Skip to main content
×
×
Home
The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Hylton, Forrest 2016. “The sole owners of the land”: Empire, war, and authority in the Guajira Peninsula, 1761–1779. Atlantic Studies, Vol. 13, Issue. 3, p. 315.

    Giudicelli, Christophe 2010. Hétéronomie et classifications coloniales. La construction des « nations » indiennes aux confins de l’Amérique espagnole (XVI-XVIIe siècle). Nuevo mundo mundos nuevos,

    Boccara, Guillame 2003. Rethinking the Margins/Thinking from the Margins: Culture, Power, and Place on the Frontiers of the New World. Identities, Vol. 10, Issue. 1, p. 59.

    ×

Book description

This volume, part of the Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas, is the first major survey of research on the indigenous peoples of South America from the earliest peopling of the continent to the present since Julian Steward's Handbook of South American Indians was published half a century ago. Although this volume concentrates on continental South America, peoples in the Caribbean and lower Central America who were linguistically or culturally connected are also discussed. This volume is an 'idea-oriented history,' emphasizing the development of general themes instead of presenting every group and society. Indigenous peoples' own stories of the past are used as well as the standard accounts written by outsiders. Research is presented following regional and conceptual frameworks; some chapters overlap or present differing interpretations. The volume's emphasis is on self-perceptions of the indigenous peoples of South America at various times and under differing situations.

Reviews

‘It is profoundly reassuring that this kind of scholarly publishing continues to flourish at the start of a new millennium, and it is even more profoundly to be hoped that these books acquire the wide readership that they deserve.’

