Skip to main content Accesibility Help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Kodera, Sergius 2014. The Laboratory as Stage: Giovan Battista della Porta's Experiments. Journal of Early Modern Studies, Vol. 3, Issue. 1, p. 15.

    Leong, Elaine 2013. Collecting Knowledge for the Family: Recipes, Gender and Practical Knowledge in the Early Modern English Household. Centaurus, Vol. 55, Issue. 2, p. 81.

  • Print publication year: 2006
  • Online publication date: March 2008

8 - Markets, Piazzas, and Villages

from Part II - Personae and Sites of Natural Knowledge
Long before natural objects became subjects for experimental study in the laboratory, they had been commodities traded in the marketplace. The growing recognition of the marketplace as a site of natural knowledge signaled important shifts in the definition of knowledge and of who might qualify as natural knowers. The global enterprises of early modern merchant capitalists stimulated interest in the natural history of Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and the New World. In exploiting the possibilities of the global economy, the European states facilitated the introduction of new natural knowledge. The shops of apothecaries and distillers were also sites of natural knowledge. The piazzas were also the sites of displays of exotic rarities and demonstrations of nature's wonders. Medical practice in the countryside, as in the city, was characterized by a combination of naturalistic, religious, and magical healing. Village healers rarely distinguished among physical, magical, and religious remedies.
Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Cambridge History of Science
  • Online ISBN: 9781139054010
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
Agrimi, Jole and Crisciani, ChiaraSavoir médical et anthropologie religieuse: Les représentations et les fonctions de la vetula (XIIIe–XVe siècle),” Annales: Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations, 48 (1993).
Aubrey, JohnRemaines of Gentilisme and Judaisme,” in Three Prose Works, ed. Buchanan-Brown, John (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1972)
Bacon, FrancisParasceve, in The Works of Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam, Viscount of St. Alban, and Lord Chancellor of England, [1857–74], ed. Spedding, James, Ellis, Robert Leslie, and Heath, Douglas Denon, 14 vols. (New York: Garrett Press, 1968).
Baldwin, MarthaToads and Plague: Amulet Therapy in Seventeenth-Century Medicine,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 67 (1993).
Benedetto, detto il Persiano, I maravigliosi, et occulti secreti naturali (Rome, 1613)
Biondi, AlbanoLa signora delle erbe e la magia della vegetazione,” in Cultura popolare nell’Emilia Romagna: Medicina erbe e magia (Milan: Silvana Editoriale, 1981)
Biringuccio, VannoccioPirotechnia, trans. Smith, Cyril Stanley and Gnudi, Martha Teach (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1959; orig. publ. 1942).
Blair, AnnThe Theater of Nature: Jean Bodin and Renaissance Science (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997).
Bodin, JeanUniversae naturae theatrum [1596]
Böstrom, Hans-OlofPhilipp Hainhofer and Gustavus Adolphus’ Kunstschrank,” in The Origins of Museums: The Cabinet of Curiosities in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Europe, ed. Impey, Oliver and MacGregor, Arthur (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985)
Boyle, RobertThe Works of the Honourable Robert Boyle [1772], ed. Birch, Thomas, 6 vols. (repr. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1966), 6.
Braekman, WillyGeoffrey of Franconia’s Book of Trees and Wine (Scripta, 24) (Brussels: UFSAL, 1989).
Braudel, Fernand, The Wheels of Commerce, trans. Reynolds, Siân (New York: Harper and Row, 1982), chap. 1.
Brockbank, WilliamSovereign Remedies: A Critical Depreciation of the London Pharmacopoeia,” Medical History, 8 (1964).
Browne, ThomasPseudodoxia Epidemica, in The Works of Sir Thomas Browne, ed. Keynes, Geoffrey, 4 vols. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964), vol. 2.
Burke, PeterPopular Culture in Early Modern Europe (New York: Harper and Row, 1978), chap. 8.
Calabi, Donatella ed., Fabbriche, piazze, mercati: La città italiana nel Rinascimento (Rome: Officina Edizioni, 1997).
Capp, BernardEnglish Almanacs, 1500–1800: Astrology and the Popular Press (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1979)
Carlino, AndreaLa fabbrica del corpo: Libri e dissezione nel Rinascimento (Turin: Einaudi, 1994), chap. 2
Chrisman, MiriamLay Culture, Learned Culture: Books and Social Change in Strasbourg, 1480–1599 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1982).
