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  • Cited by 5
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    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    PIERSON, MARCELLE 2016. Voice, Technē, and Jouissance in Music for 18 Musicians. Twentieth-Century Music, Vol. 13, Issue. 01, p. 25.


    ANDERSON, LAURA 2015. Musique concrète, French New Wave cinema, and Jean Cocteau's Le Testament d'Orphée (1960). Twentieth-Century Music, Vol. 12, Issue. 02, p. 197.


    Macarthur, Sally 2014. The Woman Composer, New Music and Neoliberalism. Musicology Australia, Vol. 36, Issue. 1, p. 36.


    Macarthur, Sally 2013. THE RADICAL POTENTIAL OF BECOMING-WOMAN AND INTRA-ACTION IN THE MUSIC OF ANNE BOYD. Australian Feminist Studies, Vol. 28, Issue. 77, p. 294.


    Farhoud, Samira and Watt, Carey A. 2010. Punk Beur : Popular Music, Itinerancy and Identity in Sakinna Boukhedenna’s Journal ‘Nationalité: immigré(e)’. French Cultural Studies, Vol. 21, Issue. 1, p. 31.


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    The Cambridge History of Twentieth-Century Music
    • Online ISBN: 9781139054003
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567
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Book description

The Cambridge History of Twentieth-Century Music, first published in 2004, is an appraisal of the development of music in the twentieth century from the vantage-point of the twenty-first. This wide-ranging and eclectic book traces the progressive fragmentation of the European 'art' tradition, and its relocation as one tradition among many at the century's end. While the focus is on Western traditions, both 'art' and popular, these are situated within the context of world music, including a case study of the interaction of 'art' and traditional musics in post-colonial Africa. An international authorship brings a wide variety of approaches to music history, but the aim throughout is to set musical developments in the context of social, ideological, and technological change, and to understand reception and consumption as integral to the history of music.

Reviews

'Its pluralist narrative finds room for pop, jazz and easy listening alongside classical mainstreams and avant-garde orthodoxies. The non-interventionist stance makes for lively debate between contributors, reflecting the revisionist brand of musicology where the importance of any musical culture must be constantly contested.'

Source: The Independent

'It can be warmly recommended as a worthwhile institutional purchase and as an encouragingly good read.'

Source: Music teacher

'There is no doubt that this hefty single-volume history of music in the twentieth century is a brave and ambitious undertaking … fascinating … authoritative … compelling critical reappraisal … passionate … thought-provoking and challenging in their reassessment of the concept of the mainstream in twentieth-century music histories, and in their rethinking of how to tell selected aspects of those histories.'