Source: The Journal of The Royal Anthropological Institute

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×
  • 14 - The Crises and Transformations of Invaded Societies: The La Plata Basin (1535–1650)
    pp 1-58
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521630764.002
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter concerns the early years of invasion in the southeastern part of South America, specifically the vast basin of the Río de la Plata. The Guaraní were part of the large group of peoples who spoke languages of the Tupí-Guaraní linguistic family, which, before the European invasion, stretched from Amazonia to the delta of the Río de la Plata. A traditional theme of studies of Paraguay, which led to a triumphalist historical literature of dubious value, is the alliance between the Spanish invaders and the Carios of Lambaré after a Spanish victory. Toward the end of 1555, Governor Martínez de Irala put aside political fictions about alliance and decided to share out the land, giving the first encomiendas to well-deserving colonists in Paraguay. The Society of Jesus established reducciones in Paraguay from 1610. Domination through personal service made it necessary for the encomenderos and/or their emissaries, administrators, stewards, strawbosses, to be present constantly in Indian villages.
  • 15 - The Colonial Condition in the Quechua-Aymara Heartland (1570–1780)
    pp 59-137
    • By Thierry Saignes, Institut des Hautes Études de l'Amtrique Latine/Centre Nationale de Réherche Scientifique)
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521630764.003
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter concerns the transformations experienced by the indigenous Andean populations from Pasto (in southern Colombia) to Tucumán (in northwestern Argentina), from the reforms of Viceroy Francisco de Toledo to the Túpac Amaru II wars of 1780. In the prehispanic Andes, die chiefs of politically structured ethnic units were called qhdpaq in Pukina, mallku in Aymara, and kuraka in Quechua. Old-style caciques (called kuraka in Quechua) had typically been spokesmen of the highest-ranked ayllu, authorized to speak for the community as a whole. Little by little, myriad small struggles between old and new native elites were profoundly restructuring the Quechua, Aymara, and Pukina language communities and indeed colonial society as a whole. Related to an increase in local and regional pilgrimages throughout the Andean area, Quechua Marianism apparently responded to the Marian fervor exploding throughout the Catholic world by rooting it in landscape features seen as both sacred and female.
  • 16 - Warfare, Reorganization, and Readaptation at the Margins of Spanish Rule: The Southern Margin (1573–1882)
    pp 138-187
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521630764.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The effective southern border of Spanish control emerged early in the sixteenth century with the creations of a series of small scattered postas (forts) linking the early colonial settlements of Buenos Aires, San Luis, Mendoza, Santiago, and Concepción. As archaeologists continue to examine the traces of Andean civilizations and ethnohistorians fill in the records of the Inka empire, it has become increasingly believable that the southern margins of Inka influence extended as far south as the Maipo River and as far east as present-day Salta, Jujuy, and San Juan. In fact, a tradition of internecine warfare, usually stemming from charges of witchcraft, characterized intra-Mapuche relations as well as interethnic relations at the southern margins of the Inka empire. The 'permanent war' that had characterized southern frontier relations in the Southern Cone for nearly three centuries had allowed the autonomy and political sovereignty of the Araucanian, Pampas, and Tehuelche people.
  • 17 - The Western Margins of Amazonia from the Early Sixteenth to the Early Nineteenth Century
    pp 188-256
    • By Anne Taylor, Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521630764.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The aboriginal populations of the western fringe of the Amazon Basin live in close proximity to one of the most spectacular breaks in natural features in the continent. The populations of this western fringe of the Amazon Basin are just as varied linguistically and ethnically as the environments in which they have developed. The ethnographic landscape of the western margins of the Amazon region at the dawn of the Spanish conquest was very different from that of today. The colonial history of the western Amazon implied an overall trend toward increased cultural homogeneity, a breakdown of macrosystems and regional networks to the benefit of intermediate or purely local levels of organization, and a growing spatial, sociological, and symbolic distancing between upland and lowland societies. The characteristic feature of the end of the colonial era was a marked shrinkage of the colonization front. The central selva, united by the Juan Santos uprising, remained solidly closed to non-Amazonians.
  • 18 - Warfare, Reorganization, and Readaptation at the Margins of Spanish Rule – The Chaco and Paraguay (1573–1882)
    pp 257-286
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521630764.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter focuses on the people of the Chaco in their aboriginal cultural state, as they got the artifacts that enabled them to make the changes that revolutionized their lives. It discusses the culture of the Guaraní as they adapted to the early Spanish settlers demands for labor and women. At contact with Europeans, the Guaraní culture was centered on the Paran á Plateau, rising from 1,000 to 2,000 feet above sea level and running from eastern Paraguay into the Brazilian states of Río Grande do Sul and Mato Grosso and into the mission province of Argentina. Guaraní towns leaked inhabitants into Paraguay, as Guaraní escaped the status of Indian. They became mestizos or simply people, although they lived and spoke much as they had before. Although Jesuits were latecomers to Paraguay, the Guaraní welcomed the social and economic benefits of their missions. The chapter traces the development of Guaraní missions after the departure of the Jesuits and after independence.
  • 19 - Destruction, Resistance, and Transformation - Southern, Coastal, and Northern Brazil (1580–1890)
    pp 287-381
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521630764.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter offers a broad synthesis of the history of indigenous societies in Brazil from the colonial period to the beginning of the republic. It focuses on some areas, such as the south, the central coast and northeast, and the Amazon Valley. The chapter traces the main themes and processes that characterized indigenous contact with Europeans. To support its policies in relation to the Indian, the Portuguese crown followed two basic principles in legislation, one that applied to settled and allied Indians and which corresponded to the colonization agenda as such, and another that applied especially to war. Southern Brazil presents a special challenge within the context of Brazilian Indian history. In the case of the northeastern sertão, it is difficult to be precise about the nature of indigenous societies in view of the lack of early ethnographic information. The Amazon floodplain was a source of astonishment to the first European explorers in the mid-sixteenth century.
  • 20 - Native Peoples Confront Colonial Regimes in Northeastern South America (c. 1500–1900)
    pp 382-442