Cook, Harold J.Good Advice and Little Medicine: The Professional Authority of Early Modern Physicians,” Journal of British Studies, 33 (1994)
Cook, Harold J.The Moral Economy of Natural History and Medicine in the Dutch Golden Age,” in Contemporary Explorations in the Culture of the Low Countries, ed. Shetter, William Z. and Cruysse, Inge (Publications of the American Association of Netherlandic Studies, 9) (Lanham Md.: American Association of Netherlands Studies, 1996)
Cook, , The Decline of the Old Medical Regime in Stuart London (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1986).
Curry, Patrick, Prophecy and Power: Astrology in Early Modern England (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989)
Daston, Lorraine and Katharine, Park, Wonders and the Order of Nature, 1150–1750 (Cambridge, Mass.: Zone Press, 1998)
Daston, LorraineBaconian Facts, Academic Civility, and the Prehistory of Objectivity,” Annals of Scholarship, 8 (1991).
Daston, LorraineMarvelous Facts and Miraculous Evidence in Early Modern Europe,” Critical Inquiry, 18 (1991).
Daston, LorraineThe Factual Sensibility,” Isis, 79 (1988).
Dear, PeterDiscipline and Experience: The Mathematical Way in the Scientific Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995).
Debus, Allen G.The English Paracelsians (New York: Franklin Watts, 1965).
della Porta, GiambattistaCriptologia, ed. Belloni, Gabriella (Edizione Nazionale dei Classici del Pensiero Italiano, ser. 2, 37) (Rome: Centro Internazionale di Studi Umanistici, 1982).
Descartes, RenéTreatise of Man, trans. Hall, Thomas S. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972).
Dunk, EleazarThe Copy of a Letter written by E. D. Doctour of Physicke to a Gentleman, by whom it was published (London, 1606)
Eamon, , “Science as a Hunt,” Physis, 31 (1994).
Eamon, William‘With the Rules of Life and an Enema’: Leonardo Fioravanti’s Medical Primitivism,” in Renaissance and Revolution: Humanists, Scholars, Craftsmen, and Natural Philosophers in Early Modern Europe, ed. Field, J. V. and James, F. A. J. L. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).
Eamon, WilliamNew Light on Robert Boyle and the Discovery of Colour Indicators,” Ambix, 27 (1980).
Eamon, WilliamScience and the Secrets of Nature: Books of Secrets in Medieval and Early Modern Culture (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994), chap. 8
Eis, GerhardGottfrieds Pelzbuch: Studien zur Reichweite und Dauer der Wirkung des mittelhochdeutschen Fachschriftums (Südosteuropäische Arbeiten, 38) (Munich: Callwey, 1944)
Evelyn, John, The Diary of John Evelyn, ed. De Beer, E. S., 6 vols. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1955), 4.
Evelyn, JohnThe Diary and Correspondence of John Evelyn, ed. Bray, William (London: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1903).
Findlen, , “The Economy of Scientific Exchange in Early Modern Italy,” in Patronage and Institutions: Science, Technology, and Medicine at the European Court, 1500–1750, ed. Moran, Bruce T. (Bury St. Edmunds: Boydell Press, 1991)
Findlen, PaulaPossessing Nature: Museums, Collecting, and Scientific Culture in Early Modern Italy (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994)
Fioravanti, LeonardoCapricci medicinali (Venice: Lodovico Avanzo, 1561)
Freller, Thomas‘Lingue di serpi’, ‘Natternzungen’ und ‘Glossopetrae’: Streiflichter auf die Geschichte einer populären ‘kultischen’ Medizin der frühen Neuzeit,” Sudhoffs Archiv, 81 (1997).
Galilei, GalileoLetter to the Grand Duchess Christina, in , GalileoDiscoveries and Opinions of Galileo, trans. Drake, Stillman (New York: Anchor Books, 1957).
Galilei, GalileoTwo New Sciences, trans. Drake, Stillman (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1974)
Garzoni, TomasoLa piazza universale di tutte le professioni del mondo, ed. Cherchi, Paolo and Collina, Bieatrice, 2 vols. (Turin: Einaudi, 1997), 2
Gentilcore, David‘Charlatans, Mountebanks, and Other Similar People’: The Regulation and Role of Itinerant Practitioners in Early Modern Italy,” Social History, 20 (1995).
Gentilcore, DavidHealers and Healing in Early Modern Italy (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1998).
Germerio Tolosano, GiulielmoGioia preciosa … Opera à chi brama la sanità utilissima & necessaria (Venice, 1604)
Gessner, ConradSchatz [1582]
Glanvill, JosephThe Vanity of Dogmatizing (London: Printed by H. C. for Henry Eversden, 1661).
Golinski, JanA Noble Spectacle: Phosphorus and the Public Culture of Science in the Early Royal Society,” Isis, 80 (1989).
