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The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia
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Book description

This volume introduces the geographical setting of Central Asia and follows its history from the palaeolithic era to the rise of the Mongol empire in the thirteenth century. From earliest times Central Asia linked and separated the great sedentary civilisations of Europe and Asia. In the pre-modern period 'Inner Asia' was definable more as a cultural than a geographical entity, its frontiers shifting according to the changing balances of power. Written by distinguished international scholars who have pioneered the exploration of Central Asia's poorly documented past, this volume discusses chronologically the varying historical achievements of the disparate population groups in the region.


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  • 1 - Introduction: the concept of Inner Asia
    pp 1-18
  • View abstract
    If the continents of Europe and Asia are conceptual entities, Eurasia - the combined land mass of the two - is a physiogeographical one. Each of the sedentary civilizations - in loose terminology Europe, the Middle East, India, Southeast Asia and East Asia - is a unique combination of cultural features. Some of these may appear in more than one area; yet an association of various components, moulded by a unique historical process and greatly influenced by national environment, made each of these regions different from the others. The frontier of Inner Asia is unstable; it has varied from age to age, shifting according to the balance of power between its own population and that of the surrounding, sedentary civilizations. The military efficiency of a nomad cavalry force was a function of its size, but the relationship between the number of horses and their military value was not a mathematical constant but a geometric progression.
  • 2 - The geographic setting
    pp 19-40
  • View abstract
    The areal extent and diversity of the natural landscapes of Inner Asia impel a survey of the geographic background of this region to concentrate on the environmental characteristics which seem to contribute most to an understanding of the even greater complexities of the human use of these lands. This chapter focuses initially on five general geographic features of Inner Asia: its size; the effects of distance from maritime influences on movement and climate; the problems of its rivers; geographic diversity and uniformity; and, the limited capabilities for areally extensive crop agriculture. It discusses the major environmental components of the natural zones of Inner Asia. The mountain zone of Inner Asia consists of a large number of mountain chains of diverse geological structure and age. A massive zone of deserts occupies most of the southern portions of Inner Asia from the Caspian Sea to the eastern edges of the Gobi and Ordos deserts in Mongolia.
  • 3 - Inner Asia at the dawn of history
    pp 41-96
  • View abstract
    The end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries brought to light exceedingly important discoveries by archeologists on the continent of Asia. Within the boundaries of this orographic system Inner Asia appears against a background of the rest of the planet as an enclosed unit with its own characteristic terrains and peculiar flora and fauna. Special variants of these flint tools are chopping tools or choppers of flint with a cutting point in place of a transverse cutting edge. The Middle Paleolithic peoples of Inner Asia achieved their highest culture probably somewhat later, as is evidenced by a series of rich finds in the south of the Mongolian Peoples' Republic, in the Gobi, and in the west at the foot of the Mongol Altai. In Western Mongolia there has been discovered still another pre-ceramic culture characterized not only by light stone tools of the round scraper type, but also by tools formed by the characteristic serrate technique.
  • 4 - The Scythians and Sarmatians
    pp 97-117
  • View abstract
    From the end of the 7th century BC to the 4th century BC the Central-Eurasian steppes were inhabited by two large groups of kin Iranian-speaking tribes - the Scythians and Sarmatians. While these two groups were ethnically close and their ways of life were very similar, each of them had their own historical destinies and characteristics, in economic and social development, as well as in culture. The study of the Scythians and Sarmatians in the Soviet era has made very considerable advances, particularly through the accumulation of new archeological sources in the post-war period. The early history of the Scythians is bound up with military expeditions into the countries of Western Asia. Archeologists have been unable to find the land of Gerrhi which, according to Herodotus, was the burial-place of the Scythian kings. The economy of this primitive state polity was based on the exploitation of free members of the community.
  • 5 - The Hsiung-nu
    pp 118-150
  • View abstract
    The Chinese written tradition traces the beginnings of the Hsiung-nu back to times immemorial. It is reported that the Hsiung-nu had been known in remote antiquity under a number of different names such as Hun-chu, Hsienyun, Jung, Ti, etc. In other words, the Hsiung-nu made their earliest formal appearance on the stage of Inner Asian history when Chinese history was just about to turn a new page, at the end of the Warring States period. The eastern neighbors of the Hsiung-nu, the Tung-hu, hearing of Motun's succession, evidently tried to test the new ruler. Motun's power was rapidly expanding during the early years of the Han dynasty. Towards the end of the 3rd century BC the territories under Tung-hu control extended from the southern part of Inner Mongolia to southern Manchuria. The half-century that stretched from 115 to 60 BC was a period in which the Hsiung-nu and the Han struggled for mastery over the Western Regions.
  • 6 - Indo-Europeans in Inner Asia
    pp 151-176
  • View abstract
    The earliest linguistic remains of the Indo-Europeans in this area date from about the third quarter of the first millenium AD. This consists of a literature, largely of Indie origin, Buddhistic in content, mostly translations or adaptations of religio-philosophical works, and a few commercial documents. The relationship between Tokharian and Hittite has been considered so close that they could have separated from the parent speech earlier than, and independent of, the rest of the Indo-European family. In the Chinese and Tibetan Buddhist tradition there are stories about Kaniska's conquest of Saketa and Magadha (Eastern India): the latter surrendered the sacred alms bowl of the Buddha, the famous scholar Asvaghosa and a miraculous cock to him. The political history of the Indo-Europeans of Inner Asia from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD is indeed a glorious period. The new eclecticism generated new trends of thought and they were reflected in religion, art and literature.
  • 7 - The Hun period
    pp 177-205
  • View abstract
    There are several reasons why the Huns caught the Western imagination. Firstly, not since Scythian times had any Inner Asian people seriously challenged the equilibrium of the Western World. Secondly, they appeared on the European scene at a time when both the eastern and the western parts of the Roman Empire had to contend with serious internal disorders which weakened their military preparedness. Thirdly, the status quo of the period was disturbed not only by their direct action but even more by their being instrumental in setting into motion the great upheaval of peoples commonly known as the Volkerwanderung. Finally, the enduring reputation of the Huns is due in no small measure to some excellent descriptions given by contemporary writers, even poets whose imagination was caught by this, quite literally, extraordinary people. Huns constituted a military reserve to be counted upon by anyone willing and able to pay the price.
  • 8 - The Avars
    pp 206-228
  • View abstract
    A survey of Avar history best begins with a conspectus of the main data culled from the available written sources. The Avars, partly by their weapons and partly by the force of their awe-inspiring reputation, made the Onoghurs, the Zali, the Sabirs, the Utighurs, and Kutrighurs submit one by one. Bayan then sent his envoys to the Emperor's capital already from the Lower Danube, to ask permission for his people to settle down inside the boundaries of the East Roman Empire. Justinian's diplomacy seems to have averted the surrender of any significant territories. For the period ending with the surrender of Sirmium, together with the Ecclesiastical History of John of Ephesus, the fragments of the work of Menander Protector constitute the principal sources of Avar history. Religion is not the only sphere of Avar culture in which the rich and ever increasing archeological material supplements the poor testimony of the written sources.
  • 9 - The peoples of the Russian forest belt
    pp 229-255
  • View abstract
    The medieval history of the Russian forest belt is largely concerned with three important movements of peoples. The first is the steady expansion of the Eastern Slavic population from the western periphery of the Eurasian forests to the East. The second movement is that of Turkic peoples who went or were driven to the very border of the steppe, the forest-steppe zone. The third movement is that of the Ugric Hungarians into the steppe and their transformation into a steppe people. The Uralic peoples today are divided into two large groups: Finno-Ugric and Samoyed. The dissolution of the Ugric community was probably gradual. The southern elements of the community continued to be oriented towards the steppes. The steppe-dwellers were the principal catalysts for change in the medieval history of the forest zone. The economic structure of Oghur society and hence attendant modes of cultural expression appear to have been somewhat different from those of most of the Turkic nomads.