Source: Twentieth-Century Music

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  • 1 - Peripheries and interfaces: the Western impact on other music
    pp 18-39
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.003
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Western impact on other musics is clearly a major strand of a history of music in the twentieth century. This impact has been felt in terms of musical language, and in technology. The Chinese erhu offers an instance of an instrument thoroughly overhauled as a result of Western influence. By the mid-1930s, approximately half of China's eighty-nine radio stations were competing for listeners in Shanghai. Radio offers the rise of new soundscapes. This chapter examines the impact of Western means of organizing musical performance, both as they affect touring groups from other parts of the world, and the associated rise of performances at home for incoming tourists. It considers the special space of the music conservatory as a place of work and study that generates particular kinds of music. The changes brought by Western music to the traditions of elsewhere during the twentieth century have been profound and numerous.
  • 2 - Music of a century: museum culture and the politics of subsidy
    pp 40-68
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    A significant number of contemporary participants in the world of so-called classical music, particularly journalists, look back at the twentieth century as an era of deepening gloom and decay. Erosion in the significance of the inherited musical culture was debated in the 1930s. A mix of technological and social change was held responsible for the weakening of nineteenth-century habits of musical education. Folk traditions and popular genres found new status and attention within serious musical scholarship. The twentieth century witnessed the death of classical music as an active contemporary cultural form, and its rebirth as a museum catering to a limited public. The stability in the curriculum and pedagogical materials used in the teaching of instruments helps preserve the museum function. To understand the political economy of classical music one must consider music's historical relationship with structures of power and wealth. The Roosevelt administration considered musical culture to enact a programme of Federal support for composers and music education.
  • 3 - Innovation and the avant-garde, 1900–20
    pp 69-89
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The first thing to grasp about artistic innovation and renewal is that it needn't come from an avant-garde, which usually groups together artists who are just a bit more self-conscious about 'progress', and more theoretically aware of the nature of art. This chapter provides musical examples that affect the form and rhetoric of musical works, and nearly always to extend knowledge. The linguistic model facilitates a technical approach to modernist innovation, and helps to tell an apparently 'progressive' story of the loosening of the restrictive bonds of tonality. The chapter concerns musicians as self-conscious innovators, whose 'experimental' aims arise out of their thinking the newest thoughts, much as their contemporaries. Innovators don't take the risk of making experiments without a social purpose. To understand the nature of artistic innovation, the chapter focuses on the history of those ideas that were involved in conceptual changes, and are expressed in the different models, metaphors, and paradigms that underlie works of art.
  • 4 - Music, text and stage: the tradition of bourgeois tonality to the Second World War
    pp 90-122
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Music had found a gloriously efficient, effective, positive, and democratic role in the twentieth-century art forms, popular musical theatre. By 1900 tonality had become as integral a part of the bourgeois experience as the job, the fixed address, soap, or the three-course meal. The arenas of bourgeois tonality were overwhelmingly those of the mass or casual public encompassing the commercial theatre, populist concert hall, and festival town hall. All the musical types played themselves out liberally on the popular stage as analogue or accompaniment to text, gesture, or tableau. The configuration of the music industry that serviced all the machines and outlets was quintessentially American: Tin Pan Alley. Sacred music, Christian or Jewish had the most to fear from the loss of tonal inflection and mimesis, since for centuries it had used them to convey appropriate notions of the sublime and underline the preaching of the Word.
  • 5 - Classic jazz to 1945
    pp 123-151
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Jazz has proved to be one of the most significant forms of music to arise in the twentieth century. Falsetto, melismata, and a coarsening of tone for emotional jazz intensity were common. From this music there developed three forms of importance to jazz. They are plantation melody, ragtime, and blues. Jazz owed something to all of these forms which had grown out of black culture, but it came more directly out of the music of the marching or 'brass' band. During the 1930s the blind pianist Art Tatum emerged as perhaps the most admired pianist in jazz of the period. Music-business executives decided that people wanted dreamy romantic music into which to escape from their troubles, and sales of hot music fell accordingly. By the late 1930s the swing bands had pulled the record industry, and the music business in general, out of the Depression, record sales were up to fifty million annually.
  • 6 - Flirting with the vernacular: America in Europe, 1900–45
    pp 152-185
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Popular music and the related term vernacular resist easy definition. Popular musics in their seeming vitality and connection with the victorious United States became a way for many composers to renegotiate the terms of the social contract between contemporary music and everyday life. The growing viability of the recording industry and radio added to the accessibility and diffusion of popular musical culture in the post-war years. Jean Wie' ner encouraged the French enthusiasm for American popular music during the decade of the 1920s, even before the more celebrated appearance of Josephine Baker and La revue nè gre in 1925. Loosely based around Satie as a mentor and sharing his interest in popular French culture, the individual members of Les Six presented a variety of responses to popular culture based on their own experiences in pre-and postwar France. The critic and composer H. H. Stuckenschmidt, who shared Krenek's fondness for Paris, America, and popular music, introduced Schoenberg to Jonny spielt auf.
  • 7 - Between the wars: traditions, modernisms, and the ‘little people from the suburbs’
    pp 186-209
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter focuses on the Richard Tauber career as offering a valuable path through the musical-cultural landscape of the period. From the beginning of the period, the myth of an artistic modernism embracing common objectives is dispelled by any closer consideration of its protagonists' circumstances, politics, and affiliations. The artists' so-called Novembergruppe aimed to keep alive the political ideals of that attempted revolution, marked a historical moment in which modernism develop as a politicized cultural 'opposition' movement. The repertoires and the performers in major concert series and opera seasons looked different in the inter-war years. Careful attention needs to be paid to the musical content of and the forms of popular response to those symphonies. Tauber's passionate imaginative commitment to the world of fantastic musical theatre and Wagner was, of course, common in that period, when theatre and opera catered to the emotional needs of a middle-class audience with a voracious appetite for dramatic sensation.
  • 8 - Brave new worlds: experimentalism between the wars
    pp 210-227
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    From Busoni and Debussy through to Cage and Partch, composers sought to expand on what Bojan Bujić has termed the 'progressive' implications of Helmholtz's tonal system observation and accordingly to define brave new musical worlds. Aldous Huxley wrote Brave New World as a direct result of his first visit to America, six years earlier. In the earlier part of the twentieth century, Theosophy was as ubiquitously trendy as is feng shui nowadays, and since around 1913, Cowell had been involved with both Theosophy and Theosophists. In Brave New World Revisited, Aldous Huxley, in David Bradshaw's words, 'surveyed contemporary society in the light of his earlier predictions'. Towards the conclusion of Brave New World, Huxley's anti-hero, Helmholtz Watson, is voluntarily exiled to the Falkland Islands, believing that 'one would write better if the climate were bad'. Huxley took the title of his most famous book from a line spoken towards the end of Shakespeare's most dazzling and magical play, The Tempest.
  • 9 - Proclaiming the mainstream: Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern
    pp 228-259
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Of all the new musical developments in the years following the First World War, none has been entangled in more controversy than the claim made by Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern, and Alban Berg. Schoenberg and his school had become associated with the most extreme radicalism and hypermodernity. On 21 June 1932 a concert took place in the main hall of the Musikverein in Vienna that almost seems to have been designed to illustrate the many facets of Schoenberg's, Berg's, and Webern's complex relationship to the mainstream. The formation of the Second Viennese School became central to their mainstream claims and had significant ramifications for how they positioned themselves in reference to the Austro-German tradition as well as to contemporary trends. Webern had been in contact with Schoenberg during the period when he was moving towards twelve-tone composition and had already experimented with it prior to the official unveiling.
  • 10 - Rewriting the past: classicisms of the inter-war period
    pp 260-285
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter concerns with developing general characteristics of neoclassicism, particularly in connection with Igor Stravinsky. It investigates the relationship to neoclassicism of those works whose titles end with the suffix '-ana' or '-iana'. The concept of neoclassicism is polyvalent, according to reference within the semantic field of classicism. With respect to the varied ways in which neoclassicism had recourse to earlier music, a question arises with regard to its relationship with historicism. A certain community between Schoenberg's twelve-tone system and Stravinsky's recourse to historical forms became possible only when both had run their course. Stravinsky himself spoke of three schools of neoclassicism, Schoenberg's, Hindemith's, and his own, which determined the course of music history from 1930 to 1945. In the musical history of the 1930s and 40s it is possible to discern a displacement of emphasis onto national subjects with works which in content often assumed the form of confessional operas.
  • 11 - Music of seriousness and commitment: the 1930s and beyond
    pp 286-306
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter explores the musical perceptions that led inevitably to a quest for greater seriousness in music and a new sense of social commitment. The return to seriousness was not the only concern of the composers of the 1930s; they also had to cope with the aftermath of the First World War and the new political climate, along with the economic problems. The crucial paradox of modernity being bound to past notions of nationhood was solved by the idea of a new emotional impact of music, as revealed by Emotions, traditions, and nationalisms. Falling back on national traditions of serious music was impossible for nations that lacked such traditions, particularly the countries of the Iberian peninsula, the Latin American countries, and the USA. The 1930s marked the real end of nineteenth-century musical life, despite all the efforts of serious composers, the dominance of serious music, of music as a cultural representation of society, had obviously reached its end.
  • 12 - Other mainstreams: light music and easy listening, 1920–70
    pp 307-335
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.014