Goodman, David C.Power and Penury: Government, Technology and Science in Philip II’s Spain (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988)
Grendler, Paul F.Schooling in Renaissance Italy: Literacy and Learning, 1300–1600 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989)
Hahn, RogerThe Anatomy of a Scientific Institution: The Paris Academy of Sciences, 1666–1803 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971).
Houghton, Walter E. Jr.The History of Trades: Its Relation to Seventeenth Century Thought,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 3 (1942)
Hunter, MichaelScience and Society in Restoration England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).
Hunter, MichaelThe Royal Society and Its Fellows, 1660–1700: The Morphology of an Early Scientific Society (Chalfont St. Giles: British Society for the History of Science, 1982).
Hunter, Michael and Wood, Paul B.Towards Solomon’s House: Rival Strategies for Reforming the Early Royal Society,” History of Science, 24 (1986)
James Forbes, RobertA Short History of the Art of Distillation (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1948).
Joubert, LaurentPopular Errors, trans. Rocher, Gregory David (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1989)
King, RogerCuring Toothache on the Stage? The Importance of Reading Pictures in Context,” History of Science, 33 (1995).
Klairmont Lingo, AlisonEmpirics and Charlatans in Early Modern France: The Genesis of the Classification of the ‘Other’ in Medical Practice,” Journal of Society History, 19 (1986)
Lea, K. M.Italian Popular Comedy: A Study in the Commedia dell’Arte, 1560–1620, 2 vols. (New York: Russell and Russell, 1962; orig. publ. 1934), esp. 1.
Lennard, ReginaldEnglish Agriculture under Charles II: The Evidence of the Royal Society’s ‘Enquiries’,” Economic History Review, 4 (1932).
María, José Lopez-Piñero and José, Pardo Tomás, La influencia de Francisco Hernández (1515–1587) en la constitución de la botánica y la materia médica modernas (Cuadernos Valencianos de Historia de la Medicina y de la Ciencia, 51) (Valencia: University of Valencia/C.S.I.C., 1996)
Marinello, GiovanniLe medicine partenenti alle infermità delle donne (Venice: Francesco de’Franceschi, 1563).
Mary, O’NeilMagical Healing: Love Magic and the Inquisition in Late Sixteenth-Century Modena,” in Inquisition and Society in Early Modern Europe, ed. Haliczer, Stephen (Totowa, N.J.: Barnes and Noble, 1967).
Mattioli, and Rio, Martin Del. See Brizio Montinaro, San Paolo dei serpenti: Analisi di una tradizione (Palermo: Sellerio, 1996)
Milani, Marisa ed., Antiche pratiche di medicina popolare nei processi del S. Uffizio (Venezia, 1572–1591) (Padua: Centrostampa Palazzo Maldura, 1986).
Mundy, Barbara E.The Mapping of New Spain: Indigenous Cartography and the Maps of the Relaciones Geográficas (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996).
Munger, Robert S.Guaiacum, the Holy Wood from the New World,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 4 (1949).
Niccoli, OttaviaProphecy and the People in Renaissance Italy, trans. Cochrane, Lydia G. (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990)
Ochs, Kathleen H.The Royal Society of London’s History of Trades Programme: An Early Episode in Applied Science,” Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 39 (1985).
Olmi, Giuseppe, “Farmacopea antica e medicina moderna: La disputà sulla teriaca nel Cinquecento bolognese,” Physis, 19 (1977).
Palmer, Richard, “Medical Botany in Northern Italy in the Renaissance,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 78 (1985)
Palmer, RichardPharmacy in the Republic of Venice in the Sixteenth Century,” in The Medical Renaissance of the Sixteenth Century, ed. French, Andrew Wear R. K., and Lonie, Ian M. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985).
Park, KatharineMedicine and Magic: The Healing Arts,” in Gender and Society in Renaissance Italy, ed. Brown, Judith and Davis, Robert (London: Longmans, 1997)
Park, KatharineThe Criminal and the Saintly Body: Autopsy and Dissection in Renaissance Italy,” Renaissance Quarterly, 47 (1994).
Pérez-Ramos, Antonio, Francis Bacon’s Idea of Science and the Maker’s Knowledge Tradition (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988).
Pier, Andrea MattioliI discorsi nei sei libri di Pedacio Dioscoride (Venice: Vincenzo Valgrisi, 1559).
Pomata, GiannaContracting a Cure: Patients, Healers, and the Law in Early Modern Bologna, translated by the author with the assistance of Foy, R. and Taraboletti-Segre, A. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998).