  • 10 - The peoples of the south Russian steppes
    pp 256-284
  • View abstract
    The rich grasslands and abundant rivers of the Ponto-Caspian steppes, a continuation of the great Inner Asian plains, constituted a natural gravitation point for the nomad migrating or ejected from the Asian hinterland. Urban life and the practice of agriculture and other settled pursuits were more in evidence amongst the nomads here. A nomadic life-style, as known from the Khazar and Hungarian models, became more and more the perquisite of the aristocracy, a badge of social distinction. The origins of the Khazar kaghanate, one of the most important political formations of medieval Eurasia, the dominant power in the south-Russian steppe zone, cannot be delineated with precise detail. The people described here are the Pechenegs whose movements were both the result of other migrations in the Central Asian steppes and the cause of still other displacements in the steppes to their west.
  • 11 - The establishment and dissolution of the Türk empire
    pp 285-316
  • View abstract
    The Chinese were just as prone to link any northern Barbarian with the Hsiung-nu as Byzantine historians were to see Scythians in their western counterparts. The sources contain a great number of Turk personal names. They appear in a variety of scripts and languages: Chinese, Greek, Sogdian, and Turk. Sometimes it is possible to recognize the same name in sources written in different languages. The Turks built their empire on the ruins of that of the Juan-juan. Following the traditions of Chinese diplomacy, always in search of an ally in the rear of the Inner Asian foe, the Wei attempted to look for one in the western regions. In the Western World, for centuries, their name was used as a common denomination of barbarians, irrespective of their language, whereas for the peoples of Inner Asia, the name Turk became, and has remained, the hallmark of the unity of peoples sharing a common language.
  • 12 - The Uighurs
    pp 317-342
    • By Colin Mackerras, School of Modern Asian Studies, Griffith University, Australia
  • View abstract
    This chapter provides a brief sketch of Uighur history and then moves to a more detailed consideration of which peoples lived within the confines of the Uighur empire. It discusses how far the boundaries extended; and which persons or groups held power and prestige among the Uighurs. The chapter also discusses Manichaeism, the religion that exercised a profound influence on Uighur history. The Uighur chapter of the New T'ang history (Hsin T'ang-shu) records that an embassy of 788 was led by an official of the Adiz tribe, indicating that the Adiz belonged to the confederation by that time. Despite the persistence of the old ways, it is clear from their approach to religion that the Uighurs of the empire period was undergoing change more rapidly than at any time in their earlier history. They were definitely advancing towards a more sophisticated stage of civilization in their modes of thought, social patterns and economy.
  • 13 - The Karakhanids and early Islam
    pp 343-370
  • View abstract
    The Eastern Iranian lands around the Oxus (Jayhun, modern Amu Darya), lacking political unity and effective leadership, were the natural targets of Arab raiding columns fresh from the conquest of Sassanid Iran. Christianity, especially the adherents of the persecuted Nestorian heterodoxy, was also found in Iranian and Turkic Central Eurasia, coming to the latter through Iranian merchant intermediaries. The Islam brought to the Eastern Iranian frontier during the Umayyad period was still parochial and decidedly Arab in its outlook. The Volga-Ural region was inhabited by the Turkic Pechenegs who were being driven westward by their neighbors the Oghuz and would soon leave the area entirely. The Samanid achievement in Central Asia had been considerable. The islamicization of the area was due, in large measure, to their activities. The migrations also further fueled the turbulence touched off by the intra-Karakhanid and Ghaznavid-Karakhanid wars. In contrast to Saljuk progress and consolidation, albeit imperfect at times, the Karakhanids were experiencing increasing fragmentation.
  • 14 - Early and medieval Tibet
    pp 371-399
  • View abstract
    The most important evidence of Tibetan prehistory are the megalithic monuments which extend in a broad belt from western Tibet across the plateau to the north of the trans-Himalayas, the region of the great salt lakes, and parts of the Byang-thang as far as Amdo in northeast Tibet. During the Han period the Ch'iang settled further to the east in those regions which they would later incorporate into their own kingdom from the Chinese: Kansu and Shensi. The Tibetan campaign against the A-zha and the neighboring regions of China would seem to have been somewhat unexpected, since the A-zha had never been a Tibetan vassal-state nor subject to Srong-brtsan gam-po. The Tibeto-Chinese peace treaty of 783 confirmed Tibetan dominion over East Turkestan, Kansu, and a large part of Szechwan. Khri-srong lde-brtsan's long series of political and military victories show that he was increasingly able to establish his authority in domestic affairs, especially in religious policies.
  • 15 - The forest peoples of Manchuria: Kitans and Jurchens
    pp 400-423
  • View abstract
    The political fragmentation of China in the 10th century AD and most of her history under the Sung dynasty (960-1234) was coeval with the emergence of states on her borders which were founded by non-Chinese peoples but largely patterned on Chinese models. Of these peoples the Kitans and the Jurchen are of special importance because they both succeeded in extending their domination over large parts of Northern China. The original habitat of the Kitans was Manchuria where they are first recorded in what is now the north of Jehol province, near the upper course of the Liao River and its tributary Laoha Muren. The essential feature of the Kitan state remained, however, a dichotomy between a bureaucracy for governing the sedentary population (chiefly Chinese), and a more tribal administration for the Kitans themselves and other ethnic groups. The dwellings of the Jurchen were adapted to the climatic conditions of their homeland with its severe winter cold.
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Al-Muqaddasī , Aḥsan al-Taqāsīm fī Ma'rifat al-Aqālīm (“The Best of Divisions Regarding Knowledge of the Climes”), ed. Goeje M. J. (Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum, III, Leiden, 1906).
Al-Nadīm , Kitāb al-Fihrist (“The Index”), ed. Flügel G. (Leipzig, 1871–2, reprint: Beirut, 1964).
Al-Nadīm , The Fihrist of al-Nadim, trans, ed. Dodge B., 2 vols. (Records of Civilization: Sources and Studies, 83, New York–London, 1970).
Al-Ya'qūbī , Kitāb al-Buldān, ed. Goeje M. J. (Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum, 7 Leiden, 1892).
Al-Ya'qūbī , Ta'rīkh (“The History”) (Beirut, 1390/1970).
Al-Ya'qūbī , Ta'rīkh, (Beirut, 1390/1970) 2 vols.
Alföldi A., 1950, “Die ethische Grenzscheide am römischen Limes,” Schweizer Beiträge zur Allgemeinen Geschichte 8, pp. 35–50 – the following entry is an English version of the same article:.
Alföldi A., 1952, “The Moral Barrier on Rhine and Danube,” in Congress of Roman Frontier Studies, edited by Birley E., pp. 1–16 (Durham).
Aliev S. M., “O datirovke nabega rusov upomjanutykh Ibn Isfandijarom i Amoli,” In Tveritinova A. S. (ed.), Vostočnye istočniki po istorii narodov jugo-vostočnoĭ i central'noĭ Evrope, 2 vols. (Moskva, 1964, 1969), vol. ii.
Alikhova A. E., “K voprosu o burtasakh,” Sovetskaja Êtnografija, no. 1 (1949).
Altheim F., Stiel R., “Michael der Syrer über die erste Auftreten der Bulgaren und Chazaren”, Byzantion, xxviii (1958).
Altheim Franz, 1962–75, Geschichte der Hunnen, I–V (Berlin). [This work has been written with the collaboration of many scholars. Extreme caution is recommended in its use, since it is replete with gratuitous hypotheses].
Ammianus Marcellinus, 1939, With an English Translation by Rolfe John C., I–III (Loeb Classical Library).
Ančabadze Z. B., “Kipčaki severnogo Kavkaza po dannym gruzinskikh letopisӗi XI – XIV vekov,” in Treskov I. V. et al. (eds.), Materialy naučnoĭ sessii po probleme proiskhoždenie balkarskogo i karačaevskogo narodov (Nal'čik, 1960).
Andersson J. G., 1943, “Researches into the Pre-History of the Chinese”, Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 15.
Angelov D., Gjuzelev V., ‘Izvestija v armjansk izvori za srednevekovnata istorija na Bŭlgarija,” Istoričeski Pregled, 22.1 (1966).
Angelov D., Gjuzelev V., Obrazuvanie na bŭlgarskata narodnost (Sofija, 1971).
Ankori Zvi, Karaites in Byzantium (New York – Jerusalem, 1959).
Annales Bertiniani: Annales de Saint-Bertin, ed. Grat F., Vielliard J., Clémencet S., intro. notes by Levillain L. (Paris, 1964).
Annales Fuldenses, ed. Kurze F. (MGH. Scriptores in usum scholarum, XIII, Hannover, 1891).