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter discusses light music that produces effects and valorizes moods, identities, and ideas that no other music does. Several types of easy listening can be distinguished from light music, if that term is restricted to music that relates more closely to the Western classical tradition. Light music was used to indicate music related to a classical idiom, especially to light opera or opérette, rather than jazz. This style was described as 'light classical', but it was always more than watered-down classical. Variety theatre and vaudeville played host to a range of musical styles. The BBC's Variety Department was responsible, in addition to variety entertainment, for dance bands, operettas, revues, and cinema organs; these were all beneath the dignity of the Music Department. Tin Pan Alley incorporated elements of European light music into an American popular style. There are three types of chanson: the music-hall chanson, the opérette chanson, and the chanson réaliste associated with the poet-composer-performers of artistic cabaret.
  • 13 - New beginnings: the international avant-garde, 1945–62
    pp 336-363
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.015
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The revival of concert-hall activity did little to give younger composers a sense of potential function within post-war musical life. The possibility of sustaining an avant-garde within media-based culture was dependent upon the radio. Both the East and West Coasts of the United States had benefited substantially from the inflow of immigrant musicians, but when it came to offering a sustained challenge to Paris, it was New York that established an unassailable position. When Pierre Boulez arrived in German-occupied Paris, he threw himself into a rapid and definitive assimilation of the modernist aesthetic in music, poetry, and painting. By the age of twenty-one the foundations of an aesthetic and technical framework of formidable inner consistency were in place, Boulez explored the potential of the new terrain. At different periods, Boulez and Cage exercised a profound impact on those who made the pilgrimage to Darmstadt each summer, but their careers developed independently of the summer school.
  • 14 - Individualism and accessibility: the moderate mainstream, 1945–75
    pp 364-394
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.016
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Aesthetic analysis can be conducted on the principle that individualism and accessibility are incompatible. This chapter focuses on creators of music, rather than the institutions which received their creations. Only a small number of composers, deemed prominent on grounds of quality, will be considered. The moderate mainstream of serious music composition, then, was not formed from the fusion of popular and serious styles. By 1944, his eightieth year, Richard Strauss's position within the moderate mainstream was less significant than that of younger composers, like Hindemith or Prokofiev. Although Vaughan Williams's music may never have achieved Strauss's level of international prominence, it has reached out well beyond the composer's native shores. This chapter discusses the composers, Shostakovich and Britten who have prospered throughout the period from 1945 to 1975. Shostakovich completed five symphonies during the decade to 1945, but his string quartets seemed to dig more deeply and range more widely.
  • 15 - After swing: modern jazz and its impact
    pp 395-417
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.017
  • View abstract
    Summary
    A concerted attempt to legitimize swing as 'jazz' was made in the pages of the journals Down Beat and Metronome in the early 1940s. With the advent of bebop in the 1940s, modern jazz was born. Alongside the burgeoning of bop, jazz continued to be partly defined by its more commercially viable 'mainstream'. The two instrumentalists, who transformed bop from the inside, were Miles Davis and tenor saxophonist John Coltrane. A creative use of jazz techniques had become universally familiar in movie soundtracks, for example, in stark contrast to the music's role in pre-war cinema. Symphonic jazz has become absorbed into the mainstream repertory of colourful mid-twentieth-century orchestral music that it is difficult for the modern listener to recapture the intensity of the debate surrounding its artistic viability at the time. Outside the Third Stream, few musicians chose to follow the example of Ellington in attempting to combine recognizable jazz elements with a sophisticated attitude to composition.
  • 16 - Music of the youth revolution: rock through the 1960s
    pp 418-452
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.018
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Rock and roll is the last bastion of the Romantic ideal, melding the European drive towards self-expression with the American ethos of individualism. In the case of popular music, the perceived stylistic revolution of the rock era, usually dated from the huge success of Bill Haley and the Comets' 'Rock Around the Clock' in 1955. Many of the social factors contributing to the rise of rock and roll emerged in the decades before the 1950s. Rock and roll is effectively an umbrella term for the various styles of music emerging from the South in the 1950s, disseminated by radio, records, and jukeboxes. Popular music in the United States was hardly 'dead' before the British Invasion, but it did change afterwards. Relatively few books have been written about the history of rock and roll as a musical style. Musicological work on rock, which only began to develop a decade after Mellers's work, has tended to be in one of two camps.
  • 17 - Expanding horizons: the international avant-garde, 1962–75
    pp 453-477
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.019
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The move from the studio/laboratory mentality of the 1950s avant-garde to a more theatrical orientation may have been partly an outcome of the avant-garde's growing impact and cultural status. Apart from the New York School around Cage, avant-gardes had already begun to emerge during the 1950s in countries as diverse as Sweden, Holland, England, Spain, and Japan. The modernist schools provided a major revitalization of national musical culture, though rarely in a nationalist sense. Pithoprakta may be a relatively rare example of the avant-garde work that really is ahead of its time, albeit only by a few years. Perhaps the clearest indication of a break with 1950s avant-garde purism was the degree to which composers introduce stylistic 'foreign bodies' into their work, often in form of direct, collage-like quotations. In 1960s, technological leadership in the area of electroacoustic studio composition passed to the US, mainly by virtue of innovations in synthesizer technology which European studios were relatively slow to adopt.
