brief sketch of Uighur history and then moves to a more detailed consideration of which peoples lived within the confines of the Uighur empire. It discusses how far the boundaries extended; and which persons or groups held power and prestige among the Uighurs. The chapter also discusses Manichaeism, the religion that exercised a profound influence on Uighur history. The Uighur chapter of the New T'ang history (Hsin T'ang-shu) records that an embassy of 788 was led by an official of the Adiz tribe, indicating that the Adiz belonged to the confederation by that time. Despite the persistence of the old ways, it is clear from their approach to religion that the Uighurs of the empire period was undergoing change more rapidly than at any time in their earlier history. They were definitely advancing towards a more sophisticated stage of civilization in their modes of thought, social patterns and economy.
  • 13 - The Karakhanids and early Islam
    pp 343-370
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521243049.014
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Eastern Iranian lands around the Oxus (Jayhun, modern Amu Darya), lacking political unity and effective leadership, were the natural targets of Arab raiding columns fresh from the conquest of Sassanid Iran. Christianity, especially the adherents of the persecuted Nestorian heterodoxy, was also found in Iranian and Turkic Central Eurasia, coming to the latter through Iranian merchant intermediaries. The Islam brought to the Eastern Iranian frontier during the Umayyad period was still parochial and decidedly Arab in its outlook. The Volga-Ural region was inhabited by the Turkic Pechenegs who were being driven westward by their neighbors the Oghuz and would soon leave the area entirely. The Samanid achievement in Central Asia had been considerable. The islamicization of the area was due, in large measure, to their activities. The migrations also further fueled the turbulence touched off by the intra-Karakhanid and Ghaznavid-Karakhanid wars. In contrast to Saljuk progress and consolidation, albeit imperfect at times, the Karakhanids were experiencing increasing fragmentation.
  • 14 - Early and medieval Tibet
    pp 371-399
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521243049.015
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The most important evidence of Tibetan prehistory are the megalithic monuments which extend in a broad belt from western Tibet across the plateau to the north of the trans-Himalayas, the region of the great salt lakes, and parts of the Byang-thang as far as Amdo in northeast Tibet. During the Han period the Ch'iang settled further to the east in those regions which they would later incorporate into their own kingdom from the Chinese: Kansu and Shensi. The Tibetan campaign against the A-zha and the neighboring regions of China would seem to have been somewhat unexpected, since the A-zha had never been a Tibetan vassal-state nor subject to Srong-brtsan gam-po. The Tibeto-Chinese peace treaty of 783 confirmed Tibetan dominion over East Turkestan, Kansu, and a large part of Szechwan. Khri-srong lde-brtsan's long series of political and military victories show that he was increasingly able to establish his authority in domestic affairs, especially in religious policies.
  • 15 - The forest peoples of Manchuria: Kitans and Jurchens
    pp 400-423
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521243049.016
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The political fragmentation of China in the 10th century AD and most of her history under the Sung dynasty (960-1234) was coeval with the emergence of states on her borders which were founded by non-Chinese peoples but largely patterned on Chinese models. Of these peoples the Kitans and the Jurchen are of special importance because they both succeeded in extending their domination over large parts of Northern China. The original habitat of the Kitans was Manchuria where they are first recorded in what is now the north of Jehol province, near the upper course of the Liao River and its tributary Laoha Muren. The essential feature of the Kitan state remained, however, a dichotomy between a bureaucracy for governing the sedentary population (chiefly Chinese), and a more tribal administration for the Kitans themselves and other ethnic groups. The dwellings of the Jurchen were adapted to the climatic conditions of their homeland with its severe winter cold.
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Al-Idrīsī, , Kitāb Nuzhat al-Mushtāq fī Ikhtirāq al-Afāq: Opus Geographicum sive “Liber ad eorum delectationem qui terras peragrare studeant,” ed. Cerulli, E., Gabrieli, F. et al. fasc. 1–9 (Leiden, 1970–1984).
Al-Idrīsī, , Kitāb Nuzhat al-Mushtāq fī Ikhtirāq al-Āfāq: Opus Geographicum, ed. Rubinacci, R. et al., fasc. 1–9 (Leiden–Rome–Naples, 1970–84).
Al-Kāshgharī, Maḥmūd, Divanü Lǔgat-it-Türk, facs. ed. Atalay, Besim (Türk Dil Kurumu, Ankara, 1941).
Al-‘Utbī, , Ta'rikh al-Yamīnī with commentary of al-Manīnī, Shaykh Aḥmad b. 'Alī (Cairo, 1268/1869).
Al-Maqdisī, , Kitāb al-Bad' wa'l-Tawārīkh (“The Book of Creation and the Histories”), ed. Huart, C., 6 vols. (Paris, 1899–1919, reprint: Tehran, 1962).
Al-Marwazī, , Ṭabāʾi al-Ḥayawān (“The Nature of Animals”): Sharaf al-Zamān Ṭāhir Marwazīon China, the Turks and India, ed. trans. Minorsky, V. F. (London, 1942).
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Al-Masʿūdī (?), , Akhbār al-Zamān wa man abādahu'l-Ḥidthān wa 'Ajāʾib al-Buldān wa Ghāmir bi'l-Ma' wa'ł-'Umrān [“The History of Times Past (lit. 'The Information of Times which Eveñts have exterminated) and the Wonders of the Lands and Wastes on Water and Cultivated Lands”] (Beirut, 1966).
Al-Masʿūdi, , Kitāb al-Tanbīh wa'l Ishrāf (“The Book of Admonition and Recension”), ed. Goeje, M. J. (Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum, VIII, Leiden, 1894).
