Skip to main content
  • Print publication year: 1999
  • Online publication date: March 2008

5 - Logic

Late antiquity learned two logics: categorical syllogistic and hypothetical syllogistic. Categorical syllogistic was thought of as essentially Peripatetic, hypothetical syllogistic as essentially Stoic. Peripatetic logic in the Hellenistic period is the logic of Theophrastus. There are only two topics on which one can be sure of a positive contribution to logic by the Megarics. These are the positions of Diodorus Cronus and of Philo on the theory of conditionals and on modal logic. If Aristotelian logic is essentially a logic of terms, Stoic logic is in its core a propositional logic. Stoic inference concerns the relations between items having the structure of propositions. Stoic logic falls into two main parts, namely the theory of arguments and the theory of assertibles, which are the components from which the arguments are built. Arguments form a subclass of complete sayables; they are, like assertibles, are meaningful, incorporeal entities.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy
  • Online ISBN: 9781139053617
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
Atherton, C. (1993) The Stoics on Ambiguity (Cambridge).
Barnes, J. (1983b) ‘Terms and sentences’, PBA 69.
Barnes, J. (1985) ‘Theophrastus and hypothetical syllogistic’, in Wiesner, (1985–87) I, also in Fortenbaugh, et al. (1985).
Barnes, J. (1990a) ‘Logical form and logical matter’, in Alberti, (1990).
Barnes, J. (1993d) ‘Galen and the utility of logic’, in Kollesch, & Nickel, (1993).
Barnes, J. (1997) ‘Logic in Academica I and the Lucullus’, in Inwood, & Mansfeld, (1997).
Barnes, J. (1980) ‘Proof destroyed’, in Schofield, et al. (1980a).
Barnes, J. (1982b) ‘Medicine, experience and logic’, in Barnes, J. et al. (1982a).
Becker, O. (1957b) ‘Über die vier “Themata” der stoischen Logik’, in Becker, (1957a).
Becker, O. (1960) ‘Zur Rekonstruktion des “kyrieuon logos” des Diodoros Kronos’, in Derbolav, J. & Nicolin, F., edd., Erkenntnis und Verantwortung, FS Theodor Litt (Dusseldorf).
Bobzien, S. (1986) Die stoische Modallogik, Epistemata, Reihe Philosophie 32 (Würzburg).
Bobzien, S. (1993) ‘Chrysippus' modal logic and its relation to Philo and Diodorus’, in Döring & Ebert (1993).
Bobzien, S. (1996) ‘Stoic syllogistic’, OSAP 14.
Bobzien, S. (1997a) ‘Stoic conceptions of freedom and their relation to ethics’, in Sorabji, R., ed., Aristotle and After, BICS Suppl.
Bobzien, S. (1997b) ‘The Stoics on hypothesis and hypothetical arguments’, Phronesis 42.
Bobzien, S. (1998) Determinism and Freedom in Stoic Philosophy (Oxford).
Bochenski, I. (1947) La logique de Théophraste, Collectanea Friburgensia, N.S. 32 (Fribourg).
Brunschwig, J. (1994b) ‘Remarks on the classification of simple propositions in Hellenistic logics’, in Brunschwig, (1994a).
Brunschwig, J. (1994c) ‘The conjunctive model’, in Brunschwig, (1994a).
Burnyeat, M. F. (1982b) ‘Gods and heaps’, in Schofield, & Nussbaum, (1982).
Burnyeat, M. F. (1982c) ‘The origins of non-deductive inference’, in Barnes, et al. (1982a).
Corcoran, J. (1974b) ‘Remarks on Stoic deduction’, in Corcoran, (1974a).
Croissant, J. (1984) ‘Autour de la quatrième formule d'implication dans Sextus Empiricus’, RPhA 2.1.
Denyer, N. C. (1981b) ‘Time and modality in Diodorus Cronus’, Theoria 47.
Donini, P. L. (1974–5) ‘Fato e volontà umana in Crisippo’, AAT 109.