Anokhin V. A., 1965, “Monety skifskogo carja Atei,” [The Coins of the Scythian King Atheas], Numizmatika i sfragristika (Kiev), 2, pp. 3–15.
Anonymous , Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam, trans. Minorsky V. F. (E.J. W. Gibb Memorial New Series, 11, London, 1937, reprint 1970).
Anuchin V. A., 1948, Geograficheskie ocherki Man'chzhurii (Moscow).
Arkheologicheskie pamjatniki Jakutii, bassejny Aldana i Olekmy, 1983, edited by Mochanov Ju. A., (Novosibirsk).
Artamonov M. I.Očerk drevneĭšӗi istorii Khazar (Leningrad, 1936).
Artamonov M. I.Belaja Beža,” Sovetskaja Arkheologija 16 (1952), pp. 42–76. Istorija khazar (Leningrad, 1962).
Artamonov M. I., 1949, “Etnogeografija Skifii” [The ethno-geography of Scythia], UZLGU, issue 13, No. 85, pp. 129–71.
Artamonov M. I., 1950, “K voprosu o proiskhozhdenii skifov” [On the question of the Origin of the Scythians], VD1 2, pp. 37–47.
Artamonov M. I., 1966, Sokrovishcha skifskikh kurganov [Treasures of Scythian Kurgans], (Praha– Leningrad).
Artamonov M. I., 1972, “Skifskoe carstvo” [The Scythian Kingdom], Sovetskaja Arkheologija, 1972, 3.
Ašmarin N. I., Bolgary i Čuvašy (Kazan', 1902).
Asołig : Histoire universelle par Etienne Açoghig de Daron, trans. DuLaurier E., 2 vols., (Paris, 1883–1917).
Aufschnaiter P., 1956–57, “Prehistoric Sites Discovered in Inhabited Regions of Tibet,” East and West 7, pp. 74–95.
Avenarius A., 1974, Die Awaren in Europa (Amsterdam-Bratislava).
Bachrach Bernard S., 1973, A History of the Alans in the West (Minneapolis). [The histories of the Huns and Alans are closely intertwined].
Bacot J., “Reconnaissance en Haute Asie Septentrionale par cinq envoyés Ouigours au VIIIe siècle,” Journal Asiatique, 244 (1956), pp. 137–53.
Bacot Jacques, 1935, “Le mariage chinois du roi Sron bean sgan po (extrait du Mani bka' 'bum),” Mélanges Chinois et Bouddhiques III, pp. 1–10.
Bacot Jacques, 1940–1946, Documents de Touen-houang relatifs à l'histoire du Tibet, Annales du Musée Guimet, tome 51 (DTH) (Paris).
Bailey H. W., 1937, “Ttaugara,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies 8, pp. 883–921.
Bailey H. W., 1947, “Recent Works on Tokharian,” Transactions of the Philological Society, pp. 126–53 (London).
Bailey H. W., 1970a, “Saka Studies: The Ancient Kingdom of Khotan,” Iran. Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies 8, pp. 65–72.
Bailey H. W., 1970b, “Tokharika,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, pp. 121–2.
Bailey H. W., 1971, “The Kingdom of Khotan,” Papers on Far Eastern History 4, pp. 1–16.
Bakay K., 1973, “Az avarkor időrendjéről,” Somogyi Múzeumok Közleményei I, pp. 5–86.
Bal'amī , Tārīkh-i Ṭabarī: Chronique de Abou Djafar Mohammad ben Djarir ben Yezid Tabari (traduite sur la version persane d'Abou 'Ali Mohammed Bel'amī, trans. Zotenberg H., 4 vols. (Paris, 1867–74).
Bal'amī , Tarjuma-i Tārīkh-i Ḥabari, Lithographic ed. Minovi M. of ms. 7481 of Jerusalem, al-Aksa Mosque Library (Teheran, 1345/1926–7, reprint: 1966).
Balcer Jack M., 1972, “The Date of Herodotus IV. 1. Darius' Scythian Expedition,” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 76, pp. 99–132.
Banerjea J. N., 1962, “The Rise and Fall of the Kushana Empire,” in Comprehensive History of India edited by Sastri K. A. Nilakanta, vol. 2, chapter 7, pp. 156–221 (Calcutta).
Bang W. von and Gabain A. von, “Türkische Turfan-Texte II,” Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 411–30 (1929).
Banner JánosJakabfryImre , 1954–68, Archäologische Bibliographie des Mittel-Donaubeckens, i–iii (Budapest). [A complete bibliography up to 1966].
Bar Hebraeus, The Chronography of Gregory Abūʾl Faraj Bar Hebraeus, trans. Budge E.A.T.W. (London, 1932).
Bárczi G., Benkő L., Berrár J., A magyar nyelv története (Budapest, 1967).
Bárczi Géza, A magyar nyelv életrajza (Budapest, 3rd ed., 1975).
Barfield Thomas J., 1981, “The Hsiung-Imperial Confederacy: Organization and Foreign Policy,” Journal of Asian Studies 41, 1, pp. 45–61.
Barišić F., 1953, Čuda Dimitrija (Beograd). [French summary].
Barišić F. 1954, “Le siège de Constantinople par les Avares et les Slaves,” Byzantion 24, PP. 371–95.
Barkóczy L., 1968, “A Sixth–Century Cemetery from Keszthely–Fenékpuszta”, Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 20, pp. 275–311.
Barnea I., “Predvaritel'nye svedenija o kamennykh pamjatnikakh v Bessarabii (obl. Dobrudža),” Dacia, New Series 7 (1962).
Bartha Antal, Hungarian Society in the 9th and 10th Centuries (Budapest, 1975).
Bartha Antal, Czegléedy Károly, Róna-Tas András (eds.), Magyar őstörténeti tanulmányok (Budapest, 1977).
Barthold W., 1935, 12 Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Türken Mittelasiens, Deutsche Bearbeitung von Theodor Menzel, (Berlin).
Barthold W., 1968, Turkestan Down to the Mongol Invasion, New Edition, (London).
Barthold W. (Bartol'd V. V.), Golden Peter B.Khazar”, Enclopaedia of Islam2 (Leiden–London, 1960–1978, still in progress), vi.
Barthold W., 1899, Die alttürkischen Inschriften und die arabischen Quellen, in Radloff W., Die alttürkischen Inschriften der Mongolei, Zweite Folge (St. Pétersbourg).
Barthold W., Histoire des Turcs d'Asie Centrale, tr. Donskis M. (Initiation à l'Islam, vol. 3; Paris, 1945).
Bartol'd V. V., “Basdžirt,” Akademik V. V. Bartol'd Sočinenija, 9 vols (Moskva, 1963–73).
Bartol'd V. V., “Bolgary,” Akademik V. V. Bartol'd Sočinenija, 9 vols (Moskva, 1963–73).
Bartol'd V. V., “Burtasy,” Akademik V. V. Bartol'd Socinenija, 9 vols (Moskva, 1963–73).
Bartol'd V. V., (Enzyklopaedie des Islam, 4 vols., Leiden-Leipzig, 1913–36, 1).
Bartol'd V. V., “Novyĭ trud o polovcakh,” Russkiĭ Istoričeskiĭ Žurnal – (1921).
Bartol'd V. V., Mesto prikaspiĭskikh oblasteĭ v istorii musul' manskogo mira (Baku, 1925).
Bartol'd V. V., reprinted Akademik V.V. Bartol'd Sočinenija, 9 vols. (Moscow, 1963–73) 11/1.
Bartol'd V. V., “Kipčaki,” Akademik V.V. Bartol'd Sočinenija, 9 vols (Moskva, 1963–73).
Bartol'd V. V., v (Enziklopaedie des Islam, 4 vols., Leiden–Leipzig, 1913–36, 11).
Bartol'd V. V., “Khazary,” Akademik V.V. Bartol'd Sočinenija, 9 vols. (Moskva, 1963–73), v.
Bartol'd V. V., “Arabskie izvestija o rusakh,” Sovetskoe vostokovedenija. 1 (1940).
Bartol'd V. V., Akademik V. V. Bartol'd Sočinenija, 9 vols. (Moskva, 1963–73) 11/1.
Bartol'd V. V., “Balasagun”, Akademik V.V. Bartol'd Sočinenija, 9 vols. (Moskva, 1963–1973), vol. III.