Al-Masʿūdī, , Kitāb al-Tanbīh wa'l-Ishrāf (“The Book of Admonition and Recension”), ed. Goeje, M. J., (Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum., viii, Leiden, 1894).
Al-Masʿūdī, , Murūj al-Dhahab wa Maʿādin al-Jawhar (“Meadows of Gold and Mines of Precious Stones”), ed. Pellat, C. (Beirut, 1966–79) 7 vols.
Al-Masʿūdī, , Murūj adh-Dhahab wa Ma ʿādin al-Jawhar, ed. Pellat, C., 7 vols. (Beirut, 1966–1979).
Al-Muqaddasī, , Aḥsan al-Taqāsīm fī Ma'rifat al-Aqālīm (“The Best of Divisions Regarding Knowledge of the Climes”), ed. Goeje, M. J. (Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum, III, Leiden, 1906).
Al-Nadīm, , Kitāb al-Fihrist (“The Index”), ed. Flügel, G. (Leipzig, 1871–2, reprint: Beirut, 1964).
Al-Nadīm, , The Fihrist of al-Nadim, trans, ed. Dodge, B., 2 vols. (Records of Civilization: Sources and Studies, 83, New York–London, 1970).
Al-Ya'qūbī, , Kitāb al-Buldān, ed. Goeje, M. J. (Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum, 7 Leiden, 1892).
Al-Ya'qūbī, , Ta'rīkh (“The History”) (Beirut, 1390/1970).
Al-Ya'qūbī, , Ta'rīkh, (Beirut, 1390/1970) 2 vols.
Alföldi, A., 1950, “Die ethische Grenzscheide am römischen Limes,” Schweizer Beiträge zur Allgemeinen Geschichte 8, pp. 35–50 – the following entry is an English version of the same article:.
Alföldi, A., 1952, “The Moral Barrier on Rhine and Danube,” in Congress of Roman Frontier Studies, edited by Birley, E., pp. 1–16 (Durham).
Aliev, S. M., “O datirovke nabega rusov upomjanutykh Ibn Isfandijarom i Amoli,” In Tveritinova, A. S. (ed.), Vostočnye istočniki po istorii narodov jugo-vostočnoĭ i central'noĭ Evrope, 2 vols. (Moskva, 1964, 1969), vol. ii.
Alikhova, A. E., “K voprosu o burtasakh,” Sovetskaja Êtnografija, no. 1 (1949).
Altheim, F., Stiel, R., “Michael der Syrer über die erste Auftreten der Bulgaren und Chazaren”, Byzantion, xxviii (1958).
Altheim, Franz, 1962–75, Geschichte der Hunnen, I–V (Berlin). [This work has been written with the collaboration of many scholars. Extreme caution is recommended in its use, since it is replete with gratuitous hypotheses].
Ammianus Marcellinus, 1939, With an English Translation by Rolfe, John C., I–III (Loeb Classical Library).
Ančabadze, Z. B., “Kipčaki severnogo Kavkaza po dannym gruzinskikh letopisӗi XI – XIV vekov,” in Treskov, I. V. et al. (eds.), Materialy naučnoĭ sessii po probleme proiskhoždenie balkarskogo i karačaevskogo narodov (Nal'čik, 1960).
Andersson, J. G., 1943, “Researches into the Pre-History of the Chinese”, Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 15.
Angelov, D., Gjuzelev, V., ‘Izvestija v armjansk izvori za srednevekovnata istorija na Bŭlgarija,” Istoričeski Pregled, 22.1 (1966).
Angelov, D., Gjuzelev, V., Obrazuvanie na bŭlgarskata narodnost (Sofija, 1971).
Ankori, Zvi, Karaites in Byzantium (New York – Jerusalem, 1959).
Annales Bertiniani: Annales de Saint-Bertin, ed. Grat, F., Vielliard, J., Clémencet, S., intro. notes by Levillain, L. (Paris, 1964).
Annales Fuldenses, ed. Kurze, F. (MGH. Scriptores in usum scholarum, XIII, Hannover, 1891).
Anokhin, V. A., 1965, “Monety skifskogo carja Atei,” [The Coins of the Scythian King Atheas], Numizmatika i sfragristika (Kiev), 2, pp. 3–15.
Anonymous, , Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam, trans. Minorsky, V. F. (E.J. W. Gibb Memorial New Series, 11, London, 1937, reprint 1970).
Anuchin, V. A., 1948, Geograficheskie ocherki Man'chzhurii (Moscow).
Arkheologicheskie pamjatniki Jakutii, bassejny Aldana i Olekmy, 1983, edited by Mochanov, Ju. A., (Novosibirsk).
Artamonov, M. I.Očerk drevneĭšӗi istorii Khazar (Leningrad, 1936).
Artamonov, M. I.Belaja Beža,” Sovetskaja Arkheologija 16 (1952), pp. 42–76. Istorija khazar (Leningrad, 1962).
Artamonov, M. I., 1949, “Etnogeografija Skifii” [The ethno-geography of Scythia], UZLGU, issue 13, No. 85, pp. 129–71.
Artamonov, M. I., 1950, “K voprosu o proiskhozhdenii skifov” [On the question of the Origin of the Scythians], VD1 2, pp. 37–47.
Artamonov, M. I., 1966, Sokrovishcha skifskikh kurganov [Treasures of Scythian Kurgans], (Praha– Leningrad).
Artamonov, M. I., 1972, “Skifskoe carstvo” [The Scythian Kingdom], Sovetskaja Arkheologija, 1972, 3.
Ašmarin, N. I., Bolgary i Čuvašy (Kazan', 1902).
Asołig, : Histoire universelle par Etienne Açoghig de Daron, trans. DuLaurier, E., 2 vols., (Paris, 1883–1917).