Ebert, T. (1991) Dialektiker und frühe Stoiker bei Sextus Empiricus, Hypomnemata 95 (Göttingen).
Fortenbaugh, W. W., Huby, P. M., Sharples, R. W. & Gutas, D., edd. (1992b) Theophrastus of Eresus: Sources for his Life, Writings, Thought, and Influence, 2 vols., Philosophia Antiqua (Leiden).
Frede, M. (1974a) Die stoische Logik, Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Gottingen. Philol.-hist. Kl. Folge 3, Nr. 88 (Göttingen).
Giannantoni, G. (1981c) ‘Il KYPIEYΩN ∧OΓOσ di Diodoro Crono’, Elenchos 2.
Graeser, A. (1975) Zenon von Kition, Positionen und Probleme (Berlin).
Hülser, K.-H. (1987–8) Die Fragmente zur Dialektik der Stoiker. 4 vols. (Stuttgart/Bad Cannstatt).
Ierodiakonou, K. (1990) ‘Analysis in Stoic logic’ (dissertation London).
Ierodiakonou, K. (1993a) ‘The Stoic indemonstrables in the later tradition’, in Döring, & Ebert, (1993).
Kneale, W. & Kneale, M. (1962) The Development of Logic (Oxford; repr. with corr. 1975, 1986).
Lloyd, A. C. (1978b) ‘Definite propositions and the concept of reference’, in Brunschwig (1978a).
Maróth, M. (1989) Ibn Sina und die Peripatetische ‘Aussagenlogik’, Islamic Philosophy and Theology 6 (Leiden).
Marrone, L. (1993) ‘Gnoseologia stoica nel PHerc. 307’, in Franchi dell’Orto, L., ed., Ercolano 1738–1988. 250 anni di ricerca archeologica (Rome).
Mates, B. (1961) Stoic Logic, University of California Publications in Philosophy 26 2nd edn (Berkeley; microfilm repr. Ann Arbor 1992).
Mignucci, M. (1993) ‘The Stoic themata’, in Döring, & Ebert, (1993).
Muller, R., ed. (1985) Les Mégariques: Fragments et témoignages (Paris).
Plasberg, O. (1922) M. Tulli Ciceronis Academicorum Reliquiae cum Lucullo, BibliothecaTeubneriana (Leipzig).
Prantl, C. von (1855) Geschichte der Logik im Abendlande, Bd. 1 (Leipzig; repr. Graz 1955).
Reid, J. S. (1885) Ciceronis, M. TulliAcademica (London; repr. Hildesheim 1966).
Rüstow, A. (1910) Der Lügner: Theorie/Geschichte und Auflösung (Leipzig).
Sandbach, F. H. (1985) Aristotle and the Stoics, PCPhS suppl. vol. 10 (Cambridge).
Sedley, D. N. (1977) ‘Diodorus Cronus and Hellenistic philosophy’, PCPhS 23.
Sedley, D. N. (1982c) ‘On Signs’, in Barnes, et al. (1982a).
Sedley, D. N. (1984) ‘The negated conjunction in Stoicism’, Elenchos 5.
Sedley, D. N. (1985) ‘The Stoic theory of universals’, in Epp (1985).
Seel, G. (1993) ‘Zur Geschichte und Logik des θ∊ριζων λoγo’, in Döring & Ebert (1993).
Sluiter, I. (1988) ‘On ἤη διασαφητικU+1F40ς and propositions containing μαλλoν/ἧηττoν’, Mnemosyne 41.
Sullivan, M. W. (1967) Apuleian logic: The Nature, Sources, and Influence of Apuleius's Peri Hermeneias (Amsterdam).
Vitelli, G. (1902) ‘Due frammenti di Alessandro di Afrodisia’, in Festschrift Theodor Gomperz (Wien), Engl.
Vitelli, G. transl. in Sharples, R. W., ed. (1994) Alexander of Aphrodisias: Quaestiones 2.16–3.15 (London).
Williamson, T. (1994) Vagueness (London).