Bartol'd V. V., Dvenadcat′ lekcii po istorii tureckikh narodov Srednej Azii, Sočinenija, V: Germ. vers. (Barthold W.), Zwölf Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Türken Mittelasiens (1932–5, reprint Hildesheim, 1962).
Basham A. L. (Editor), 1968, Papers on the Date of Kaniṣka, submitted to the Conference on the Date of Kaniṣka, London, 20–22 April, 1960 (Leiden 1968).
Basilevich K. V., et al. (editors), 1950, Atlas istorii SSSR, vol. 1 (Moscow).
Baskakov N. A., “Poloveckie otbleski v ‘Slove o polku Igorove’“, Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher 48 (1976).
Batmanov I. A.Kunaa A. Ch., 1963, Pamjatniki drevnetjurkskoj pis'mennosti Tuv: (Kyzyl).
Battal-Taymas Abdullah, Kazan Türkleri (“The Turks of Kazan”) (Ankara, 1966).
Bazin Louis, 1976, “Eine Inschrift vom Oberen Jenissei als Quelle zur Geschichte Zentralasiens,” Materialia Turcica, 2, pp. 1–11.
Bazin Louis, 1974, Les calendriers turcs anciens et médiévaux (Lille).
Bazin Louis, 1981, “Kül Tegin ou Kö1 Tegin?,” Scholia. Beiträge zur Turkologie und Zentralasienkunde. Annemarie von Gabain zum 80. Geburtstag am, 4. Juli 1981 dargebracht von Kollegen, Freunden und Schülern,. Veröffentlichungen der Societas Uralo-Altaica, Bd. 14, pp. 1–7.
Beal S., 1906, Si-Yu-Ki, Buddhist Records of the Western World, 2 volumes (London).
Beckwith Christopher I., 1979, “The Tibetan Empire in the West,” in Tibetan Studies in Honor of Hugh Richardson, pp. 30–8 (Oxford).
Begunov Ju. K., Pamjatnik russkoĭ literatury xiii veka “Slovo o pogibeli russkoĭ zemli” (Moskva–Leningrad, 1965).
Belenitsky (= Aleksandr Belenickij, 1968, Central Asia. Translated from the Russian by Hogarth James (Geneva). [Only some parts relevant to this chapter].
Bendefy L., Fontes authentici itinera (1235–1338) Fr. Iuliani illustrantes, Archivum Europae Centro–Orientalis, III, (Budapest, 1937).
Benkő Loránd, Tanulmányok a magyar nyelv életrajza köréből (Nyelvtudományi Értekezések, 40, Budapest, 1963–6).
Benkő Loránd, et al., A magyar nyelv történeti-etimológiai szótára, 4 vols. (Budapest, 1967–84).
Benveniste E., 1961, “Inscriptions de Bactriane,” Journal asiatique, pp. 113–51.
Benzing Johannes, “Das Hunnische, Donaubolgarische und Wolgabolgarische,” in Deny J. et al. (eds.), Philologiae Turcicae Fundamenta (Wiesbaden, 1959 – still in progress), 1.
Berg Lev, 1950, Natural Regions of the USSR, translated from the Russian by Titelbaum Olga and edited by Morrison John A. (New York).
Beševliev' V., pŭrvobŭlgarite Verata na/Die Religion der Protobulgaren (Sofia, 1939).
Beševliev' V., pŭrvobŭlgarite Verata naDie protobulgarischen Inschriften (Berliner Byzantinistische Arbeiten, 23, Berlin, 1963).
Beševliev Veselin, 1963, Die protobulgarischen lnschriften (Berlin).
Bibliographia Archaeologica Hungarica, compiled by Németh E., Fejér Mária F., Jakabfry Imre, published in Archeológiai Értesitő, 98 (1971), pp. 122–38; 99 (1972), pp. 132–48; 100 (1973), PP. 129–52; 101 (1974), PP. 161–83; 102 (1975), PP. 155–85; 103 (1976), PP. 147–70; 104 (1977), PP. 121–44; 104 (1978), pp. 140–60; 105 (1978), pp. 140–62; 106 (1979), PP. 152–74; 107 (1980), pp. 137–51.
Bičurin N. Ja. (lakinf), Sohranie svedeniĭ o narodakh, obitavšikh v Sredneĭ Azii v drevnie vremena, 3 vols. (St. Petersburg, 1851), 2nd ed., 2 vols. (Moscow–Leningrad, 1950–3).
Bielenstein Hans, 1956, Emperor Kuang-wu and the Northern Barbarians, The 17th Ernest Morrison Lecture in Ethnology, Canberra, The Australian National University.
Bivar A.D.H., 1956, “The Kushana-Sassanian Coin Series,” Journal of the Numismatic Society of India, 18, pp. 13–42.
Bivar A.D.H., 1963, “The Kaniṣka Dating from Surkh Kotal,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 26, pp. 498–502.
Boba Imre, Nomads, Northmen and Slavs (Slavo-Orientalia, 11 Wiesbaden–The Hague, 1967).
Bogoslovskij V. A., 1972, Essai sur l'histoire du peuple tibétain, ou la naissance d'une société de classes (Paris).
Böhmer J.F. –Mühlbacher, E.–Lechner J. 1908, Regesta Imperii, I. Die Regesten des Kaiserreichs unter den Karolingern: 751–918 (Innsbruck).
Bökönyi S., 1974, History of Domestic Mammals in Central and Eastern Europe (Budapest).
Bombaci Alessio, 1964–1965, “Qutluy bolzun! A Contribution to the History of the Concept ‘Fortune’ among the Turks,” Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher. 36, pp. 284–91; 38, pp. 13–14.
Bombaci Alessio, 1970a, “Qui était ǰebu xak'an?,” Turcica, 2, pp. 7–24.
Bombaci Alessio, 1970b, “On the Ancient Turkic Title eltäbär,” Proceedings of the IXth Meeting of the Permanent International Altaistic Conference, pp. 1–16 (Napoli).
Bombaci Alessio, 1971, “The Husbands of Princess Hsien-li Bilgä,” Studia Turcica, edited by Ligeti L., pp. 103–23 (Budapest).
Bombaci Alessio, 1974, “On the Ancient Turkish Title ‘šaδ’”, Gururājamañjarikā. Studi in onore di Giuseppe Tucci, pp. 167–93 (Napoli).
Bombaci Alessio, 1976, “On the Ancient Turkish Title šadapït,” Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher. 48, pp. 32–41.
Bóna I., 1971, “Ein Vierteljahrhundert Völkerwanderungsforschung in Ungarn (1945–1969),” Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 23, pp. 265–336.
Bóna I., 1971a, “Ein Vierteljahrhundert Völkerwanderungsforschung in Ungarn (1945–1969),” Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 23, pp. 265–336.
Bóna I., 1971b, A népvándorlás kora Fehérmegyében (Székesfehérvár).
Bóna I., 1973 VII. századi avar települések és Árpád–kori magyar falu Dunaujvárosban (Budapest).
Bóna I., 1979, “A Szegvár–sápoldali sír,” Archeológiai Értesitő, 106, pp. 3–30.
Bongard-Levin G. M.Grantovskij E. A., 1974, Ot Skifii do lndii. Zagadki istorii drevnikh ariev [From Scythia to India. Riddle of the History of the Ancient Aryans] (Moscow).
Boodberg Peter A., 1936, “Two Notes on the History of the Chinese Frontier,” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 1, pp. 283–307.
Borisov A. A., 1970, Klimatografija Sovetskogo Sojuza (Leningrad).
Boswell A. Bruce, “The Kipchak Turks,” The Slavonic Review, 6 (1927).
Bosworth C. E., The Ghaznavids (Edinburgh, 1963).
Bosworth C. E., “The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World (A.D. 1000–1217),” The Cambridge History of Iran ed. Boyle J. A., vol. 5 (Cambridge, 1968).
Boulnois Luce, 1966, The Silk Road, translated from the French by Chamber-lain Dennis (New York).
Boyce Mary, 1975, A History of Zoroastrianism, vol. i, Orientalistik Handbuch, Abteilung Erste, 8. Band, Erster Abschnitt, Leiferung 2, Heft 2A (Leiden).