Aufschnaiter, P., 1956–57, “Prehistoric Sites Discovered in Inhabited Regions of Tibet,” East and West 7, pp. 74–95.
Avenarius, A., 1974, Die Awaren in Europa (Amsterdam-Bratislava).
Bachrach, Bernard S., 1973, A History of the Alans in the West (Minneapolis). [The histories of the Huns and Alans are closely intertwined].
Bacot, J., “Reconnaissance en Haute Asie Septentrionale par cinq envoyés Ouigours au VIIIe siècle,” Journal Asiatique, 244 (1956), pp. 137–53.
Bacot, Jacques, 1935, “Le mariage chinois du roi Sron bean sgan po (extrait du Mani bka' 'bum),” Mélanges Chinois et Bouddhiques III, pp. 1–10.
Bacot, Jacques, 1940–1946, Documents de Touen-houang relatifs à l'histoire du Tibet, Annales du Musée Guimet, tome 51 (DTH) (Paris).
Bailey, H. W., 1937, “Ttaugara,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies 8, pp. 883–921.
Bailey, H. W., 1947, “Recent Works on Tokharian,” Transactions of the Philological Society, pp. 126–53 (London).
Bailey, H. W., 1970a, “Saka Studies: The Ancient Kingdom of Khotan,” Iran. Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies 8, pp. 65–72.
Bailey, H. W., 1970b, “Tokharika,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, pp. 121–2.
Bailey, H. W., 1971, “The Kingdom of Khotan,” Papers on Far Eastern History 4, pp. 1–16.
Bakay, K., 1973, “Az avarkor időrendjéről,” Somogyi Múzeumok Közleményei I, pp. 5–86.
Bal'amī, , Tārīkh-i Ṭabarī: Chronique de Abou Djafar Mohammad ben Djarir ben Yezid Tabari (traduite sur la version persane d'Abou 'Ali Mohammed Bel'amī, trans. Zotenberg, H., 4 vols. (Paris, 1867–74).
Bal'amī, , Tarjuma-i Tārīkh-i Ḥabari, Lithographic, ed. Minovi, M. of ms. 7481 of Jerusalem, al-Aksa Mosque Library (Teheran, 1345/1926–7, reprint: 1966).
Balcer, Jack M., 1972, “The Date of Herodotus IV. 1. Darius' Scythian Expedition,” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 76, pp. 99–132.
Banerjea, J. N., 1962, “The Rise and Fall of the Kushana Empire,” in Comprehensive History of India edited by Sastri, K. A. Nilakanta, vol. 2, chapter 7, pp. 156–221 (Calcutta).
Bang, W. von and Gabain, A. von, “Türkische Turfan-Texte II,” Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 411–30 (1929).
Banner, JánosJakabfryImre, , 1954–68, Archäologische Bibliographie des Mittel-Donaubeckens, i–iii (Budapest). [A complete bibliography up to 1966].
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Bárczi, Géza, A magyar nyelv életrajza (Budapest, 3rd ed., 1975).
Barfield, Thomas J., 1981, “The Hsiung-Imperial Confederacy: Organization and Foreign Policy,” Journal of Asian Studies 41, 1, pp. 45–61.
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Bartha, Antal, Hungarian Society in the 9th and 10th Centuries (Budapest, 1975).
Bartha, Antal, Czegléedy, Károly, Róna-Tas, András (eds.), Magyar őstörténeti tanulmányok (Budapest, 1977).
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Barthold, W., 1968, Turkestan Down to the Mongol Invasion, New Edition, (London).
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Bartol'd, V. V., Mesto prikaspiĭskikh oblasteĭ v istorii musul' manskogo mira (Baku, 1925).
Bartol'd, V. V., reprinted Akademik V.V. Bartol'd Sočinenija, 9 vols. (Moscow, 1963–73) 11/1.
Bartol'd, V. V., “Kipčaki,” Akademik V.V. Bartol'd Sočinenija, 9 vols (Moskva, 1963–73).
Bartol'd, V. V., v (Enziklopaedie des Islam, 4 vols., Leiden–Leipzig, 1913–36, 11).
Bartol'd, V. V., “Khazary,” Akademik V.V. Bartol'd Sočinenija, 9 vols. (Moskva, 1963–73), v.
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Bartol'd, V. V., Akademik V. V. Bartol'd Sočinenija, 9 vols. (Moskva, 1963–73) 11/1.
Bartol'd, V. V., “Balasagun”, Akademik V.V. Bartol'd Sočinenija, 9 vols. (Moskva, 1963–1973), vol. III.
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Battal-Taymas, Abdullah, Kazan Türkleri (“The Turks of Kazan”) (Ankara, 1966).
Bazin, Louis, 1976, “Eine Inschrift vom Oberen Jenissei als Quelle zur Geschichte Zentralasiens,” Materialia Turcica, 2, pp. 1–11.
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Beal, S., 1906, Si-Yu-Ki, Buddhist Records of the Western World, 2 volumes (London).
Beckwith, Christopher I., 1979, “The Tibetan Empire in the West,” in Tibetan Studies in Honor of Hugh Richardson, pp. 30–8 (Oxford).
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Belenitsky, (= Aleksandr, Belenickij, 1968, Central Asia. Translated from the Russian by Hogarth, James (Geneva). [Only some parts relevant to this chapter].
Bendefy, L., Fontes authentici itinera (1235–1338) Fr. Iuliani illustrantes, Archivum Europae Centro–Orientalis, III, (Budapest, 1937).
Benkő, Loránd, Tanulmányok a magyar nyelv életrajza köréből (Nyelvtudományi Értekezések, 40, Budapest, 1963–6).
Benkő, Loránd, et al., A magyar nyelv történeti-etimológiai szótára, 4 vols. (Budapest, 1967–84).
