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    Tor, D.G. 2018. The Eclipse of Khurāsān in the twelfth century. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 81, Issue. 2, p. 251.

    Morgan, David O. 2016. The Encyclopedia of Empire. p. 1.

    Matin, Kamran 2007. Uneven and Combined Development in World History: The International Relations of State-formation in Premodern Iran. European Journal of International Relations, Vol. 13, Issue. 3, p. 419.

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  • Print publication year: 1975
  • Online publication date: March 2008

5 - THE EARLY GHAZNAVIDS

Summary
The establishment of the Ghaznavid sultanate in the eastern Iranian world represents the first major breakthrough of Turkish power there against the indigenous dynasties. The Sāmānid in Transoxiana and Khurāsā meant that there was a strong barrier in the northeast against mass incursions from the steppes into the civilized zone. The group of Turks in Ghazna was a small one, set down in an hostile environment, and a dynamic policy of expansion may have seemed to Sebük-Tegin, the best way to ensure its survival. Sebük-Tegin's successful maintenance of himself in power at Ghazna and his victories against the Indians made him a force in the internal politics of the Sāmānid empire, at the time moving towards its final collapse. By acquiring Khurāsā, Mahmūd became master of a rich and flourishing province. Khurāsā had rich agricultural oases, irrigated by means of a skilful utilization of a modest water supply.
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The Cambridge History of Iran
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  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521200936
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