Brashinskij I. B.Marchenko K. K. 1980, “Elizavetovskoe gorodishche na Donu – poselenie gorodskogo tipa,” [Elizavetovskoe Gorodishche – a settlement of urban type], Sovetskaja Arkheologija, 1980, 1, pp. 211–18.
Bratianu Georges, La mer Noire. Des origines à la conquête ottomane (Societas Academica Dacoromana, Acta Historica, ix, München, 1969).
Bretschneider E., Medieval Researches from Eastern Asiatic Sources, 2 vols. (London, 1888, reprint 1967).
Brough John, 1965, “Comments on Third-Century Shan-shan and the History of Buddhism,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 28, pp. 582–612.
Brough John, 1970, “Supplementary Notes on the Third-Century Shan-shan,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 31, PP. 39–45.
Buchanan James J.Davis Harold T., 1967, [translators] Zosimus: Historia Nova. The Decline of Rome (Trinity University Press).
Burmov A., “Vŭprosi iz istorijata na prabŭlgarite,” Godišnik na Sofiĭkija Universitet, istoriko-filologičeski fakultet, 44.2 (1947).
Burmov A., “Kŭm vŭprosa za proizkhod na prabŭlgarite,” Izvestija na Istoričeskot družestvo v Sofija 22–4 (1948).
Burrow T., 1935, “Tokharian Elements in the Kharoṣṭhī Documents from Chinese Turkistan,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, pp. 667–75.
Bury J. B., 1889. Reprinted 1958, History of the Later Roman Empire from the Death of Theodosius I. to the Death of Justinian, I–II (Dover Publications).
C̆ekalin F., “Meščera i Burtasy po sokhranivšimsja o ikh pamjatnikam,” Trudy VIII Arkheologičeskago s"ezda, III (Moskva, 1897).
C̆ermecov V. I., “Nižnee Priob'e v I tysjačeletii n.e.,” Materialy i issledovanija po arkheologii SSSR 58 (1957).
Cahen C., “Le Malik-nameh et l'histoire des origines Seljoucides,” Oriens, 2 (1949), pp. 31–65.
Cahen C., Pre-Ottoman Turkey, trans. Jones-Williams J. (New York, 1968).
Cannata Patrizia, 1981, Profilo storico del I° impero turco (metà VI–metà VII secolo), Istituto di Studi dell'India e dell'Asia Orientale (Roma). [Possibly the best modern presentation of the Türk empire].
Chabot J. B., 1899–1924, Chronique de Michel le Syrien, patriarche Jacobite d'Antioche, I–IV (Paris).
Chan Hok-lam, 1970, Chin Historiography. Three Studies, Münchener Ostasiatische Studien (München).
Chan Hok-lam, 1984, Legitimation in Imperial China. Discussions under the Jurchen-Chin Dynasty (1115–1234) (Seattle–London).
Chang Hsing-t'ang, Shih Chi Han Shu Hsiung-nu ti-ming chin-shih. Taipei, 1963.
Chang Wei-hua, Lun Han Wu-ti, Shanghai, 1957.
Chang Kwang-chih, 1963, Archaeology of Ancient China (New Haven and London).
Charanis P. 1953, “On the Slavic Settlement in the Peloponnesus,” Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 46, pp. 91–103.
Chard C. S. 1958a, “An Outline of the Prehistory of Siberia. Pt. I. The Pre-Metal Periods,” Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 14.
Chard C. S. 1958b, “The Oldest Sites of Northeastern Siberia,” American Antiquity 21, No. 4.
Chavannes E., 1907, “Les pays d'Occident d'après le Heou Han Chou,” T'oung Pao 6, pp. 149–234.
Chavannes E., Documents sur les Tou-kiue, (Turcs,) Occidentaux (St. Petersbourg, 1903).
Chavannes Edouard, Documents sur les Tou-kiue (Turcs) Occidentaux, recueillis et commentés suivi de Notes Additionnelles (Sbornik trudov Orkhonskoǐ ekspedicii, vi, Sanktpeterburg, 1903.
Chavannes Edouard, T'oung Pao, series ii, 4, 1904, both reprinted as one volume: Paris, 1941).
Chavannes Edouard, 1903, Documents sur les Tou-kiue (Turcs) Occidentaux, (St. Pétersbourg). (Reprint 1941?).
Chavannes Edouard, 1904, “Notes additionnelles sur les Tou-kiue (Turcs) Occidentaux”, T'oung Pao. 5, pp. 1–110. (Reprinted in the reprint of the Documents).
Chavannes Edouard, 1905, “Jinagupta, (528–605 après J.C.),” T'oung Pao 6, pp. 332–56.
Chavannes Edouard, 1912, “Epitaphes de deux princesses turques des T'ang,” Festschrift V. Thomsen, pp. 78–87 (Leipzig).
Chavannes Edouard, Documents sur les Tou-kiue (Turcs) Occidentaux, (St. Petersbourg, 1903).
Chavannes Edouard and Pelliot Paul, “Un traité manichéen retrouvé en Chine,” Journal asiatique 10.18: 499–617 (1911), 11.1: 99–199, 261–394 (1913).
Chavannes Edouard, 1897–8, “Voyageurs chinois chez les Khitans et les Joutchen,” Journal asiatique 1897, I, pp. 377–422, 1898, I, pp. 361–439.
Cheng Ch'in-jen, “Hsiung-nu,” Hsin Shih-tai, vol. 9, No. 4 (1969).
Cheng T'e-kun, 1973, “The Beginning of Chinese Civilization,” Antiquity 47, pp. 197–209.
Chernecov V. N. 1953, Drevnjaja istorija Nizhnego Priob'ja, Materialy i issledovanija po arkheologii SSSR 35.
Chernenko E. V., 1968, Skifskii dospekh [Scythian armor] (Kiev).
Chernenko E. V., 1981, Skifskie luchniki [Scythian archers] (Kiev).
Chernikov S. S., 1949, Drevnjaja metallurgija i gornoe delo Zapadnogo Altaja (Alma-Ata).
Chernikov S. S., 1960, Vostochnoj Kazakhstan v êpokhu bronzy, Materialy i issledovanija po arkheologii SSSR 88.
Chin Kuang-p'ing and Ch'i-ts'ung Chin, 1980, Nü-chen yü-yen wen-tzu yen-chiu, [A Study of the Jurchen Language and Script] (Peking).
Chlenova N. L., 1962, “Ob olennykh kamnjakh Mongolii i Sibiri,” Mongol'skij arkheologicheskij sbornik (edited by Kiselev S. V.), (Moskva), pp. 27–35. [The same topic was studied more in detail by the same author in “Skifskij olen',” Materialy i issledovanija po arkheologii SSSR 115 (1962), pp. 167–203. See also Jacobson 1983].
Chlenova N. L., 1964, “Karasukskaja kul'tura v Juzhnoj Sibiri,” in Drevnjaja Sibir (Ulan-Udê), pp. 263–78.
Chlenova N. L., 1972, Khronologija pamjatnikov karasukskoj êpokhi (Moskva).
Chung-kuo K'o-hsüeh Yüan K'ao-ku Yen-chiuSo,.Hsin Chung-kuo ti K'ao-ku Shou-huo, Peking, 1961.
Claudian, 1922, With an English translation by Platnauer Maurice, I–II (Loeb Classical Library).
Clauson G., “À propos du Manuscrit Pelliot Tibétain 1283,” Journal asiatique 245 (1957).
Clauson Gerard Sir, 1971, “Some Notes on the Inscription of Toñuquq,” Studia Turcica edited by Ligeti L., pp. 125–32, (Budapest).
Codex Cumanicus in Faksimile herausgegeben, ed. Grønbech Kaare (Monumenta Linguarum Asiae Maioris, 1, Kopenhagen, 1936).
Comnena Anna: Anne Comnene, Alexiade, ed., trans. Leib B., 3 vols. (Paris, 1937–45).
Comşa M., 1972, “Directions et étapes de la pénétration des Slaves vers la Péninsule Balkanique aux VIe–VIIe siècles (avec un regard spécial sur le territoire de la Roumanies,” Balcanoslavica I, pp. 9–28.
Constantinus et Methodius Thessalonicenses, Fontes (Konstantin i Metodije Solunjani, Izvori), ed. Grivec F., Tomšić F. (Radovi Staroslavenskog Instituta, IV, Zagreb, 1960).
