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    Kosmetatou, Elizabeth 2012. The Encyclopedia of Ancient History.

  • Print publication year: 1999
  • Online publication date: March 2008

5 - Logic

Late antiquity learned two logics: categorical syllogistic and hypothetical syllogistic. Categorical syllogistic was thought of as essentially Peripatetic, hypothetical syllogistic as essentially Stoic. Peripatetic logic in the Hellenistic period is the logic of Theophrastus. There are only two topics on which one can be sure of a positive contribution to logic by the Megarics. These are the positions of Diodorus Cronus and of Philo on the theory of conditionals and on modal logic. If Aristotelian logic is essentially a logic of terms, Stoic logic is in its core a propositional logic. Stoic inference concerns the relations between items having the structure of propositions. Stoic logic falls into two main parts, namely the theory of arguments and the theory of assertibles, which are the components from which the arguments are built. Arguments form a subclass of complete sayables; they are, like assertibles, are meaningful, incorporeal entities.
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The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy
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