Porter, RoyThe Language of Quackery in England, 1660–1800,” in The Social History of Language, ed. Burke, Peter and Porter, Roy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987).
Rabelais, FrançoisThe Histories of Gargantua and Pantagruel, trans. Cohen, J. M. (London: Penguin Books, 1955).
Reeds, Karen, Botany in Medieval and Renaissance Universities (New York: Garland Press, 1991).
Rossi, PaoloPhilosophy, Technology, and the Arts in the Early Modern Era, trans. Attanasio, S. (New York: Harper and Row, 1970).
,Royal Society, The Posthumous Works of Robert Hooke, ed. Waller, Richard (New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1969).
Ruggiero, GuidoBinding Passions: Tales of Magic, Marriage, and Power at the End of the Renaissance (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), chap. 3
Schama, SimonThe Embarrassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988).
Schechner Genuth, SaraComets, Popular Culture, and the Birth of Modern Cosmology (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997).
Schnapper, AntoineLe géant, la licorne et la tulipe: Collections et collectionneurs dans la France du XVIIe siècle (Paris: Flammarion, 1988).
Scipione, MercurioDe gli errori populari d’Italia (Verona: Rossi, 1645).
Severinus, Petrus (Peder Sørensen), Idea medicinae philosophicae (The Hague: Adrianus Ulacq, 1660)
Shapin, StevenThe House of Experiment in Seventeenth-Century England,” Isis, 79 (1988).
Shapin, StevenA Social History of Truth: Civility and Science in Seventeenth-Century England (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994).
Shapin, Steven and Schaffer, SimonLeviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1985)
Siraisi, Nancy G.Medieval and Early Renaissance Medicine: An Introduction to Knowledge and Practice (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990).
Smith, Pamela H. and Findlen, Paula, eds., Merchants and Marvels: Commerce, Science, and Art in Early Modern Europe (New York: Routledge, 2002).
Smith, Pamela H.The Body of the Artisan: Art and Experience in the Scientific Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004).
Smith, PamelaThe Business of Alchemy: Science and Culture in the Holy Roman Empire (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994).
Stuart, KathyThe Executioner’s Healing Touch: Health and Honor in Early Modern German Medical Practice,” in Infinite Boundaries: Order, Disorder, and Reorder in Early Modern German Culture, ed. Reinhart, Max (Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies, 40) (Kirksville, Mo.: Thomas Jefferson University Press, 1998).
Swetz, Frank J.Capitalism and Arithmetic: The New Math of the 15th Century. (La Salle, Ill.: Open Court, 1987)
Telle, Joachim in Bibliotheca Palatina: Katalog zur Ausstellung vom 8. Juli bis 2. November 1986, Heiliggeistkirche Heidelberg, ed. Mittlar, Elmar, 2 vols. (Heidelberg: Braus, 1986), 1.
Telle, Joachim ed., Pharmazie und der gemeine Mann: Hausarznei und Apotheke in deutschen Schriften der frühen Neuzeit (Austellungskataloge der Herzog August Bibliothek, 36) (Braunschweig: Waisenhaus, 1982).
Thomas, KeithReligion and the Decline of Magic (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1971).
Tomás, José Pardo and María, Luz López Terrada, Las primera noticias sobre plantas americanas en las relaciones de viajes y crónicas de Indias (1493–1553) (Cuadernos Valencianos de Historia de la Medicina y de la Ciencia, 40) (Valencia: University of Valencia/C. S. I.C., 1996)
Turchini, AngeloMorso, morbo, morte: La tarantola fra cultura medica e terapia popolare (Milan: Franco Angeli, 1987)
Varey, Simon ed., The Mexican Treasury: The Writings of Dr. Francisco Hernández (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2000).
Webster, CharlesThe Great Instauration: Science, Medicine, and Reform, 1626–1660 (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1976).
Wolff, JacobCuriosus amuletorum scrutator (Frankfurt: F. Groschuffius, 1692).
Zambelli, , ed., ‘Astrologi hallucinati’: Stars and the End of the World in Luther’s Time (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1986).
Zambelli, PaolaFino del mondo o inizio della propaganda? Astrologia, filosofia della storia e propaganda politico-religiosa nel dibattito sulla congiunzione del 1524,” in Scienze, credenze occulte, livelli di cultura (Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 1982)
Zemon Davis, NatalieProverbial Wisdom and Popular Errors,” in Davis, Society and Culture in Early Modern France (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1984).
Zilsel, Edgar, “The Sociological Roots of Science,” American Journal of Sociology, 47 (1941/2).
Zilsel, EdgarThe Origins of William Gilbert’s Scientific Method,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 2 (1941).