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  • Print publication year: 2003
  • Online publication date: March 2008

5 - Fascism and racism

from Part I - The changing fortunes of liberal democracy
Fascism drew on distinct strands of Enlightenment thought, beginning with the replacement of orthodox Christianity with a naturalistic and impersonal deist concept of God. The detailed categorisation of human society in terms of distinct races was first developed during the eighteenth century. Racial thinking expanded steadily during the century which followed, leading eventually to the development of a 'scientific racism'. The moderate authoritarian right of early twentieth-century Europe differed from both fascism and the radical right in its aversion to violence and any new extreme of authoritarianism. The most coherent doctrine in pristine Italian fascist political thought stemmed from former revolutionary syndicalists who had come to embrace national syndicalism. Italian fascism and German National Socialism shared a common 'fascist minimum' of basic principles and characteristics, which included fundamental opposition to the existing political left, right and centre. The other country in which a large fascist movement developed doctrines and principles most similar to those of Italy and Germany was Hungary.
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