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    MacKenzie, Laurel 2018. Variable stem-final fricative voicing in American English plurals: Different pa[ð ~ θ]s of change. Language Variation and Change, Vol. 30, Issue. 2, p. 147.

    Machan, Tim William 2016. Defining Markedness in Middle English. The Yearbook of Langland Studies, Vol. 30, Issue. , p. 107.

  • Print publication year: 2000
  • Online publication date: March 2008

3 - Phonology and Morphology

This chapter talks about the history of English phonology and morphology. It focuses on John Hart's Orthographie (1569), probably the most important of the sixteenth-century witnesses, and one of the monuments of English descriptive phonetics. Most linguistic information from the past is contained not in grammatical descriptions but in ordinary texts, which simply represent the normal use of language for other tasks. Morphological and syntactic information is more or less directly present; phonology comes only indirectly, through spellings, rhymes and metrical usage. The standard presentation of morphology in historical grammars is in terms of paradigms: inventories of forms taken by given lexemes or lexeme-classes. Such inventories are of course 'true', and often useful, and the chapter cites them where appropriate. Morphology ultimately depends on syntax, and to a lesser but significant degree on extragrammatical factors as well, e.g. style.
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