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521630764.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter focuses on the cultural articulation and social interdependency that developed between the native peoples and their colonizers in the four centuries following the initial contacts of the 1530s in the Orinoco Basin and the 1540s in the Amazon. It is often thought that the peoples of northeastern South America were of marginal cultural and social significance when compared to the peoples of the Andean highlands or the Brazilian Atlantic littoral. The tendency to conflate ethnic groups in the writing of the conquest and colonization of the region is not just evidence of an ethnological ignorance on the part of the Europeans. It is also testimony to the rapid changes that occurred in indigenous society and political economy. Toward the end of the eighteenth century, the native peoples of the northeastern corner of South America still showed a considerable variety of society and culture and significant autonomy from the colonial regimes that had implanted themselves throughout the region.
  • 21 - New Peoples and New Kinds of People: Adaptation, Readjustment, and Ethnogenesis in South American Indigenous Societies (Colonial Era)
    pp 443-501
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521630764.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter examines the processes of ethnogenesis, the ways in which new human groupings came to be, and how they were categorized in colonial cultures. It emphasizes the search for factors contributing to their emergence, or non-emergence, as new peoples sharing belief in their own uniqueness, solidarity, and legitimacy. The chapter then focuses on Afro-Indian people, white captives and mestizaje. By putting mestizos outside both the Indian and the Spanish republics, Spain had made the behavioral correlates of mestizo identity indefinite, and, once mestizaje became advantageous, this slipperiness came back to haunt the law. Archaeological clues and the testimony of native or half-native historians suggest that migration, fission, incorporation, and alliance were taking place among indigenous peoples in the prehispanic scene. The increasing use of color and racial physiognomy was part of the enlightenment trend toward the rationalization and categorization of the physical world, which took on increasing importance in American social definitions.
  • 22 - The “Republic of Indians” in Revolt (c. 1680–1790)
    pp 502-557
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521630764.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The stratified and indeed estate-based social scheme recognized by officialdom and sometimes theorized as a set of paired republics, such as the Republic of Indians and the Republic of Spaniards, each with its own hierarchy, was crosscut by de facto differentiations of class, race, and access to power. The chapter examines how changes in indigenous society taking place on the slippery ground of Spanish administrative change gave rise to protest, new nativist mentalities, and Indianist affirmations. It then argues that conditions for great social mobilization took shape only after the close of the ethnic era. Any model of social functioning must accept diversity and exceptions, the more so in an extremely heterogeneous universe such as the Andean world of the later colonial era. The chapter presents an account of post-revolutionary events and the effects of the conjuncture on local politics within indigenous communities circa 1790. It reviews the social and economic situation forming the background of rebel actions.
  • 23 - Andean Highland Peasants and the Trials of Nation Marking During the Nineteenth Century
    pp 558-703
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521630764.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The nineteenth century marks a critical turning point in the long, violent history of colonial encounters among economic élites, political authorities, and native Andean peasantries. This chapter explores the complex historical process by which the Andean republics constructed the 'Indian problem' and turned it into the political and rhetorical centerpiece of their varied nation-building projects during the second half of the nineteenth century. It could be reasonably argued that Creole nation builders constructed their national narratives, by borrowing shamelessly from European notions of linguistic and ethnic nationalism, or from pseudo-scientific theories of social evolution and race. The 'Indian race' was the necessary rhetorical 'other' in their search for national identity, whiteness, and civic society along European models. One of the cultural legacies of nineteenth-century Andean history was the negotiation of diverse, ambiguous ethnic self-identities. These put the lie to racialized bipolarities, which became the public basis of Andean modernity.
  • 24 - Indigenous Peoples and the Rise of Independent Nation-States in Lowland South America
    pp 704-764
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521630764.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter provides a survey of relations between indigenous peoples and the successor states to the Spanish empire in lowland regions of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. Indigenous people's experiences of the rise of independent nation-states were almost diametrically opposed between the riverine forests in southern lowlands and the llanos and Guiana Shield region to the north. In the late eighteenth to early nineteenth centuries, Franciscan and Capuchin missionaries flourished in the llanos of Casanare after the Jesuits' expulsion. The great arc of forested lowlands stretching across the headwater regions of the Amazon River's major tributaries remained a stronghold for indigenous peoples in the Spanish viceroyalties of Nueva Granada and Peru during the late eighteenth century. In both northern and southern lowlands, indigenous peoples confronted expanding national societies that systematically dismantled any legal basis for indigenous peoples to retain control over lands and political relations at regional or local levels.
  • 25 - Andean People in The Twentieth Century
    pp 765-871
    • By Xavier Albó, Cetitro de Investigación Promoción del Campesinado, La Paz
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521630764.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    During the second half of the twentieth century, urban influences have become more and more a part of indigenous history, mostly via migration. This chapter focuses on the recent history of Andean indigenous people in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia and both rural and urban versions of indigenous identity. It also discusses indigenous peoples of Colombia and Chile, although their situations are somewhat distinct. At the beginning of the twentieth century, almost all Andean communities took part in a widespread resistance against the threat of fragmentation, suppression, and expropriation by the respective states and by the landholding groups who supported those states. In the last two decades of the nineteenth century, the situation became especially violent in the Andean regions of Peru and Bolivia. During the era of agrarian reforms, it looked like the concept of 'Indian' identity had been retired to the museums, outdistanced and replaced by more modern concepts like 'peasant'.
  • 26 - Lowland Peoples of the Twentieth Century
    pp 872-948
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521630764.014
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The indigenous peoples of lowland South America have until recently been marginal to the history of the continent. This chapter deals with the indigenous peoples of the three major lowland nations of Amazonian South America, such as Venezuela, Brazil, and Paraguay, and then with the lowland peoples of the Andean nations, such as Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. Venezuela contains the northernmost spur of the Andes and is sometimes considered an Andean nation. The captaincy general of Venezuela was Spain's most successful agricultural colony in the eighteenth century, exporting the finest cacao to Mexico and Europe. Indigenous people were not therefore as hard pressed in nineteenth century Brazil as they were elsewhere in the Americas. In the lowland countries, such as Venezuela, Brazil, and Paraguay, Indian issues have been marginal to national life because the Indians were marginal to the nation, both physically and socially.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed