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The Cambridge History of Latin America
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    Scodeller, Gabriela 2017. Latin American ‘free-trade unionism’ and the cold War: an analysis based on educational policies. Labor History, Vol. 58, Issue. 3, p. 327.

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  • Volume 6: 1930 to the Present, Part 1: Economy and Society
  • Edited by Leslie Bethell, University of Oxford

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    The Cambridge History of Latin America
    • Volume 6: 1930 to the Present, Part 1: Economy and Society
    • Edited by Leslie Bethell
    • Online ISBN: 9781139055215
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232265
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Book description

Volume VI brings together general essays on major themes in the economic, social, and political history of Latin America from 1930 to 1990. It begins with a chapter on population growth, followed by four chapters on the economies of Latin American states from the Depression to 1990. The evolution of urban and rural social structures, and of state organisation, is discussed. There is a chapter on the role of the military in Latin American politics as well as a chapter on democracy during the period. The role of the Left in Latin American politics, labour movements and the urban working class, and rural mobilization and violence are analysed, as is the role of women in twentieth-century Latin American economy, society, and politics. The volume concludes with a discussion of the actions and importance of the Catholic and Protestant Churches.

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  • 1 - The population of Latin America, 1930–1990
    pp 1-62
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232265.002
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter begins with an overview of population growth trends, followed by consideration of the components of population growth: fertility and mortality, and their determinants. John Bongaarts has identified four key intermediate variables that he has labelled 'proximate determinants' because they explain most of these biological differences in fertility levels. They are age at marriage and the proportion of women who ever marry, the duration of breastfeeding, abortion and contraception. The chapter examines marriage patterns in greater detail and finds little evidence of change after 1960, indicating that fertility declines resulted more from decreases in births within unions than from changes in the proportion of women in unions. Several key population characteristics are then examined, namely nuptiality, rural-urban residence, ethnicity, educational attainment, labour force participation, before returning to the issue of the relationship between population change and socio-economic development in the region.
  • 2 - The Latin American economies, 1929–1939
    pp 63-116
    • By Victor Bulmer-Thomas, Professor of Economics, Queen Mary and Westfield College and Institute of Latin American Studies, University of London
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232265.003
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Depression of 1929 has usually been portrayed as a turning-point in Latin America's transition from outward-looking economic growth to inward-looking development based on import substituting industrialization. By the beginning of the twentieth century, the stimulus from export growth given to non-export sectors had already reached the point where a group of countries could meet a relatively high proportion of domestic demand with local rather than imported goods. The policies adopted to stabilize each economy in response to the depression were intended to restore internal and external equilibrium in the short-term; inevitably, however, they also had longer-term implications in those countries where they affected relative prices in a permanent fashion. The recovery of the export sector, both in terms of volume and price, contributed to the increase in import capacity after 1932 and the restoration of positive rates of economic growth.
  • 3 - The Latin American economies, 1939–c. 1950
    pp 117-158
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232265.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter examines trends in Latin American economic performance and Latin American economic policy during and immediately after the Second World War. The emphasis is principally on the interaction of the Latin American economies with the international economy. At the end of the war U.S policymakers had a relatively clear idea of the changes that were necessary to reconstruct the international economy. First, there had to be a complete dismantling of the controls established during the 1930s and necessarily much increased in wartime. This implied both a reversal of the protectionism in evidence before the war, and an ending of the many types of intervention that had proliferated with war. Second, inflation, an unavoidable wartime evil, now had to be conquered. The chapter mentions in the discussion of the post-war political economy in Latin America the discrimination against agriculture implicit in import-substituting industrialization policies. The two extreme and dramatic cases of such discrimination are Mexico and Argentina.
  • 4 - The Latin American economies, 1950–1990
    pp 159-250
    • By Ricardo Ffrench-Davis, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Santiago, Chile, Oscar Muñoz, Corporación de Investigaciones Economkas para Latinoamerka (CIEPLAN), Santiago, Chile, José Gabriel Palma, University of Cambridge
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232265.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    An important feature of Latin American economic development historically has been the interaction between external and domestic economic structures. Latin America interacted with the world economy mainly through the international goods and financial markets. The chronology of Latin America's relationship with the external environment can be divided into four phases: first, the 1950s; second, the following years until 1973; third, the decade between the first oil shock and the financial crisis of the early 1980s; and finally, the subsequent years of recessive adjustment. This chapter focuses on the process of import substitution industrialization and its effects on the rest of Latin America's economic structure. From 1950 to the early 1980s, Latin America experienced a long phase of sustained economic growth, which had no precedent in its economic history. The size and composition of capital flows into Latin America changed substantially during the four decades from 1950 to 1990.