Coon C. S., 1951, Cave Exploration in Iran 1949, University Museum, University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia).
Croke Brian, 1977, “Evidence for the Hun Invasion of Thrace in a.d. 422,” Greek, Roman, Byzantine Studies 18, pp. 347–68.
Croke Brian, 1981, “Anatolius and Nomus: Envoys to Attila,” Byzantinoslavica 42, pp. 159–70.
Csallány D., “Rovásirásos gyűrűk Magyarországon,” Archaeológiai Értesítő, 82 (1955).
Csallány Dezső, 1956, Archäologische Denkmäler der Awarenzeit in Mitteleuropa (Budapest). A complete bibliography up to 1955. To be complemented by Kollautz, 1965.
Csallány Dezsö, 1939, “Kora–avarkori sirleletek – Grabfunde der Frühawarenzeit,” Folia Archeologica 12, pp. 121–80.
Csallány Dezsö, 1956, Archäologische Denkmäler der Awarenzeit in Mitteleuropa (Budapest). [A complete bibliography up to 1955. Complemented by Kollautz 1965, cited above, p. 000].
Cunningham A., 1888, “Coins of the Indo-Scythian King Miaus or Heraus,” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society 3rd Series, 8, pp. 47–58.
Cunningham A., 1889, “Coins of the Tochari, Kushans or Yue-ti,” Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society 3rd Series, 9, pp. 268–311.
Cunningham A., 1892, “Coins of the Kushanas or Great Yueti,” Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society 3rd Series, 12, pp. 40–82, 95–159.
Cunningham A., 1893, 1894, “Later Indo-Scythians,” Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society 3rd Series, 13, pp. 93–128, 166–202; 14, pp. 243–93.
Curiel R. and Schlumberger D., 1953 Trésors monétaires d'Afghanistan, Mémoires de la Délégation Archéologique Française en Afghanistan 14.
Czebe Gy., “Turco-byzantinische Miszellen, I. Konstantinos, De administrando Imperio 37. Kapitel über die Petschenegen,” Kőrösi Csoma Archivum., i (1921–5) pp. 209–19.
Czeglédy K., 1954, “Monographs on Syriac and Muhammadan Sources in the Literary Remains of M. Kmoskó,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 4, pp. 19–90.
Czeglédy K., 1957, “The Syriac Legend Concerning Alexander the Great,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 7, pp. 231–49.
Czeglédy K., 1971, “Pseudo-Zacharias Rhetor on the Nomads,” in Studia Turcica, edited by Ligeti L., pp. 133–48. (Budapest).
Czeglédy K., 1958, “Bahrām Čōbīn and the Persian Apocalyptic Literature,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 8, pp. 21–43.
Czeglédy K., 1962, “Coγay-quzï, Qara-qum, Kök-öng,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 15, pp. 55–69.
Czeglédy K., 1972, “On the Numerical Composition of the Ancient Turkish Tribal Confederation,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 25, pp. 275–81.
Czeglédy K., 1973, “Gardizi on the History of Central Asia (746–80 a.d.),” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 27, pp. 257–67.
Czeglédy K., 1980, “Zur Geschichte der Hephtaliten,” Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 28, pp. 213–17.
Czeglédy K., 1983, “From East to West: the Age of Nomadic Migrations in Eurasia,” Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi, III, pp. 25–125. [Translated from Hungarian by Golden P. B.].
Czeglédy K., “A karluk törzsek nevei,” Magyar Nyelv 45 (1949), pp. 164–168.
Czeglédy K., “Kāšġarī földrajzi neveihez,” Bárczi Géza – Emlékkönyv, ed. Benkö L. (Budapest, 1963).
Czeglédy K., “Gardīzī on the History of Central Asia (745–780 a.d.),” Acta Orientalia Hungarica 27.3 (1973).
Czeglédy Károly, “Magna Hungaria,” Századok, 75 (1943).
Czeglédy Károly, “A magyarság Dél-Oroszországban” in Ligeti L.(ed.), A magyarság őstörténete (Budapest, 1943).
Czeglédy Károly, “A IX századi magyar történelem föbb kérdései,” Magyar Nyelv, XLI (1945).
Czeglédy Károly, IV–IX századi népmozgalmak a steppén (A Magyar Nyelvtudományi Társaság Kiadványai, 84, Budapest, 1954).
Czeglédy Károly, Hajdú Péter (eds.), A magyar őstörténet kérdései Nyelvtudományi Értekezések, 5, (Budapest, 1955).
Czeglédy Károly, “Etimológia és filológia (Bulgár-török jövevényszavaink átvételének történeti hátteréről),” in Benkő L., Sál E. K. (eds.), Az etimológia elmélete és módszere (Nyelvtudományi Értekezések, 89, Budapest, 1976).
Czeglédy Károly, Egy bolgár török yiltavar méltóságnév,” Magyar Nyelv, XL (1944).
Czeglédy Károly, “Egy kazár méltóságnév,” Magyar Nyelv, XLIII (1947).
Czeglédy Károly, “A kunok eredetéről,” Magyar Nyelv, XLV (1949), pp. 43–50.
Czeglédy Károly, “A kazár kil-kel eredete,” Magyar Nyelv, XLIX (1953), pp. 175–8.
Czeglédy Károly, “Herakleios török szövetségesei,” Magyar Nyelv, XLIX (1953), pp. 319–23.
Czeglédy Károly, “Monographs on Syriac and Muhammadan Sources in the Literary Remains of M. Kmoskó”, Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae., 4 (1954) pp. 19–91.
Czeglédy Károly, “Kaukázusi hunok, kaukázusi avarok”, Studia Antiqua Hungarica, 2 (1955) pp. 123–40.
Czeglédy Károly, “Khazar Raids in Transcaucasia in a.d. 762–764,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae., 11 (1960) pp. 75–88.
Czeglédy Károly, “A korai kazár történelem forrásainak kritikájához,” A Magyar Tudományos Akadémia nyelv-és irodalomtudományi osztályának közleményei, 15 (1960) pp. 107–28.
Czeglédy Károly, “Bemerkungen zur Geschichte der Chazaren,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae., 13 (1961) pp. 243–51.
Czeglédy Károly, “TEPMATZOγΣ,” Acta Antiqua Hungarica, 10 (1962).
Czeglédy Károly, A nomád népek vándorlása napkelettől napnyugatig (Kőorösi Csoma Kiskönyvtár, 8, Budapest, 1969).
Czeglédy Károly, “Pseudo-Zacharias Rhetor on the Nomads,” in Ligeti L. (ed.), Studia Turcica (Budapest, 1971), pp. 133–48.
Czeglédy Károly, “Ogurok és türkök Kazáriában” in Bartha A. et al. (eds.), Magyar őbstörténeti tanulmányok (Budapest, 1977).
Ḑbrowski Krzysztof, Nagrodzka-Majchrzyk Teresa, Tryjarski Edward, Hunowie Europejscy, Protobułgarzy, Chazarowie, Pieczyngowie (Wroław-Warszawa-Kraków-Gdańsk, 1975).
Da̧browski Krzysztof, Nagrodzka-Majchrzyk Teresa, Tryjarski Edward, Hunowie Europejscy Protobulgarzy, Chazarowie, Pieczyngowie (Wroław-Warszawa-Kraków-Gdańsk, 1975).
Daffinà Paolo, 1982, “The Han shu Hsi yü chuan retranslated. A Review Article,” T'oung Pao, 68, pp. 309–39.
Daffinà Paolo, 1982, Il nomadismo centrasiatico, Parte prima, Istituto dell'India e dell'Asia Orientale, (Roma). The title does not reflect accurately the content of the book which is probably the best and most up-to-date presentation of Inner Asian history and civilization up the end of the Hsiung-nu period.
Daffinà Paolo, 1985, “La Persia sassanide secondo le fonti cinese,” Rivista degli Studi Orientali, 57, pp. 121–70.
Dauvillier Jean, “Les provinces chaldéennes ‘de l'extérieur’ au moyen âge,” Mélanges offerts au R.P. Ferdinand Cavallera (Toulouse, 1948), pp. 261–316.
Davidovič E. A., “Numizmatičeskie materialy dlja khronologii i genealogii sredneaziatskikh Karakhanidov,” Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Istoričeskogo Muzeja, 26, Numizmatičeskiĭ sbornik, pt. 2 (1957).
Dawson Christopher (editor), 1966, The Mongol Mission, Harper Torchbook (1966).
De Crespigny R., 1984, Northern Frontier. The Policies and Strategy of the Later Han Empire, Faculty of Asian Studies Monographs, New Series. 4 (Canberra).
de Vajay Sz., Der Eintritt des ungarischen Stämmebundes in die europäischen Geschichte (München, 1968).
Debec G. F., 1948, Paleoantropologija SSSR, Trudy Instituta êtnografii AN SSSR, Novaja serija iv..
Debec G. F., 1956, “Problema proiskhozhdenija kirgizskogo naroda v svete antropologicheskikh dannykh,” Trudy kirgizskoj arkheologo-êtnograficheskoj êkspedicii 1, pp. 3–17.
Décsy Gyula, Einführung in die Finnisch-Ugrische Sprachwissenschaft (Wiesbaden, 1965).
Deér Joseph, 1965, “Karl der Grosse und der Untergang des Awarenreiches” in Karl der Grosse, herausgegeben von Braunfels W., vol. 1, pp. 719–91 (Düsseldorf).
Deér József, Pogány magyarság keresztény magyarság (Budapest, 1938).
Deguignes , 1756–8, Histoire générale des Huns, des Turcs, des Mongols et des autres Tartares occidentaux … avant et depuis Jésus-Christ, jusqu'à présent, i–iv (in 5 volumes), (Paris).
Demiéville Paul, 1952, Le concile de Lhasa. Une controverse sur le quiétisme entre bouddhistes de l'lnde et de la Chine au Vllle siècle de l'ère chrétienne, Bibliothèque de l'Institut des Hautes Etudes Chinoises, Vol. VII (Paris).
Denis Sinor, Introduction à l'étude de l'Eurasie Centrale (Wiesbaden 1963), pp. 210–15.
Denis Sinor, Introduction à l'étude de l'Eurasie Centrale (Wiesbaden 1963), pp. 261–5.
Derevjanko A. P., 1970a, Gromatukhskaja kul'tura, In: Sibir i ee sosedi v drevnosti (Novosibirsk).
Derevjanko A. P., 1969, “The Novopetrovka Blade Culture on the Middle Amur,” Arctic Anthropology, No. 1, pp. 119–127.
Derevjanko A. P., 1970b, Novopetrovskaja kul'tura Srednego Amura (Novosibirsk).
Derevjanko A.P.–Okladnikov A.P., 1969, “Drevnie kul'tury vostochnykh rajonov MNP (k itogam arkheologicheskikh issledovanij 1949 i 1967 gg.),” Sovetskaja Arkheologija 1969, 4, pp. 141–56.
Derevjanko E. I., 1975, Mokhêskie pamjatniki Srednego Priamur' ja (Novosibirsk).
Desmaisons P. I., Histoire des Mogols et des Tatares par Aboul-Ghazi Béhadour Khan (St. Pétersbourg, 1871–4, reprint Amsterdam, 1970).
Dexippi, Eunapii, Petri Patricii, Prisci, Malchi, Menandri historiarum quae supersunt, ed. Bekker I., Niebuhr B. G. (Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae, Bonn, 1829).
Dexippi, Eunapii, Petri Patricii, Prisci, Malchi, Menandri historiarum quae supersunt, ed. Bekker I., Niebuhr B. G. (Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae, Bonn, 1829).
Diaconu P., Les Petchenègues au Bas-Danube (Bibliotheca Historica Romaniae, 27, Bucarest 1970).
Diakonoff I. M. 1981, “The Cimmerians,” Acta Iranica, 2nd Series, vol. vii, pp. 103–40. [Very important].
Dienes István, The Hungarians Cross the Carpathians, trans. Balogh B. (Budapest, 1972).
Dikov N. N., 1958, Bronzovyj vek Zabajkal'ja (Ulan-Udê).
Dikov N. N., 1964, “Kamennyj vek Kamchatki i Chukotki v svete novejshikh arkheologicheskikh dannykh,” in Istorija i kul'tura narodov severo-vostoka SSSR (Magadan).
Dikov N. N., [There is an English version: “The Stone Age of Kamchatka and the Chukchi Peninsula in the Light of New Archaeological Data,” Arctic Anthropology (1965), 3, No. 1, pp. 10–25].
Dikov N. N., 1977, Arkheologicheskie pamjatniki Kamchatki, Chukotki i Verkhnej Kolymy. Azija na styke s Amerikoj v drevnosti (Moskva). [With English table of contents].
Dikov N. N., 1979, Drevnie kul'tury Severo Vostochnoj Azii (Moskva). [Continuation of Dikov 1977, with English table of contents].
Doblhofer E., 1955, Byzantinische Diplomaten und östliche Barbaren. Aus den Excerpta de legationibus des Konstantinos Porphyrogennetos ausgewählte Abschnitte des Priskos und Menander Protektor (Graz).
Doerfer Gerhard, 1973, “Zur Sprache der Hunnen,” Central Asiatic Journal pp. 1–50. [Cf. on the same topic Pritsak 1982].
Doerfer Gerhard, 1962, “Zur Bezeichnung der Westtürken”, Central Asiatic Journal 7, pp. 256–63.
Doerfer Gerhard, 1969, “Altaische Scholien zu Herbert Frankes Artikel,” Zentralasiatische Studien 3, pp. 45–9.
Dolgikh B. O., 1960, Rodovoj i plemennoj sostav narodov Sibiri v XVII v., Trudy Instituta vostokovedenija. 55.
Dovatur A. I.Kallistov D. P.Shisova I. A., 1982, Narody nashej strany v “Istorii” Gerodota [The peoples of our land in the “Histories” of Herodotus] (Moscow).
Dowsett C.J.F. [translator], 1961, The History of the Caucasian Albanians by Mvsès Dasxurançi (Oxford).
Dubs H. H., 1938–55, The History of the Former Han Dynasty. A Critical Translation with Annotations, (Baltimore, Md.).
Ducellier A., “Les sources byzantines et l'apparition des Hongrois en Europe,” Études Finno-Ougriennes, I (1964).
Dujčev Ivan, 1976, Cronaca di Monemvasia (Palermo). [An important work concerning the penetration of the Avars and Slavs into Hellas].
Dunlop D. M., 1957, The History of the Jewish Khazars (Princeton).
Dunlop Douglas M., The History of the Jewish Khazars (Princeton, 1954).
Džanašvili M., “Izvestija gruzinskikh letopiseĭ i istorikov o severnom Kavkaze i Rossii,” Sbornik Materialov dlja Opisanija Mestnosteĭ i Piemen Kavkaza, 22 (1897).
Eberhard W., 1942a, Kultur und Siedlung der Randvölker Chinas, (Leiden). Still very important.
Eberhard W., 1942b, Lokalkulturen im alten China, (Leiden).
Eberhard W., 1949, Das Toba-Reich Nordchinas, (Leiden).
Eberhard W., 1965, Conquerors and Rulers. Social Forces in Medieval China, 2nd, revised edition, (Leiden).
Eberhard W., 1978, China und seine westlichen Nachbarn. Beiträge zur mittelalterlichen und neueren Geschichte Zentralasiens, (Darmstadt).
Eberhard W., 1942, Kultur und Siedlung der Kandvölker Chinas, T'oung Pao, supplément au vol. 36 (Leiden).
Eberhard W., 1942, 1942–3, “Die Kultur der alten zentral- und west-asiatischen Völker nach chinesischen Quellen,” Zeitschrift f¨r Ethnologie 73 pp. 215–75.
Ecsedy H. 1965, “Old Turkic Titles of Chinese Origin,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 18, pp. 83–91.
Ecsedy H. 1972, “Tribe and Tribal Society in the 6th Century Turk Empire,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 25, pp. 245–62.
Ecsedy H. 1977, “Tribe and Empire, Tribe and Society in the Turk Age,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 31, pp. 3–15.
Ecsedy Hilda, “Old Turkic titles of Chinese origin,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 18: 83–91 (1965).
Egami Namio, Kita Ajiya Shi, Tokyo, 1956.
Eisner J., 1952, Devinske Nová Ves (Bratislava).
Enoki Kazuo, 1955, “The Origin of the White Huns or Hephtalites,” East and West 6, pp. 231–7.
Enoki Kazuo, 1959, “On the Nationality of the Ephtalites,” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko 18, pp. 1–58.
Enoki Kazuo, 1963, “The Location of the Capital of Lou-Ian and the Date of KharoṣṬhī Inscriptions,” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko. 22, pp. 125–171.
Enoki Kazuo, 1965, “On Sino-KharoṣṬhī Coins,” East and West, 15, pp. 231–276.
Enoki Kazuo, 1968, “Hsieh, Fu-wang or Wang of the Yüeh-shih,” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko 26, pp. 1–13.
Enoki Kazuo, 1970, “On the Date of the Kidarites (2),” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko. 28, pp. 13–38.
Enoki Kazuo, 1969, “On the Date of the Kidarites (1),” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko 27, pp. 1–26.
Erdélyi István, 1982, Az avarság és kelet a régészeti források tükrében (Budapest). [Russian summary].
Erdélyi István, “Bol'šaja Vengrija,” Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 13 (1961).
Erdélyi István, “Teorii vengerskikh učenykh o povolžskom proiskhoždenii drevnikh vengrov,” Arkheologija i Etnografija Baškirii, 4 (1971).
Erdélyi István, “Fouilles archéologiques en Bachkirie et la préhistoire hongroise,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 25 (1972), 301–12.
Eremeev D. E., Êtnogenez Tjurok (Moskva, 1971).
Eremjan S. T., “Juriĭ Bogoljubskiĭ po armjanskim i gruzinskim istočnikam,” Naučnye Trudy Erevanskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta 23. (1946).
Esin E., “Ṭabarīʾs Report on the Warfare with the Türgiš and the Testimony of Eighth Century Central Asian Art,” Central Asiatic Journal 17.2–4 (1973).
Fan Yeh, Hou Han Shu, Shanghai, Commercial Press, 1927.
Fedorov M. N., “Novye fakty iz istorii Karakhanidov pervoĭ četverti XI v. v svete numizmatičeskikh dannykh,” Iz Istorii Kul'tury Narodov Uzbekistana (Tashkent, 1965).
Fedorov M. N., “Očerk istorii Karakhanidov vtori četverti XI v. (po numizmatičeskim dannym),” Istorija Material' noj Kul'tury Uzbekistana 7 (1966).
Fedorov M. N., “Ferganskiĭ klad karakhanidskikh dirkhemov 1034–1043 gg.,” Sovetskaja Arkheologija (1968), No. 3.
Fedoseeva S. A., 1968, Drevnie kul'tury verkhnogo Viljuja (Moskva).
Fedotov M. R., Istoričeskie svjazi čuvašskogo jazyka s jazykami finno-ugrov Povolž'ja i Pecmi, C̆uvašsko-mariĭskie jazykovve svjazi, pt. 1 (C̆eboksary, 1965).
Fedotov M. R., Istoričeskie svjazi C̆uvašskogo s volžskimi i permskimi finno-ugroskimi i jazykami (C̆eboksary, 1968).
Fehér Géza, A bolgár-törökök szerepe és műveltsége (Budapest, 1940).
Fehér Géza, “Zur Geschichte der Steppenvölker von Südrussland 9–10 Jhr.,” Studia Slavica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 5 (1959).
Ferrari Alfonsa, 1958, Mk'yen brtse's Guide to the Holy Places of Central Tibet, completed and edited by Luciano Petech, with the collaboration of Hugh Richardson, Serie Orientale Roma xvi (Rome).
Fodor István, “K voprosu o pogrebal'nom obrjade drevnikh vengrov,” Smirnov A. P. (ed.), Problemy arkheologii i drevneĭ istorii ugrov (Moskva, 1972).
Fodor István, Verecke híres útján … (Budapest, 1975).
Francke A. H., 1926, “Antiquities of Indian Tibet,” Archaeological Survey of India, New Imperial Series, Vol. L, II (Calcutta).
Franke Herbert, 1969, “Bemerkungen zu den sprachlichen Verhä ltnissen im Liao-Reich,” Zentralasiatische Studien 3, pp. 7–43.
Franke Herbert, 1974, “A Note on Wine,” Zentralasiatische Studien 8, pp. 241–5.
Franke Herbert, 1975, “Chinese Texts on the Jurchen. I. A Translation of the Jurchen Monograph in the San-ch'ao pei-meng hui-pien,” Zentralasiatische Studien 9, pp. 119–86.
Franke Herbert, 1978a, “Chinese Texts on the Jurchen. II. A Translation of Chapter One of the Chin-shi,” Zentralasiatische Studien 12, pp. 413–52.
Franke Herbert, 1978b, Nordchina am Vorabend der mongolischen Eroberungen: Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft unter der Chin-Dynastie (1115–1234), Rheinisch-Westfälische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vorträge G 228 (Opladen).
Franke Herbert, 1979, “Some Folkloristic Data in the Dynastic History of the Chin (115–1234),” in Legend, Lore and Religion in China. Essays in Honor of Wolfram Eberhard on his Seventieth Birthday, edited by Allan Sarah and Cohen Alvin P., pp. 135–53 (San Francisco).
Franke Herbert, 1981, “Jurchen Customary Law and Chinese Law of the Chin Dynasty”, in State and Law in East Asia, edited by Eikemeier Dieter and Franke Herbert, pp. 215–233 (Wiesbaden).
Franke Herbert, 1982, “Randnotizen zu einigen Worten der Khitansprache im Lichte neuerer Arbeiten,” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 36, pp. 173–82.
Franke Herbert, 1985, “Fremdherrschaften in China und ihr Einfluss auf die staatlichen Institutionen (10–14 Jahrhundert),” Anzeiger der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 122, No. 3 pp. 47–67.
Franke O., 1936–7, Geschichte des Chinesischen Reiches, Vols. 2 and 3 (Berlin/Leipzig).
Franke Otto, 1948, 1952, Geschichte des chinesischen Reiches, vols. 4 and 5 (Berlin).
Fritze W. H., 1963, 1965, 1967, “Slaven und Awaren im angelsächsischen Missionsprogramm,” Zeitschrift für Slavische Pbilologie 31, pp. 316–38; 32, pp. 231–51; 33, pp. 358–72.
Fritze W. H., 1979, “Zur Bedeutung der Awaren für die slawische Ausdehnungsbewegung im frühen Mittelalter,” Zeitschrift für Ostforschung 28, pp. 498–545.
Frumkin Grégoire, 1970, Archaeology in Soviet Central Asia (Leiden, Brill). [Only some parts relevant to this chapter].
Frye R. N., 1966, The Heritage of Persia (New York).
Frye R. N., The Golden Age of Persia. The Arabs in the East (London, 1975).
Fülöp Gy., 1978, “La survivance des Avars au IXe siècle,” Alba Regia, 16, pp. 87–97.
Gabain A. von, 1950, “Steppe und Stadt im Leben der ältesten Türken,” Der Islam, 29, pp. 30–62.
Gabain A. von, 1953, “Inhalt und magische Bedeutung der alttürkischen Inschriften,” Anthropos, PP. 537–55.
Gabain A. v., 1973, Das Leben im uigurischen Königreich von Qočo (850–1250), I–II, Veröffentlichungen der Societas Ural-Altaica, Bd.6, (Wiesbaden).
Gabain Annemarie von, “Steppe und Stadt im Leben der ältesten Türken,” Der Islam 29: 30–62 (1949).
Gafurov B. G., Litvinskiĭ B. A., Istorija tadžikskogo naroda, 3 vols. (Moskva, 1963–5).
Gafurov B. G., Tadžiki (Moskva, 1972).
Galanina L. K., 1980, Kurdzhipskij kurgan [The Kurkzhipsk Kurgan] (Leningrad).
Gardīzī , Bartol'd V. V., “Izvlečenie iz sočinenija Gardizi Zain al-Akhbār” in Bartol'd V. V., Sočinenija, 9 vols. (Moskva, 1963–73), VIII.
Gardīzī , Zain al-Akhbār (“Adornment of Information”), excerpts in: V.V. Bartol'd, “Izvlečenie iz Sočinenija Gardizi Zaĭn al-Akhbar,” in Akademik V. V. Bartol'd, Sočinenija, 9 vols. (Moskva, 1963–73), vol. 8.
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