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    Durand-Guédy, David 2016. Khargāh: an inquiry into the spread of the “Turkish” trellis tent within the ʿAbbāsid world up to the Saljūq conquest (mid second/eighth–early fifth/eleventh centuries). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 79, Issue. 01, p. 57.

    Taher-Kermani, Reza 2015. Persia by Way of Paris: On Arnold's ‘Sohrab and Rustum’. Middle Eastern Literatures, Vol. 18, Issue. 1, p. 22.

  • Print publication year: 1975
  • Online publication date: March 2008


The original home of the Sāmānids is uncertain, for some Arabic and Persian books claim that the name was derived from a village near Samarqand. The Sāmānid state had received recognition in the year 261/875 when the caliph al-Mu'tamid sent the investiture for all of Transoxiana to Nasr b. Ahmad, in opposition to the claims of Ya‘qūb b. al-Laith, the Saffārid. Ismā‘īl was the real founder of the Sāmānid state, and is highly regarded in all sources for his good qualities as a ruler, indeed almost an idealized ruler. He enlarged the Sāmānid domain in all directions. In 280/893 he raided to the north and captured the city of Tarāz where a Nestorian church was reputedly turned into a mosque and much booty was taken. The organization of the Sāmānid state was modelled after the caliph's court in Baghdad with its central and provincial divisions.
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The Cambridge History of Iran
  • Volume 4: The Period from the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs
  • Edited by R. N. Frye
  • Online ISBN: 9781139054966
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