During the nineteenth century, the anarchist stance in opposition to the state and in favour of non-authoritarian associations was closely connected to two assumptions. The first was that social and moral laws could be discerned through a reasoned examination of human nature, human societies and the larger universe. The second assumption was that moral and rational advancement would occur. William Godwin was the first writer to make a reputation condemning government. Godwin's stance was largely a secularised version of Rational Dissent, which both shaped his moral-rational philosophy and nurtured his distrust of government. Thomas Hodgskin, American individualist anarchists were partisans of private property and were committed to free market economic ideals. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon was the most famous nineteenth-century opponent of the state. Proudhon's mutualist anarchism influenced many subsequent theorists: collectivist anarchists like Michael Bakunin and communist anarchists like Peter Kropotkin, both of whom spoke highly of Proudhon's writings.