  • 18 - To the millennium: music as twentieth-century commodity
    pp 478-505
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.020
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Listening to music, means hearing sonic information abstracted from the conditions of its production, was among the twentieth century's most characteristic practices. The Walkman was deliberately marketed as a tool for the diffusion of popular music. Herbert von Karajan's four complete recordings of the Beethoven symphonies, likewise, relate to the introduction of new recording technologies. The establishing of taxonomies and genre boundaries, while important to the ideological category of 'the listener', has been vital to the music industry, and vital in particular to some ideas of what 'hi-fi' exists to reproduce. In the field of classical music a number of small labels served a similar function: examples include Kairos, NMC, and Metier. According to Epitaph Records the very survival of American punk rock is due to the global market which the World Wide Web has created. A few successful artists, such as Madonna, Pink Floyd, David Bowie, and Frank Zappa, have exercised total copyright control over their own material.
  • 19 - Ageing of the new: the museum of musical modernism
    pp 506-538
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.021
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The most remarkable institution of twentieth-century music must surely be Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique. The need for specialists such as Ensemble InterContemporain, the London Sinfonietta, and the Arditti String Quartet indicated that new music required performers who were familiar with the idiom, and used to interpreting certain notational conventions. This chapter devotes to the development of pioneering group of composers who made reputations for radical innovation early in their careers. They are Boulez, Carter, Ligeti, Berio, Nono, Stockhausen, and Cage. The most innovative work in post-war modernism, what might be called high modernism, took place in the 1950s and 60s. During these decades composers such as Stockhausen extended serial technique beyond pitch to include rhythm and duration, and also pursued these organizational possibilities into the electroacoustic studio. The chapter also encounters a more diverse collection of composers who came to prominence after the 1950s. They are Ferneyhough, Birtwistle, Davies, Schnittke, Gubaidulina, Rihm, Saariaho, and Saunders.
  • 20 - (Post-)minimalisms 1970–2000: the search for a new mainstream
    pp 539-556
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.022
  • View abstract
    Summary
    As a label for trends in music history since 1970, the term 'post-minimalism' has, a seductively familiar ring. 'Music history' mean the succession of compositional styles conceptualized as a linear progression, most memorably analogized by Donald Francis Tovey as 'the mainstream of music'. The period between 1974 and 1982 was the cultural apogee of pulse patterned minimalism. Hoketus now looks like an attempt to rewrite music history, to construct an alternative post-minimalism in which American Pop would not triumph over, but synthesize dialectically with European modernism. The full-on fusion of microtonal minimalism and punk rock was carried out by Rhys Chatham and Glenn Branca. One of the most penetrating critiques of minimalist art accused it of betraying 'pure' painting and sculpture for the conceptualist play-acting of theatre. At the end of the twentieth century, post-minimalism confronted a wave of historicism. The future belongs to minimalism's stepchildren: ambient and electronic dance music.
  • 21 - History and class consciousness: pop music towards 2000
    pp 557-583
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.023
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Punk rock is sometimes seen as a spearing of the bloated beast which pop and rock had become over the decade from 1965 to 1975. The way in which pop music fitted into the musical or broader artistic and cultural landscape might be described through György Lukács' dichotomy, history and class consciousness. If technology had rendered authenticity to some extent provisional or optional, then the period around 1985 represented a certain crisis for the earlier model of performer presence which had been established, and also romanticized, by the role of singer-songwriter. Hiphop becomes one rap option among many, set largely in functional dance contexts and centred crucially on the DJ. Remixes also offer a way of considering comparisons of the one DJ. Cover versions are useful in that they afford a central analytical standpoint, the song, from which to observe change in performance and recording, and very often changes in identity, locality, and genre too.
  • 22 - ‘Art’ music in a cross-cultural context: the case of Africa
    pp 584-614
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521662567.024
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In the interconnected global ethnoscape of the late-twentieth century, the aesthetics of 'art' and popular music alike increasingly bore the mark of hybridity and cultural crossover. The invention of 'world music' encouraged a dramatic increase in the number of commercial recordings of African music. Any account of music in north and west Africa in the late twentieth century mention the explosion of new musical forms resulting from the creative syntheses of styles. West African 'art' music at the end of the twentieth century covers a broad spectrum of compositional approaches. African composers have confounded the widespread aesthetic dichotomy between rhythm and pitch involves the creation of tonal pitch fields that are neither African nor European in origin. Musical life in southern Africa underwent dramatic transformations in the final decades of the twentieth century. The emergence of an Africanized 'art' music in southern Africa was an overdetermined confluence of contradictory historical factors.

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