Benveniste, E., 1961, “Inscriptions de Bactriane,” Journal asiatique, pp. 113–51.
Benzing, Johannes, “Das Hunnische, Donaubolgarische und Wolgabolgarische,” in Deny, J. et al. (eds.), Philologiae Turcicae Fundamenta (Wiesbaden, 1959 – still in progress), 1.
Berg, Lev, 1950, Natural Regions of the USSR, translated from the Russian by Titelbaum, Olga and edited by Morrison, John A. (New York).
Beševliev', V., pŭrvobŭlgarite, Verata na/Die Religion der Protobulgaren (Sofia, 1939).
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Beševliev, Veselin, 1963, Die protobulgarischen lnschriften (Berlin).
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Bičurin, N. Ja. (lakinf), Sohranie svedeniĭ o narodakh, obitavšikh v Sredneĭ Azii v drevnie vremena, 3 vols. (St. Petersburg, 1851), 2nd ed., 2 vols. (Moscow–Leningrad, 1950–3).
Bielenstein, Hans, 1956, Emperor Kuang-wu and the Northern Barbarians, The 17th Ernest Morrison Lecture in Ethnology, Canberra, The Australian National University.
Bivar, A.D.H., 1956, “The Kushana-Sassanian Coin Series,” Journal of the Numismatic Society of India, 18, pp. 13–42.
Bivar, A.D.H., 1963, “The Kaniṣka Dating from Surkh Kotal,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 26, pp. 498–502.
Boba, Imre, Nomads, Northmen and Slavs (Slavo-Orientalia, 11 Wiesbaden–The Hague, 1967).
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Bombaci, Alessio, 1964–1965, “Qutluy bolzun! A Contribution to the History of the Concept ‘Fortune’ among the Turks,” Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher. 36, pp. 284–91; 38, pp. 13–14.
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Bombaci, Alessio, 1971, “The Husbands of Princess Hsien-li Bilgä,” Studia Turcica, edited by Ligeti, L., pp. 103–23 (Budapest).
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Bóna, I., 1971b, A népvándorlás kora Fehérmegyében (Székesfehérvár).
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Chang, Wei-hua, Lun Han Wu-ti, Shanghai, 1957.
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Charanis, P. 1953, “On the Slavic Settlement in the Peloponnesus,” Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 46, pp. 91–103.
Chard, C. S. 1958a, “An Outline of the Prehistory of Siberia. Pt. I. The Pre-Metal Periods,” Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 14.
Chard, C. S. 1958b, “The Oldest Sites of Northeastern Siberia,” American Antiquity 21, No. 4.
Chavannes, E., 1907, “Les pays d'Occident d'après le Heou Han Chou,” T'oung Pao 6, pp. 149–234.
Chavannes, E., Documents sur les Tou-kiue, (Turcs,) Occidentaux (St. Petersbourg, 1903).
Chavannes, Edouard, Documents sur les Tou-kiue (Turcs) Occidentaux, recueillis et commentés suivi de Notes Additionnelles (Sbornik trudov Orkhonskoǐ ekspedicii, vi, Sanktpeterburg, 1903.
Chavannes, Edouard, T'oung Pao, series ii, 4, 1904, both reprinted as one volume: Paris, 1941).
Chavannes, Edouard, 1903, Documents sur les Tou-kiue (Turcs) Occidentaux, (St. Pétersbourg). (Reprint 1941?).
Chavannes, Edouard, 1904, “Notes additionnelles sur les Tou-kiue (Turcs) Occidentaux”, T'oung Pao. 5, pp. 1–110. (Reprinted in the reprint of the Documents).
Chavannes, Edouard, 1905, “Jinagupta, (528–605 après J.C.),” T'oung Pao 6, pp. 332–56.
Chavannes, Edouard, 1912, “Epitaphes de deux princesses turques des T'ang,” Festschrift V. Thomsen, pp. 78–87 (Leipzig).
Chavannes, Edouard, Documents sur les Tou-kiue (Turcs) Occidentaux, (St. Petersbourg, 1903).
Chavannes, Edouard and Pelliot, Paul, “Un traité manichéen retrouvé en Chine,” Journal asiatique 10.18: 499–617 (1911), 11.1: 99–199, 261–394 (1913).
Chavannes, Edouard, 1897–8, “Voyageurs chinois chez les Khitans et les Joutchen,” Journal asiatique 1897, I, pp. 377–422, 1898, I, pp. 361–439.
Cheng, Ch'in-jen, “Hsiung-nu,” Hsin Shih-tai, vol. 9, No. 4 (1969).
Cheng, T'e-kun, 1973, “The Beginning of Chinese Civilization,” Antiquity 47, pp. 197–209.
Chernecov, V. N. 1953, Drevnjaja istorija Nizhnego Priob'ja, Materialy i issledovanija po arkheologii SSSR 35.
Chernenko, E. V., 1968, Skifskii dospekh [Scythian armor] (Kiev).
Chernenko, E. V., 1981, Skifskie luchniki [Scythian archers] (Kiev).
Chernikov, S. S., 1949, Drevnjaja metallurgija i gornoe delo Zapadnogo Altaja (Alma-Ata).
Chernikov, S. S., 1960, Vostochnoj Kazakhstan v êpokhu bronzy, Materialy i issledovanija po arkheologii SSSR 88.
Chin, Kuang-p'ing and Ch'i-ts'ung, Chin, 1980, Nü-chen yü-yen wen-tzu yen-chiu, [A Study of the Jurchen Language and Script] (Peking).
Chlenova, N. L., 1962, “Ob olennykh kamnjakh Mongolii i Sibiri,” Mongol'skij arkheologicheskij sbornik (edited by Kiselev, S. V.), (Moskva), pp. 27–35. [The same topic was studied more in detail by the same author in “Skifskij olen',” Materialy i issledovanija po arkheologii SSSR 115 (1962), pp. 167–203. See also Jacobson 1983].
Chlenova, N. L., 1964, “Karasukskaja kul'tura v Juzhnoj Sibiri,” in Drevnjaja Sibir (Ulan-Udê), pp. 263–78.
Chlenova, N. L., 1972, Khronologija pamjatnikov karasukskoj êpokhi (Moskva).
Chung-kuo, K'o-hsüeh Yüan K'ao-ku Yen-chiuSo,.Hsin Chung-kuo ti K'ao-ku Shou-huo, Peking, 1961.
Claudian, 1922, With an English translation by Platnauer, Maurice, I–II (Loeb Classical Library).
Clauson, G., “À propos du Manuscrit Pelliot Tibétain 1283,” Journal asiatique 245 (1957).
Clauson, Gerard Sir, 1971, “Some Notes on the Inscription of Toñuquq,” Studia Turcica edited by Ligeti, L., pp. 125–32, (Budapest).
Codex Cumanicus in Faksimile herausgegeben, ed. Grønbech, Kaare (Monumenta Linguarum Asiae Maioris, 1, Kopenhagen, 1936).
Comnena, Anna: Anne Comnene, Alexiade, ed., trans. Leib, B., 3 vols. (Paris, 1937–45).
Comşa, M., 1972, “Directions et étapes de la pénétration des Slaves vers la Péninsule Balkanique aux VIe–VIIe siècles (avec un regard spécial sur le territoire de la Roumanies,” Balcanoslavica I, pp. 9–28.
Constantinus et Methodius Thessalonicenses, Fontes (Konstantin i Metodije Solunjani, Izvori), ed. Grivec, F., Tomšić, F. (Radovi Staroslavenskog Instituta, IV, Zagreb, 1960).
Coon, C. S., 1951, Cave Exploration in Iran 1949, University Museum, University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia).
Croke, Brian, 1977, “Evidence for the Hun Invasion of Thrace in a.d. 422,” Greek, Roman, Byzantine Studies 18, pp. 347–68.
Croke, Brian, 1981, “Anatolius and Nomus: Envoys to Attila,” Byzantinoslavica 42, pp. 159–70.
Csallány, D., “Rovásirásos gyűrűk Magyarországon,” Archaeológiai Értesítő, 82 (1955).
Csallány, Dezső, 1956, Archäologische Denkmäler der Awarenzeit in Mitteleuropa (Budapest). A complete bibliography up to 1955. To be complemented by Kollautz, 1965.
Csallány, Dezsö, 1939, “Kora–avarkori sirleletek – Grabfunde der Frühawarenzeit,” Folia Archeologica 12, pp. 121–80.
Csallány, Dezsö, 1956, Archäologische Denkmäler der Awarenzeit in Mitteleuropa (Budapest). [A complete bibliography up to 1955. Complemented by Kollautz 1965, cited above, p. 000].
Cunningham, A., 1888, “Coins of the Indo-Scythian King Miaus or Heraus,” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society 3rd Series, 8, pp. 47–58.
Cunningham, A., 1889, “Coins of the Tochari, Kushans or Yue-ti,” Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society 3rd Series, 9, pp. 268–311.
Cunningham, A., 1892, “Coins of the Kushanas or Great Yueti,” Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society 3rd Series, 12, pp. 40–82, 95–159.
Cunningham, A., 1893, 1894, “Later Indo-Scythians,” Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society 3rd Series, 13, pp. 93–128, 166–202; 14, pp. 243–93.
Curiel, R. and Schlumberger, D., 1953 Trésors monétaires d'Afghanistan, Mémoires de la Délégation Archéologique Française en Afghanistan 14.
Czebe, Gy., “Turco-byzantinische Miszellen, I. Konstantinos, De administrando Imperio 37. Kapitel über die Petschenegen,” Kőrösi Csoma Archivum., i (1921–5) pp. 209–19.
Czeglédy, K., 1954, “Monographs on Syriac and Muhammadan Sources in the Literary Remains of M. Kmoskó,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 4, pp. 19–90.
Czeglédy, K., 1957, “The Syriac Legend Concerning Alexander the Great,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 7, pp. 231–49.
Czeglédy, K., 1971, “Pseudo-Zacharias Rhetor on the Nomads,” in Studia Turcica, edited by Ligeti, L., pp. 133–48. (Budapest).
Czeglédy, K., 1958, “Bahrām Čōbīn and the Persian Apocalyptic Literature,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 8, pp. 21–43.
Czeglédy, K., 1962, “Coγay-quzï, Qara-qum, Kök-öng,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 15, pp. 55–69.
Czeglédy, K., 1972, “On the Numerical Composition of the Ancient Turkish Tribal Confederation,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 25, pp. 275–81.
Czeglédy, K., 1973, “Gardizi on the History of Central Asia (746–80 a.d.),” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 27, pp. 257–67.
Czeglédy, K., 1980, “Zur Geschichte der Hephtaliten,” Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 28, pp. 213–17.
Czeglédy, K., 1983, “From East to West: the Age of Nomadic Migrations in Eurasia,” Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi, III, pp. 25–125. [Translated from Hungarian by Golden, P. B.].
Czeglédy, K., “A karluk törzsek nevei,” Magyar Nyelv 45 (1949), pp. 164–168.
Czeglédy, K., “Kāšġarī földrajzi neveihez,” Bárczi Géza – Emlékkönyv, ed. Benkö, L. (Budapest, 1963).
Czeglédy, K., “Gardīzī on the History of Central Asia (745–780 a.d.),” Acta Orientalia Hungarica 27.3 (1973).
Czeglédy, Károly, “Magna Hungaria,” Századok, 75 (1943).
Czeglédy, Károly, “A magyarság Dél-Oroszországban” in Ligeti, L.(ed.), A magyarság őstörténete (Budapest, 1943).
Czeglédy, Károly, “A IX századi magyar történelem föbb kérdései,” Magyar Nyelv, XLI (1945).
Czeglédy, Károly, IV–IX századi népmozgalmak a steppén (A Magyar Nyelvtudományi Társaság Kiadványai, 84, Budapest, 1954).
Czeglédy, Károly, Hajdú, Péter (eds.), A magyar őstörténet kérdései Nyelvtudományi Értekezések, 5, (Budapest, 1955).
Czeglédy, Károly, “Etimológia és filológia (Bulgár-török jövevényszavaink átvételének történeti hátteréről),” in Benkő, L., Sál, E. K. (eds.), Az etimológia elmélete és módszere (Nyelvtudományi Értekezések, 89, Budapest, 1976).
Czeglédy, Károly, Egy bolgár török yiltavar méltóságnév,” Magyar Nyelv, XL (1944).
Czeglédy, Károly, “Egy kazár méltóságnév,” Magyar Nyelv, XLIII (1947).
Czeglédy, Károly, “A kunok eredetéről,” Magyar Nyelv, XLV (1949), pp. 43–50.
Czeglédy, Károly, “A kazár kil-kel eredete,” Magyar Nyelv, XLIX (1953), pp. 175–8.
Czeglédy, Károly, “Herakleios török szövetségesei,” Magyar Nyelv, XLIX (1953), pp. 319–23.
Czeglédy, Károly, “Monographs on Syriac and Muhammadan Sources in the Literary Remains of M. Kmoskó”, Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae., 4 (1954) pp. 19–91.
Czeglédy, Károly, “Kaukázusi hunok, kaukázusi avarok”, Studia Antiqua Hungarica, 2 (1955) pp. 123–40.
Czeglédy, Károly, “Khazar Raids in Transcaucasia in a.d. 762–764,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae., 11 (1960) pp. 75–88.
Czeglédy, Károly, “A korai kazár történelem forrásainak kritikájához,” A Magyar Tudományos Akadémia nyelv-és irodalomtudományi osztályának közleményei, 15 (1960) pp. 107–28.
Czeglédy, Károly, “Bemerkungen zur Geschichte der Chazaren,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae., 13 (1961) pp. 243–51.
Czeglédy, Károly, “TEPMATZOγΣ,” Acta Antiqua Hungarica, 10 (1962).
Czeglédy, Károly, A nomád népek vándorlása napkelettől napnyugatig (Kőorösi Csoma Kiskönyvtár, 8, Budapest, 1969).
Czeglédy, Károly, “Pseudo-Zacharias Rhetor on the Nomads,” in Ligeti, L. (ed.), Studia Turcica (Budapest, 1971), pp. 133–48.
Czeglédy, Károly, “Ogurok és türkök Kazáriában” in Bartha, A. et al. (eds.), Magyar őbstörténeti tanulmányok (Budapest, 1977).
Ḑbrowski, Krzysztof, Nagrodzka-Majchrzyk, Teresa, Tryjarski, Edward, Hunowie Europejscy, Protobułgarzy, Chazarowie, Pieczyngowie (Wroław-Warszawa-Kraków-Gdańsk, 1975).
Da̧browski, Krzysztof, Nagrodzka-Majchrzyk, Teresa, Tryjarski, Edward, Hunowie Europejscy Protobulgarzy, Chazarowie, Pieczyngowie (Wroław-Warszawa-Kraków-Gdańsk, 1975).
Daffinà, Paolo, 1982, “The Han shu Hsi yü chuan retranslated. A Review Article,” T'oung Pao, 68, pp. 309–39.
Daffinà, Paolo, 1982, Il nomadismo centrasiatico, Parte prima, Istituto dell'India e dell'Asia Orientale, (Roma). The title does not reflect accurately the content of the book which is probably the best and most up-to-date presentation of Inner Asian history and civilization up the end of the Hsiung-nu period.
Daffinà, Paolo, 1985, “La Persia sassanide secondo le fonti cinese,” Rivista degli Studi Orientali, 57, pp. 121–70.
Dauvillier, Jean, “Les provinces chaldéennes ‘de l'extérieur’ au moyen âge,” Mélanges offerts au R.P. Ferdinand Cavallera (Toulouse, 1948), pp. 261–316.
Davidovič, E. A., “Numizmatičeskie materialy dlja khronologii i genealogii sredneaziatskikh Karakhanidov,” Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Istoričeskogo Muzeja, 26, Numizmatičeskiĭ sbornik, pt. 2 (1957).
Dawson, Christopher (editor), 1966, The Mongol Mission, Harper Torchbook (1966).
De Crespigny, R., 1984, Northern Frontier. The Policies and Strategy of the Later Han Empire, Faculty of Asian Studies Monographs, New Series. 4 (Canberra).
de Vajay, Sz., Der Eintritt des ungarischen Stämmebundes in die europäischen Geschichte (München, 1968).
Debec, G. F., 1948, Paleoantropologija SSSR, Trudy Instituta êtnografii AN SSSR, Novaja serija iv..
Debec, G. F., 1956, “Problema proiskhozhdenija kirgizskogo naroda v svete antropologicheskikh dannykh,” Trudy kirgizskoj arkheologo-êtnograficheskoj êkspedicii 1, pp. 3–17.
Décsy, Gyula, Einführung in die Finnisch-Ugrische Sprachwissenschaft (Wiesbaden, 1965).
Deér, Joseph, 1965, “Karl der Grosse und der Untergang des Awarenreiches” in Karl der Grosse, herausgegeben von Braunfels, W., vol. 1, pp. 719–91 (Düsseldorf).
Deér, József, Pogány magyarság keresztény magyarság (Budapest, 1938).
Deguignes, , 1756–8, Histoire générale des Huns, des Turcs, des Mongols et des autres Tartares occidentaux … avant et depuis Jésus-Christ, jusqu'à présent, i–iv (in 5 volumes), (Paris).
Demiéville, Paul, 1952, Le concile de Lhasa. Une controverse sur le quiétisme entre bouddhistes de l'lnde et de la Chine au Vllle siècle de l'ère chrétienne, Bibliothèque de l'Institut des Hautes Etudes Chinoises, Vol. VII (Paris).
Denis, Sinor, Introduction à l'étude de l'Eurasie Centrale (Wiesbaden 1963), pp. 210–15.
Denis, Sinor, Introduction à l'étude de l'Eurasie Centrale (Wiesbaden 1963), pp. 261–5.
Derevjanko, A. P., 1970a, Gromatukhskaja kul'tura, In: Sibir i ee sosedi v drevnosti (Novosibirsk).
Derevjanko, A. P., 1969, “The Novopetrovka Blade Culture on the Middle Amur,” Arctic Anthropology, No. 1, pp. 119–127.
Derevjanko, A. P., 1970b, Novopetrovskaja kul'tura Srednego Amura (Novosibirsk).
Derevjanko, A.P.–Okladnikov A.P., 1969, “Drevnie kul'tury vostochnykh rajonov MNP (k itogam arkheologicheskikh issledovanij 1949 i 1967 gg.),” Sovetskaja Arkheologija 1969, 4, pp. 141–56.
Derevjanko, E. I., 1975, Mokhêskie pamjatniki Srednego Priamur' ja (Novosibirsk).
Desmaisons, P. I., Histoire des Mogols et des Tatares par Aboul-Ghazi Béhadour Khan (St. Pétersbourg, 1871–4, reprint Amsterdam, 1970).
Dexippi, Eunapii, Petri Patricii, Prisci, Malchi, Menandri historiarum quae supersunt, ed. Bekker, I., Niebuhr, B. G. (Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae, Bonn, 1829).
Dexippi, Eunapii, Petri Patricii, Prisci, Malchi, Menandri historiarum quae supersunt, ed. Bekker, I., Niebuhr, B. G. (Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae, Bonn, 1829).
Diaconu, P., Les Petchenègues au Bas-Danube (Bibliotheca Historica Romaniae, 27, Bucarest 1970).
Diakonoff, I. M. 1981, “The Cimmerians,” Acta Iranica, 2nd Series, vol. vii, pp. 103–40. [Very important].
Dienes, István, The Hungarians Cross the Carpathians, trans. Balogh, B. (Budapest, 1972).
Dikov, N. N., 1958, Bronzovyj vek Zabajkal'ja (Ulan-Udê).
Dikov, N. N., 1964, “Kamennyj vek Kamchatki i Chukotki v svete novejshikh arkheologicheskikh dannykh,” in Istorija i kul'tura narodov severo-vostoka SSSR (Magadan).
Dikov, N. N., [There is an English version: “The Stone Age of Kamchatka and the Chukchi Peninsula in the Light of New Archaeological Data,” Arctic Anthropology (1965), 3, No. 1, pp. 10–25].
Dikov, N. N., 1977, Arkheologicheskie pamjatniki Kamchatki, Chukotki i Verkhnej Kolymy. Azija na styke s Amerikoj v drevnosti (Moskva). [With English table of contents].
Dikov, N. N., 1979, Drevnie kul'tury Severo Vostochnoj Azii (Moskva). [Continuation of Dikov 1977, with English table of contents].
Doblhofer, E., 1955, Byzantinische Diplomaten und östliche Barbaren. Aus den Excerpta de legationibus des Konstantinos Porphyrogennetos ausgewählte Abschnitte des Priskos und Menander Protektor (Graz).
Doerfer, Gerhard, 1973, “Zur Sprache der Hunnen,” Central Asiatic Journal pp. 1–50. [Cf. on the same topic Pritsak 1982].
Doerfer, Gerhard, 1962, “Zur Bezeichnung der Westtürken”, Central Asiatic Journal 7, pp. 256–63.
Doerfer, Gerhard, 1969, “Altaische Scholien zu Herbert Frankes Artikel,” Zentralasiatische Studien 3, pp. 45–9.
Dolgikh, B. O., 1960, Rodovoj i plemennoj sostav narodov Sibiri v XVII v., Trudy Instituta vostokovedenija. 55.
Dovatur, A. I.Kallistov, D. P.Shisova, I. A., 1982, Narody nashej strany v “Istorii” Gerodota [The peoples of our land in the “Histories” of Herodotus] (Moscow).
Dowsett, C.J.F. [translator], 1961, The History of the Caucasian Albanians by Mvsès Dasxurançi (Oxford).
Dubs, H. H., 1938–55, The History of the Former Han Dynasty. A Critical Translation with Annotations, (Baltimore, Md.).
Ducellier, A., “Les sources byzantines et l'apparition des Hongrois en Europe,” Études Finno-Ougriennes, I (1964).
Dujčev, Ivan, 1976, Cronaca di Monemvasia (Palermo). [An important work concerning the penetration of the Avars and Slavs into Hellas].
Dunlop, D. M., 1957, The History of the Jewish Khazars (Princeton).
Dunlop, Douglas M., The History of the Jewish Khazars (Princeton, 1954).
Džanašvili, M., “Izvestija gruzinskikh letopiseĭ i istorikov o severnom Kavkaze i Rossii,” Sbornik Materialov dlja Opisanija Mestnosteĭ i Piemen Kavkaza, 22 (1897).
Eberhard, W., 1942a, Kultur und Siedlung der Randvölker Chinas, (Leiden). Still very important.
Eberhard, W., 1942b, Lokalkulturen im alten China, (Leiden).
Eberhard, W., 1949, Das Toba-Reich Nordchinas, (Leiden).
Eberhard, W., 1965, Conquerors and Rulers. Social Forces in Medieval China, 2nd, revised edition, (Leiden).
Eberhard, W., 1978, China und seine westlichen Nachbarn. Beiträge zur mittelalterlichen und neueren Geschichte Zentralasiens, (Darmstadt).
Eberhard, W., 1942, Kultur und Siedlung der Kandvölker Chinas, T'oung Pao, supplément au vol. 36 (Leiden).
Eberhard, W., 1942, 1942–3, “Die Kultur der alten zentral- und west-asiatischen Völker nach chinesischen Quellen,” Zeitschrift f¨r Ethnologie 73 pp. 215–75.
Ecsedy, H. 1965, “Old Turkic Titles of Chinese Origin,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 18, pp. 83–91.
Ecsedy, H. 1972, “Tribe and Tribal Society in the 6th Century Turk Empire,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 25, pp. 245–62.
Ecsedy, H. 1977, “Tribe and Empire, Tribe and Society in the Turk Age,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 31, pp. 3–15.
Ecsedy, Hilda, “Old Turkic titles of Chinese origin,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 18: 83–91 (1965).
Egami, Namio, Kita Ajiya Shi, Tokyo, 1956.
Eisner, J., 1952, Devinske Nová Ves (Bratislava).
Enoki, Kazuo, 1955, “The Origin of the White Huns or Hephtalites,” East and West 6, pp. 231–7.
Enoki, Kazuo, 1959, “On the Nationality of the Ephtalites,” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko 18, pp. 1–58.
Enoki, Kazuo, 1963, “The Location of the Capital of Lou-Ian and the Date of KharoṣṬhī Inscriptions,” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko. 22, pp. 125–171.
Enoki, Kazuo, 1965, “On Sino-KharoṣṬhī Coins,” East and West, 15, pp. 231–276.
Enoki, Kazuo, 1968, “Hsieh, Fu-wang or Wang of the Yüeh-shih,” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko 26, pp. 1–13.
Enoki, Kazuo, 1970, “On the Date of the Kidarites (2),” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko. 28, pp. 13–38.
Enoki, Kazuo, 1969, “On the Date of the Kidarites (1),” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko 27, pp. 1–26.
Erdélyi, István, 1982, Az avarság és kelet a régészeti források tükrében (Budapest). [Russian summary].
Erdélyi, István, “Bol'šaja Vengrija,” Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 13 (1961).
Erdélyi, István, “Teorii vengerskikh učenykh o povolžskom proiskhoždenii drevnikh vengrov,” Arkheologija i Etnografija Baškirii, 4 (1971).
Erdélyi, István, “Fouilles archéologiques en Bachkirie et la préhistoire hongroise,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 25 (1972), 301–12.
Eremeev, D. E., Êtnogenez Tjurok (Moskva, 1971).
Eremjan, S. T., “Juriĭ Bogoljubskiĭ po armjanskim i gruzinskim istočnikam,” Naučnye Trudy Erevanskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta 23. (1946).
Esin, E., “Ṭabarīʾs Report on the Warfare with the Türgiš and the Testimony of Eighth Century Central Asian Art,” Central Asiatic Journal 17.2–4 (1973).
Fan, Yeh, Hou Han Shu, Shanghai, Commercial Press, 1927.
Fedorov, M. N., “Novye fakty iz istorii Karakhanidov pervoĭ četverti XI v. v svete numizmatičeskikh dannykh,” Iz Istorii Kul'tury Narodov Uzbekistana (Tashkent, 1965).
Fedorov, M. N., “Očerk istorii Karakhanidov vtori četverti XI v. (po numizmatičeskim dannym),” Istorija Material' noj Kul'tury Uzbekistana 7 (1966).
Fedorov, M. N., “Ferganskiĭ klad karakhanidskikh dirkhemov 1034–1043 gg.,” Sovetskaja Arkheologija (1968), No. 3.
Fedoseeva, S. A., 1968, Drevnie kul'tury verkhnogo Viljuja (Moskva).
Fedotov, M. R., Istoričeskie svjazi čuvašskogo jazyka s jazykami finno-ugrov Povolž'ja i Pecmi, C̆uvašsko-mariĭskie jazykovve svjazi, pt. 1 (C̆eboksary, 1965).
Fedotov, M. R., Istoričeskie svjazi C̆uvašskogo s volžskimi i permskimi finno-ugroskimi i jazykami (C̆eboksary, 1968).
Fehér, Géza, A bolgár-törökök szerepe és műveltsége (Budapest, 1940).
Fehér, Géza, “Zur Geschichte der Steppenvölker von Südrussland 9–10 Jhr.,” Studia Slavica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 5 (1959).
Ferrari, Alfonsa, 1958, Mk'yen brtse's Guide to the Holy Places of Central Tibet, completed and edited by Luciano Petech, with the collaboration of Hugh Richardson, Serie Orientale Roma xvi (Rome).
Fodor, István, “K voprosu o pogrebal'nom obrjade drevnikh vengrov,” Smirnov, A. P. (ed.), Problemy arkheologii i drevneĭ istorii ugrov (Moskva, 1972).
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