  • 5 - Urban growth and urban social structure in Latin America, 1930–1990
    pp 251-324
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232265.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Patterns of urbanization and transformations in urban social structure in Latin America after 1930 were closely related to developments in the industrial sector that were linked to changes in the international division of labour. This chapter analyses the changes in urban social structure, and especially the changes in occupation structure, in Latin America from the 1930s to the 1980s that resulted from the coming together of three processes. The processes include rapid urbanization, industrialization in its different stages, and the growing importance in the Latin American economies of the service sector, both traditional services and modern services linked to the growth of government bureaucracy and to twentieth-century business practices. The socio-economic and political changes in the region drastically modified urban social stratification. To capture the heterogeneity of these changes in Latin America, one mainly uses data from six countries, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Peru, which, in 1980, made up 85 per cent of the Latin American population.
  • 6 - The agrarian structures of Latin America, 1930–1990
    pp 325-390
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232265.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The period from the 1930s to the 1980s was marked by far-reaching changes in agrarian structures throughout Latin America. Export crops, particularly sugar, showed some increase in production, but in general the growth of export agriculture was slow and fluctuating, in contrast to the situation of the early part of the century when the rapid growth of a few export crops had transformed the agrarian structures of Latin America. This chapter outlines four main types of regional agrarian structures, namely large-scale commercial farming, enclave production, small-scale farming, and subsistence farming, in order to identify the contrasts arising from the geographically specific impact of export production, and from the diversity of labour and property relations in the countryside. It also reviews some cases of agrarian reform, and contrasts them with Brazil where the modernization of agriculture was carried out without any serious government attempt to break-up the large, privately-owned estate.
  • 7 - Economic ideas and ideologies in Latin America since 1930
    pp 391-460
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232265.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The history of ideas in Latin America is typically confined to the description of regional adaptations of European ideas. This chapter traces the development of economic ideas and ideologies, and especially those concerning industrialization, from a largely pre-theoretical phase in the 1930s through the rise and fall of structuralism and dependency analysis to the dominance of neo-liberalism in the 1980s. In essence, there were two phases in this story, corresponding to perceived failures in economic performance, which both implied inadequacy in analysis. The first was the failure of export-led growth, giving rise to the Prebisch-Singer thesis, which is still the subject of debate more than forty years later. The second was the failure of import-substitution industrialization, begetting in succession a dependency school on the fringes of the Economic Commission for Latin America camp, and a Marxist riposte to dependency, a modes-of-production literature.
  • 8 - Science and society in twentieth-century Latin America
    pp 461-536
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232265.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The development of science as an organized activity in Latin America has rarely been smooth or lineal. This chapter treats the history of selected scientific disciplines, namely biology, biomedicine, psychoanalysis, physical and exact sciences, and geology, in Latin America in the twentieth century. It focuses on the formative years of these sciences, primarily before the Second World War but with some attention of developments during the two decades after the war. In the 1940s, conditions favouring the institutionalization of science occurred simultaneously in several countries of Latin America. The chapter explains the institutionalization of science, the emergence of a scientific ethos and changing relationships between scientists, government and society. If positivism preceded rather than followed the development of science in Latin America, the same is true of science policy and the discussion and evaluation of the place of science in society.
  • Bibliographical Essays
    pp 537-608
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232265.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This bibliography contains a list of reference materials related to the history of Latin America. Economic performance and policy in the 1930s in Latin America has generated a substantial literature as a result of two factors in particular. First, the view put forward after 1950 by the United Nations, Economic Commission for Latin America, that the 1930s marked a crucial turning point in the transition from export-led growth to import-substituting industrialization led to a wave of investigations to test this particular hypothesis. Second, the debt crisis in the 1980s inevitably invited comparisons with the debt crisis in the 1930s with scholars searching for similarities and differences in Latin American responses to the two shocks. Economic statistics are an important element in the study of the Latin American economies in the 1930s. In addition to country sources, the League of Nations played a useful role in bringing together time-series data for most of the Latin American republics in the inter-war period.

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